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13.06.2014


Let's get this clear right at the start, I manage servers for a living and I understand RAID arrays and storage pretty well. In playing with Storage Spaces on Windows 8 and using a resiliency type of parity has left me confused as to how the drives are filling up as fast as what they are. So, I created a Storage Pool using all 3 drives and am left with a total pool capacity of 9.75GB. Added 2 x 6GB drives to my machine, created a New Pool, created a new 2 way Storage Space pool. And since I was using 2 WAY MIRRORING, I expected to only get 5.25GB of total usable space. However, after copying the 7 files that are 4GB from above, my storage space went offline and said it was FULL.
So, I think the underlying issue is the way that Storage Spaces allocated space on the physical volumes. I have to assume in my parity example, that I might have had 200MB free in a slab, but since I needed to store a 1GB file, the system would have asked for 4 more slabs and thus left free space on other slabs that simply couldn't be used because my file was too big. Oh well, moral of the story is that Storage Spaces should probably be used cautiously and stringing together disks might result in far less actual usable disk space than you think. But gee, I'm still trying to wrap my head around the workings of Storage Spaces, I understand RAID pretty well as it's not difficult to get, but Storage Spaces to me is like a new BMW versus a car with a carburetor and choke. Storage spaces isn't much more than an implementation of LVM which other OS vendors have had available for many, many, many years. For instance, you can't create a volume that's larger than your available capacity in RAID, and then just add more disks as your volumes fill up. As to your confusion about space usage, you're really only seeing that problem because you're working with small drives. Im Zuge des Aufbaus einer Testumgebung zur Erprobung und Abbildung von Microsoft Cloud Szenarien habe ich einen Benchmark zwischen der Microsoft Storage-Virtualisierungstechnologie Storage Spaces und klassischen RAID Leveln eines Hardware RAID Controllers durchgeführt. Bevor ich das Testsystem und die Benchmark Ergebnisse vorstelle, möchte ich kurz einige wesentliche Informationen zu Storage Spaces liefern.
Storage Spaces sind virtuelle Laufwerke, die aus einem lokalen Storage Pool generiert werden und dem Betriebssystem als Volume zur Verfügung stehen. Ab zwei physischen Laufwerken in einem Storage Pool steht neben dem Simple Storage Layout zur Steigerung des Datendurchsatzes durch Data Striping ohne Fehlertoleranz ein 2-Wege Mirroring zur Auswahl, das die Datenkopien redundant auf beiden Laufwerken speichert. Ab drei physischen Laufwerken steht das Parity Storage Layout zur Auswahl, das die Fehlertoleranz durch Bildung von Prüfsummen sicherstellt. Aus einem Storage Pool können mehrere Storage Spaces mit unterschiedlichen Storage Layouts erstellt werden.
Darüber hinaus wurde die Geschwindigkeit des Rebuilds nach einem Fehlerfall durch einen parallelisierten Reparatur Prozess verbessert, indem ungenutzte Laufwerke des Storage Pools zur Wiederherstellung der Fehlertoleranz herangezogen werden. Der Benchmark ist auf einem Dell Power Edge R610 Server mit 2x Intel Xeon 5620 (2,4 GHz) und 32 GB Multibit ECC RAM ausgeführt worden. Als Benchmark ist die kostenfreie Software ATTO Disk Benchmark des Herstellers ATTO Technology in Version 2.47 verwendet worden.
Der jeweilige Space hat alle drei Laufwerke umfasst und den kompletten Speicherplatz „fixed“ provisioniert. Als Äquivalent wurden auf dem PERC H700 die RAID Level 0 und 5 konfiguriert und nach Abschluss der Background-Initialisierung getestet. Die Werte Adaptive Read Ahead und Write Back der Read und Write Policies aktivieren den RAID Controller Cache.
Liegen bei beiden Technologien die gleichen Cache-Konfigurationen an, so kann der Storage Space im Simple Layout sehr gut im Vergleich um RAID 0 Level mithalten und diesen bei deaktiviertem Hardware Controller Cache schlagen.
