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The performance of a storage solution is important when evaluating its cost efficiency and usefulness. Microsoft Exchange, or virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI), determine how the storage can be optimally configured. Simple spaces are not resilient to disk failures and should thus be used only for temporary data and data that can easily be recreated, for example intermediary video rendering files or caches. From a performance standpoint, simple spaces provide the best overall performance when considering reads and writes.
Mirroring refers to creating two or more copies of data and storing them in separate places, so that if one copy gets lost the other is still available. Reads on mirror spaces are very fast, since the mirror not only benefits from the stripe, but also from having 2 copies of data. 1 and 3 are busy servicing another request, the needed data can be read from disks 2 and 4. Mirrors, while being fast on reads and resilient to a single disk failure (in a two-way mirror), have to complete two write operations for every bit of data that is written. In the diagram below, a 768 KB stripe of data is written across disks 1 through 3 (A1, A2, A3), while the corresponding parity bit (AP) is placed on disk 4. The sequential write performance of parity spaces can be improved by using dedicated journals. In other words, ensure that dedicated journal disks are very fast and scale the number of journal disks with the number of parity spaces on the pool. The type of disk that is used for a given workload is important, as there are significant performance and capacity differences between them. HDD – 7,200 RPM These disks usually provide the greatest single-disk capacity, and adequate performance, depending on the workload. SLC-type: Typically capable of higher write speeds than MLC-type, and can typically sustain a higher amount of full disk re-writes and stress over the course of the lifetime of the disk. RPM disks might be deployed to house databases or other data that needs to be accessed and manipulated relatively quickly. SATA disks attached via a “just a bunch of disks” (JBOD) enclosure typically incur a slight performance penalty when compared to SAS. Storage Spaces takes full advantage of the performance capabilities of the underlying storage. At TechEd North America 2012, as well as TechEd Europe 2012, Microsoft presented a three-node cluster system backed by 24 enterprise-level SSDs and Storage Spaces. Storage Tiering, the practice of moving frequently accessed data to very fast storage, while maintaining infrequently accessed data on moderate or slow storage is supported with Storage Spaces starting in Windows Server 2012 R2.
Frequency of access (heat) on files is measured by the file system and fed into a tiering engine that instructs Spaces to move often used files to flash-based storage devices, while retaining cold data on large-capacity, slow storage.
Two parameters that are important in any workload are block size and interleave (stripe size). Many database-style applications such as Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft Exchange use relatively small blocks (8KB – 32KB), though other applications may use larger blocks.
The number of columns specifies how many physical disk data is striped across and has an impact on performance regardless of stripe and block size. The following table provides real-world performance numbers comparing two simple spaces with different numbers of columns.
The following example describes this trade-off: A typical hard disk is saturated writing a large number of 1MB files or block data in a sequential fashion.
There are a few more points to consider and adjust when maximizing the performance of Storage Spaces. Power Protected Mode: Storage Spaces allows administrators to enable “power protected mode”, which assumes that disk caches have batteries or are otherwise resilient to power failures.
Unless your workload has very specific needs and is unlikely to grow significantly, utilize the default column count chose by Spaces at creation time. 2012 R2) Do not use simple spaces unless resiliency is provided by the application or is unnecessary. The following example describes how to deploy Storage Spaces in a standalone Microsoft SQL Server instance. To build a resilient system it is important to have redundant paths from the server to the storage. The typical workload of an actively used SQL database is random in nature with relatively small block sizes (8KB – 32KB). This will allow for fast access times to the data and 7.2 TB of total capacity for the database tables. This provisioning scheme yields a total database capacity of ~7.2 TB, log capacity of ~584 GB, and ~8 TB of backup capacity while being highly focused on resiliency to component failure. This cluster deployment element is designed to provide extremely high levels of performance at a low price point.
Microsoft has since released a Word document that outlines the various components and settings used to achieve the above 1M IOPS. 26 Secure zeroing-out on allocation of fixed virtual disks Dynamically expanding virtual disks New in Windows Server 2012 R2!