Im Gegensatz dazu liegt die Performance des Storage Layout Parity beinahe durchgehend hinter den Werten des RAID Levels bei gleichen Cache-Einstellungen. Den Ergebnissen entsprechend, empfiehlt Microsoft die Nutzung des Parity Layouts zur Archivierung von Daten und für Backups, bei der eine effiziente Speichernutzung mit gleichzeitiger Ausfallsicherheit im Vordergrund steht. Darüber hinaus entspricht es nicht Microsofts Vorstellungen, die Storage Spaces auf ein reines Software RAID zu reduzieren. Dynamic IT Management Blog is proudly powered by WordPressArtikel (RSS) und Kommentare (RSS). Da ich gerade ein paar WD Red Festplatten frei hatte, habe ich an diesem verregneten Sonntag einen kleinen Performance-Vergleich zwischen Hardware RAID 5 (Mainboard, es kam kein extra RAID-Controller zum Einsatz), Software RAID 5 und Storage Spaces  durchgefuhrt.
Beim sequentiellen Lesen sind alle Varianten sehr flott, die hochste Performance erzielen jedoch die Storage Spaces, dicht gefolgt vom Hardware-RAID. Beim Hardware RAID 5 macht es so gut wie keinen Unterschied, ob der Write Cache aktiviert oder ausgeschaltet ist. Wahrend die Storage Spaces beim sequentiellen Lesen sehr schnell waren, sieht die Sache beim sequentiellen Schreiben ganz anders aus. Bei zufalligen 4K-Zugriffen ist abermals das Hardware RAID 5 ohne Write Cache am schnellsten. Zuerst sollte betont werden, dass beim Hardware RAID 5 kein leistungsfahiger Controller verwendet wurde, sondern lediglich die Onboard-Variante des H87-Chipsatzes. Nichtsdestotrotz bleibt zu sagen, dass die Hardware-Variante vor allem beim Schreiben deutlich Vorteile gegenuber den beiden anderen Varianten bietet. Das Software RAID 5 ist beim Lesen am langsamsten und beim Schreiben auch nur ein wenig schneller als Storage Spaces.
Generell ist es moglich, dass beide Betriebssysteme auf dieselbe 100-MByte-Partition zugreifen. Storage Spaces is a new feature in Windows 8 that allows you to pool together multiple hard drives into one larger drive or to mirror two different drives so that your data is protected against a drive failing. Simple striping, otherwise known as Raid-0, takes multiple drives and combines them into one virtual drive seen by Windows. The parity storage space, or Raid-5, allows you to take 3 or more drives and combine all but the last one into one large virtual drive. If you tend to have a lot of spare drives, then using these extra drives as storage spaces can help to protect your data in the event of drive failure. Note: In order to use Storage Spaces you will need at least one or more extra hard drives installed in your computer. Now click on the option labeled Storage Spaces and you will be brought to the Storage Spaces control panel.
Put a check mark next to each drive you wish to use for the new pool and then click on the Create pool button. Warning: This type of storage space should be avoided for critical data due to its lack of fault tolerance and increased risk of drive failure. Below is an example of taking two 5 GB drives and combining them into a Simple storage space. Tip: It is suggest that you do not create a Simple storage space that is greater than the total pool capacity. When you are ready, simply click on the Create Storage Space button and it will be created. As you can see from the above picture, we have create a Simple storage space of 8.50 GB from two 5 GB drives.
If you are using a Simple storage space and run out of room on the drive, you can add a new drive to the pool in order to increase amount of space available on the drive letter. Now you need to modify the storage space so that it using all of the space that was just added.
In the field labeled Storage space size change the amount to the number reflected in the Total pool capacity row. Your Simple storage space will now be using all of the space available on all the drives in the pool. A two-way mirror, or Raid-1, storage space is when you use two drives and data is written to both of them at the same time. Please note that since each drive is a mirror of the other, you will only have access to half the space allocated to the storage pool. A Parity, or Raid-5, storage space is useful if you want to combine two or more drives together to make one large drive, while still protecting your data in the event that one of the drives has a hardware failure. When you are ready, click on the Create storage space button and the new parity storage space will be created as shown below. Notice how the total pool capacity is 17GB (4 x 5GB minus some overhead), but the maximum size is 11.5 (3 x 5 GB with some space taken out for overhead). If you are using a Parity storage space and one of the drives dies, your data will still be accessible and the storage space will continue to work. When a drive fails, Windows will issue an alert stating that there is a problem as shown below. Click on the alert and you will be brought to the storage spaces control panel where you can determine which drive is having a problem. Notice in the image above how Storage Spaces is telling us the particular drive that is failed. Once the new drive is added to the pool, click on the Remove option next to the drive that has failed. To delete a storage space, you just need to click on the Delete option next to the particular one that you wish to delete. Once you delete a storage, all of your data will be lost, so be sure to make a backup of anything that you need to save. Before you can delete a storage pool, you first need to delete any storage spaces currently using it. Once you find the storage pool you wish to delete, simply click on the Delete button to delete it.
Question:I ran out of space on one of my storage spaces and now Windows will not allow me to access the drive.
For some reason, Microsoft decided to disable access to the drive when it runs out of space instead of just reporting it full. Question: I noticed it was possible to add multiple storage spaces to the same storage pool, with each using up all the space in the pool, and each one will have its own drive letter.


To be honest, we are not sure what the logic behind this was, but we suggest you avoid doing that.
If due to tightened security you do not want a user to be able to use the Windows Store, you can disable it via a policy in the Group Policy Editor or via a Registry key. Windows 8 allows you to customize the background and text color of the Start screen so that it is to your preferences. The Startup Settings boot menu allows you to change various settings that affect how Windows 8 starts up as well as providing a launching point into Windows 8 Safe Mode. The Advanced startup options menu allows you to specify various options for how you would like Windows 8 to start or to provide access to repair and diagnostic tools in the event that Windows is unable to start.
With new versions of Windows hitting the shelves, we’re seeing lots of exciting new storage features. Q: What are the feature differences between Storage Spaces on Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8 client? Q: Why would you want to make a Windows Server 2012 Scale-Out File Server cluster access a SAN via the file servers using SMB3.0? This fully-updated master class gives you 12 hours of detailed instruction on all aspects of a Hyper-V based virtualization environment. You'll explore current capabilities in Windows Server 2012 R2 and look to the future with Windows Server 2016.
With yet another beautiful example of feature creep and an overwhelming belief that Windows 8 must please all of the people all of the time, Microsoft has unveiled Storage Spaces, a new RAID-like storage solution that will be built into Windows 8.In essence, Storage Spaces allows you to group physical disks into pools of any size (pools of hundreds of disks, as found in a datacenter, have been tested by Microsoft).
Both pools and spaces can be created and managed using Powershell or a Control Panel applet. From what I know and have researched (partly thanks to you) Storage Spaces seems a better option over RAID. Sowohl Storage Pools als auch Storage Spaces sind Build-in Features der genannten Betriebssysteme, d.h. Lediglich der Laufwerksbuchstabe des zu testenden Volumes und die Funktion Start sind von mir ausgewählt worden.
Simple bietet auf der einen Seite einen hohen Datendurchsatz durch parallele Schreib- und Lesezugriffe, auf der anderen Seite aber keine Ausfallsicherheit. Die angepassten Einstellungen auf dem RAID Controller wurden sofort aktiv, ein Neustart des Servers ist nicht notwendig. Bei den Benchmarks mit aktiviertem Hardware Controller Cache limitiert dieser die Leistungen des Systems. Das schlägt sich mit einem deutlichen Performance-Verlust im Vergleich zu den RAID Leveln mit aktiviertem Hardware Controller Cache nieder. Die noch junge Storage Spaces Technologie muss sich erst in verschiedenen Produktivumgebungen beweisen. Auch beim zufalligen Zugriff auf 512K-Blocke sind die Storage Spaces vor dem Hardware RAID 5 am schnellsten. Erwartungsgema? ist die Hardware-Losung ohne Write Cache und mit Write-Back-Strategie mit Abstand am schnellsten. Die Storage Spaces konnen mit dem Hardware RAID ohne Write Cache mithalten, wahrend die Software-Losung deutlich langsamer ist.