The Journey to the 2012 R2 wave The 2012 R2 wave File Based Storage Storage Management for Private Cloud Storage Spaces. Storage Spaces Hyper-V Clusters SMB3 Storage Network Fabric Shared JBOD Storage 1 4 22 3 Scale-Out File Server Clusters. Windows Server 2012 VSP Windows Kernel Applications Non-Hypervisor Aware OS Windows Server 2008, 2012 Windows Kernel VSC VMBus Emulation “Designed for. Scale-Out File Server Clusters Storage Spaces Virtualization and Resiliency Hyper-V Clusters SMB Shared JBOD Storage PowerShell & SCVMM 2012 R2 Management.
Windows Server 2012: Storage Capabilities for Everyone Bryan Matthew Program Manager Microsoft Corporation WSV327. Microsoft Software Defined Storage (SDS) Breadth offering, unified platform for Microsoft workloads and Linux Public Cloud scale and cost economics. 1ConsistentPlatform Windows Azure Pack Service Providers Private Cloud Public Cloud DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENTIDENTITYVIRTUALIZATIONDATA Azure Virtual Machines. Windows Server 2012 Redefining Storage Darren Moss Senior Program Manager Microsoft Corporation WSV315.
CSVFS online CHKDSK Cluster-Aware Updating SMB3 Virtual Fibre Channel Hyper-V Replica 8,000 VMs per Cluster VM Prioritization 64-node clusters Dedup Scale-Out.
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We have two servers that we are attaching SAS expansion bays to expand our storage, but one server is running Windows Server 2012 and the other is running Windows Server 2012 R2. I have a Hyper-V host that has it's performance bound by the storage subsystem, which is a RAID 10 array. The problem started, or at least noticed after expanding the virtual disk to 5 TB during a network file transfer. I have a Windows Server 2012 R2 with a 500GB SSD drive that is storage for a mysql database.
I've created a Storage Pool of 3 disks (VHDs), striped, a Virtual Disk on top of it, and a volume. I violated academic integrity unknowingly by sharing assignment resources with fellow student. How to delete the contents of the current paragraph and "re-start" from the beginning?
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Click Sign In to add the tip, solution, correction or comment that will help other users.Report inappropriate content using these instructions. You can choose the resiliency type of a storage space based on business needs, with choices of Simple (no resiliency), Mirror, and Parity. Striping refers to the idea of writing data across multiple disks to reduce access and response times.
Using the example of a simple space, you can see that 256 KB are allocated on each of the four disks to write a total of 1 MB of data. They provide the cumulative performance of multiple disks, depending on how many disks are in the storage pool.
If a new physical disk is added or a hot-spare is present, the mirror regenerates its resiliency. Since parity is striping across all but one disk in the storage space it has good read performance while still providing resiliency to a single disk failure.
Parity spaces are an excellent choice for workloads that are almost exclusively read-based, highly sequential, and require resiliency, or workloads that write data in large sequential append blocks (such as bulk backups). Note that the throughput of the journal disks will now be the overall throughput limit to all parity spaces created on this specific storage pool and you might trade extra capacity for performance. HDD – 5,400 RPM and Variable RPM “Green” Drives These disks run at either 5400 RPM or a variable RPM rate, and while they usually match 7,200 RPM disks in capacity, they provide reduced performance in exchange for decreased power usage. If your workload involves random small block reads and writes, and your budget allows, SSDs are an excellent choice.
Usually these disks are priced higher than standard MLC and the implementation is vendor specific. This means that a few high capacity 7,200 RPM disks are available for storing backups, or data that is not accessed very often. SATA SSDs further exacerbate the problem by having an order of magnitude larger CPU overhead.
More details about this system can be found in the Sample Deployments section of this paper. The more columns a storage space is assigned, the more disks can be striped across and the higher performance. Random workloads do not experience as significant a performance increase, exhibiting more uniform performance across different column counts. For high performance systems it is typically best to have one cable per HBA, two if MPIO is used for path redundancy.
If SSDs are deployed, it is possible for the CPUs of the server node to become the performance bottleneck. At the same time, load balancing can provide optimized performance by utilizing the capabilities of multiple SAS cables. Note that enabling power protected mode without battery-backed caches or resilience to power failure puts your data at risk of loss or corruption.
As a result of these characteristics, it is advisable to utilize fast disks (10,000 RPM or faster) and keep the storage space stripe size relatively small to accommodate the blocks read and written by the database.
If this degree of resiliency is not required, then the provisioning can change to provide more performance or capacity.
The use of commodity hardware makes Storage Spaces deployments flexible, easily expandable, and cost-efficient.
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