Wahrend die Storage Spaces beim Lesen uberzeugen konnen, ist das Hardware RAID 5 vor allem beim Schreiben im Vorteil. Dedizierte RAID-Controller durften deutlich mehr Performance liefern, sind im Privatgebrauch aber auch nicht unbedingt weit verbreitet. Seitdem blogge ich hier uber Software, Internet, Windows und andere Themen, die mich interessieren. Durch die Nutzung unserer Webseite erklaren Sie sich damit einverstanden, dass wir Cookies setzen. This allows you to take different drives of different sizes and combine them into a new drive that uses all of the space on each drive.
This type of storage space provides hardware protection because if one drive fails the data is still safely stored on the other drive. This storage process provides hardware protection in the event that two drives fail at the same time.
The last drive is then used as the parity drive that protects you in the event that one drive fails. This will open up a new screen where you can select the drives that you wish to add to a storage pool.
The new storage pool will be created and you will be brought to a new screen where you can create a new storage space that is associated with that pool.
This type of storage space allows you to take multiple drives and configure them as one virtual drive that has free space of all the combined drives. This is because data is written to both drives and if one of the drives has a hardware failure, you lose access to all of your data on that virtual drive. Please note, that there is some overhead associated with this and you do not get the total physical space of the drive as usable space.
In the future, if you need to add more usable space to the Simple storage space, you can add another hard drive, which is outlined in the next section.
This synchronization allows your data to be backed up to both drives and if one drive fails, you do not lose any of your your data. For example, if you have two 1.5 terabyte drives added to a storage pool, the storage pool will have a total capacity of 3 terabytes.
When you are ready, click on the Create storage space button and the new mirror will be created as shown below.
When creating this type of storage space, your total usable drive space will be the total disk space of all the drives minus one of them. With the drive failed, though, you will no longer be fault tolerant, which means that if another drive fails you will lose all of your data. If you cannot fix the drive, you need to purchase and install a new hard drive in your computer.
If you remove the failed one before you add a new drive to the storage pool, you will lose all of your data. You can then use the storage pool to create another storage space or continue to deleting the storage pool.
Once all the storage spaces are deleted, you can then continue with deleting a storage pool.
If you try and bring it back online, it will state that you need to install further drives into the storage pool in order to access it again. It's perfectly fine to use the same pool for multiple storage spaces, but please make sure you do not allocate space to both of them so that they overlap. When ISO images burned onto a CD or DVD it creates an exact replica of the media that the ISO was created from. To change the Windows 8 Start screen background you should go to the 8 Start screen and type start screen. To access the Startup Settings boot menu in Windows 8, you need to do so via the Advanced Startup options menu. In previous versions of Windows you were able to access the advanced startup options menu by clicking on the F8 key when Windows started.
The provisioning type is a choice between thin provisioning and fixed (aka thin) provisioning." This is the quote from the beginning of the article.
These pools can be allocated as spaces, which then appear as a normal drive letter in Windows and can be used to store documents, videos, photos, and so on.
It looks like the process will be easy enough to set up, but whether it will be advertised to regular consumers (Clippy: “You seem to have multiple drives installed!
Storage Spaces seems more like used for archiving data, as well as being chunked into different redundancy options. Dies hat zur Folge, dass bei Verwendung von Storage Spaces für jedes einzelne der drei Laufwerke ein eigener RAID 0 Level konfiguriert werden muss.
Verbesserung könnte die in Server 2012 R2 neu hinzugekommene Funktion der Nutzung eines schnelleren Storage Tiers, bspw. Ebenso spielen andere Faktoren wie die Stripe Size und der Write Cache eine wichtige Rolle, welche ich nur sehr grob untersucht habe. Windows Server 2012 sind recht neu, aber bieten beim Lesen bereits jetzt schon eine gute Performance.
These pools are then divided into storage spaces, or virtual drives, that can be accessed via a drive letter in Windows.
This allows you to quickly add more storage to a storage space that is running low by adding a new physical drive to the pool. Please note, that when you use this type of storage space you will only be able to use the space of the smallest drive. If second drive fails before you replace the first failed one, you will lose all of your data. So for example, if you have three 1 terabyte drives and you use them to make a Simple storage space the new virtual drive would have a total storage of 3 terabytes. Therefore, this type of storage space should only be used for data that you do not care if you lose or can easily be recreated, such as backup volumes or temporary storage. Then click on the Add drives option to open a dialog box where you can add another drive to the storage pool. All you have to do is remove the failed drive, install a new drive, and then add it to the pool. If we now use that storage pool to create a two-way mirror, the drive letter that is created will only have 1.5 terabyte of usable space because half of the space is used as accessible storage and the other half is the mirror.
We will not be discussing how to create this type of mirror as it uses the same steps as above. Therefore, if you have four 120 gigabyte drives and create a parity storage space, the total usable space will be 360 gigabytes (3 * 160GB) with the fourth drive being used as a backup in the event that one of the drives fails.
You should then click on the Add drives option for this storage pool and add the new drive into the pool.


Another method is to change the storage space and make it slightly larger and then try to bring it online again. For example, if you wish to take a pool and split it into two separate storage space mirrors, that is fine.
Due to this ISOs are a common way for companies and organizations to distribute copies of their CDs and DVDs online. Any array of physical disks can be used to make a pool — you can use a combination of external USB and internal SATA, if you wish. Do you want me to set up a pool?”) or kept as a power user feature remains to be seen.
Steigt die Warteschlange an, mussen die Storage Spaces zuruckstecken und die Software- sowie Hardware-Losung sind ca. Wer viel liest und nur wenig schreibt, sollte sich diese Losung auf jeden Fall genauer anschauen. Ich wurde mich freuen, wenn ihr meinen Feed abonniert oder mir auf Twitter, Facebook, Google+ und Google+ (privat) folgt.
This type of storage space is not recommended for critical or irreplaceable data because if one of these drives fails, you lose all of the data on all of the drives.
This type of storage space allows you to easily add more storage to a drive as it becomes necessary. Windows will then synchronize all the data from the old disk to the new one so that they are mirrored again. When it has finished repairing the storage space, this warning message will disappear, and your parity drive will be fully functional and protecting your computer. As long as you do not try to write anything further to the disk, you should be able to delete any files you need to in order to clear up some space. It is not suggested, though, that you take one storage pool and split it up into two mirrors that both use 100% of the space of the storage pool. Spaces can be configured to be redundant and provisioned.Redundancy in Storage Spaces is through either mirroring (RAID 1) or parity (RAID 3). Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of Ziff Davis, LLC. Au?erdem ist das Software RAID 5 nur unter Server Betriebssystemen verfugbar, wahrend die Storage Spaces auch fur Daheim nutzbar sind, allerdings erst ab Windows 8.
In both cases, if a mirror or parity disk fails, Spaces will notify you with a Windows pop-up, and then proceed to rebuild your volume if you have the capacity.
Allerdings ist hier anzumerken, dass im Alltagsbetrieb keine hohere Warteschlange als QD3 oder QD4 zu erwarten ist. The supported bus types are Universal Serial Bus (USB), Serial ATA (SATA), and Serial Attached SCSI (SAS). Users with such high-end storage solutions should look to their respective storage vendors to make best use of the functionality that they provide. The other advantage of thin provisioning is that you don’t have to decide on partition sizes ahead of time (an arduous task that many of you have no doubt suffered through). Storage Spaces and Pools is geared toward less expensive storage solutions, to introduce functionality that would otherwise be unavailable.
Be sure not to confuse Storage Spaces and Pools virtual disks with Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) or VHDX files. You start out with a default pool called the Primordial Pool, which is merely a list of physical disks attached to the computer that can be pooled. The wizard will prompt you for the name of the storage pool used, the name of the virtual disk, the type of storage layout, the provisioning type (thin or fixed), and the virtual disk’s size. I’ll review the choices in the next section, but when the wizard is complete, you’ll see the virtual disk that Figure 1 shows. You can configure it to either Master Boot Record (MBR) or GUID Partition Table (GPT) partition style.
You can choose Simple (RAID 0 or stripe set without parity), Mirror (RAID 1), or Parity (RAID 5 or stripe set with parity). Finally, mirror sets can be created using either two or more physical disks for a two-way mirror, or five or more physical disks for a three-way mirror.Provisioning type. This choice determines whether you want to pre-allocate all the sectors involved in your virtual disk or allow them to be mapped to physical sectors on a “just in time” basis.
If you select fixed provisioning, you’ll be limited to a size based on the available physical disks in the pool.
However, if you select thin provisioning, you can enter a size that’s much greater than the physically available space. The size of the virtual disk depends on what was selected for provisioning type, storage layout, and the size of the physical disks that were used. If you plan to create just one virtual disk in your pool, you can simply select the Maximum size option.
In fixed provisioning, physical blocks are allocated to the virtual disk whether they’re in use or not. This lets you provision a much larger virtual disk than what would be possible with fixed provisioning. If the virtual disk starts to push toward the boundary of what can be mapped to a physical block, you can add more physical disks. That is, if you want to have a 10TB virtual disk, you don’t need to provide the physical space for it up front.
You can provision a thin virtual disk that is 10TB and add additional physical disks as needed.
To make this even more efficient, NTFS has been enhanced to work with the storage subsystem to reclaim space after files are deleted or optimized. Windows has also been optimized to work more efficiently with high-end storage solutions that include thin provisioning functionality. This includes the ability to reclaim unused sectors, like what Storage Spaces and Pools is doing. When a physical disk is brought into a pool, a partition is created on it and the physical disk is hidden from the UI. In the next step, when a virtual disk is carved out of the pool, said virtual disk is then presented back to the UI as a logical disk.
The physical disks are still observable in Device Manager, but a new Microsoft Storage Space Device is also listed for each virtual disk that’s created. The partition will have a small area dedicated to storing metadata for Storage Spaces and Pools.
Once a virtual disk is created, it can be configured as either MBR or GPT, then utilized as a physical disk normally would be.
It’s helpful to understand this granularity when you’re adding physical disks to a preexisting virtual disk. Particularly in Windows 8, Storage Spaces and Pools is simple to use, but if you would like to have more control over our storage options, Storage Spaces and Pools can provide that too. The following is an example of how a user can manually control this element and the ResiliencySettingName element. If you have redundancy in the form of a completely standalone instance, you’ll have more than one copy of the data.
Although the parity space is fault-tolerant, it doesn’t achieve that by using a completely separate instance of the data.
One of the drawbacks to mirroring is the slower write speeds due to having to write the same data multiple times.
In the example that Figure 6 shows, four physical disks were used to create a mirror space.
Mirror spaces created using the GUI can have as many as four columns (per data copy), but mirror spaces created using PowerShell can have more than four columns.
They both use two disks, but the one on the left is using one column whereas the one on the right is using two columns.
If you wanted to extend the virtual disk, you would first need to add a new physical disk to the storage pool, if one wasn’t available. However, if an attempt is made to extend the virtual disk after the disk is added, the task would still fail. The error indicates that physical resources don’t exist to support adding more space to the virtual disk, even though you just added a new blank disk to the pool. If this were allowed, you would lose all benefit of striping when the original two disks became full.
In addition, you can’t tack the new disk onto the bottom of one of the current columns (for much the same reason). To extend a virtual disk, you need to add a number of disks equal to or greater than the number of columns in said virtual disk.
Doing so will allow striping to continue in the fashion for which it was originally configured. You must add a number of disks equal to or greater than the number of columns in the virtual disk. If files or metadata were to become corrupt on ReFS, Windows can use the redundant copy on the other side of the mirror to repair the damage. This is made possible, in part, by the checksums that both the data and metadata have in ReFS. It’s easy to configure, can be configured at a granular level for those who want to utilize additional options, and brings additional resiliency to ReFS. Storage Spaces and Pools supports thin provisioning, and like most things in Server 2012 and Windows 8, it can be scripted using PowerShell. Out of all the new storage goodies in Windows, I think this will be the one that people will use the most.



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