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16.03.2015


Medford 3 family houses, often triple deckers, have fallen in value over the past year on a YTD (through the end of September) comparison. Stay tuned for Medford average rents and the rent multiplier so you know if Medford multifamily income property investments are for you. Data in this post is based on information provided to and compiled by MLS Property Information Network, Inc.
Richard is also more than happy to be your real estate expert whether you are in the market or not.
This entry was posted in Investment, Medford, MA and tagged Average Sale Price, Cost Per Square Foot, Medford, Median Sale Price, Multifamily, Triple Decker.
The American Physical Society (APS) is a non-profit membership organization working to advance the knowledge of physics. Suggested Storage: Small furniture, boxes, seasonal items, records, double or twin mattress sets, personal records, file boxes, decorations. Suggested Storage: Holds the contents of a small one bedroom apartment - including appliances. For example, two 10' by 15' storage spaces make up a 10' by 30', and two 10' by 20' storage spaces make up a 10' by 40'.
Rapid increases in global oil consumption and conflicts in and about oil exporting regions have driven prices high, even as supplies become more insecure. At the same time, producing oil in sensitive areas like the Arctic National Wildlife Reserve, from tar sands or shale, or turning coal into liquid fuels raises a host of environmental and resources questions that are difficult, including in some cases, increasing greenhouse gas emissions relative to oil imports. Proliferation of nuclear weapons is being exacerbated partly by the spread of commercial nuclear power technology. If one uranium enrichment plant in Iran poses such vast security challenges, how will the world cope with a situation where one or more new enrichment plants would need to be built somewhere in the world each year? Hydrogen fuel would be produced on a distributed basis to be used in industry as a raw material and possibly as compressed fuel in internal combustion engines for a part of transportation fuel requirements, if the tanks for storage at 10,000 psi can be commercialized. Efficiency Affordable technologies and practices for vastly improved efficiency already exist in the residential and commercial sectors. Figures 1 and 2 show the current average consumption of energy at the point of use in residential and commercial buildings, compared to efficient buildings. The example of Hanover House in New Hampshire, shown in Figure 1, is especially interesting.
It uses active solar thermal heating as well, with a large hot water storage tank (4,500 liters) for space and water heating. It is an all-electric house that gets its energy from the grid and uses electric resistance heating to supplement the solar thermal system. Even though resistance heating is among the most inefficient, the overall energy use is very low. The cost of house construction was $111 per square foot, with the owner serving as the general construction contractor.3 Overall specific end use in the residential sectors in the reference scenario developed for a renewable energy economy is estimated to be about 39,000 Btu per square foot in 2050, which is still well above the potential for energy efficiency. Commercial buildings can often meet the highest green energy and environmental recognition (the a€?platinuma€? level Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certification) for less than $10 per square foot in investment, which can be generally recovered relatively easily in reduced energy costs. Lighting efficiency is especially important in the commercial sector, where it is the largest single energy use, if thermal losses at the power plant are included. One of the best of the latter is hybrid solar lighting, invented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.4 A four-foot parabolic solar concentrator focuses sunlight onto a four-inch bundle of optical fibers, which are incorporated into especially designed luminaires, which also have electric lights. The electric lighting component automatically compensates for varying solar light availability, maintaining a constant output.
An added benefit is reduced air-conditioning electricity use during sunny days, since the thermal loading of the solar part of the luminaire is negligible compared to electric lighting. The net average efficiency of personal car transport is currently only about one percent, based on the payload transported a€“ the people in the car.5 Besides automobile efficiency standards, one logical place to start is plug-in hybrids a€“ gasoline-electric cars that have extra batteries that store enough charge to enable much or most commuting on electricity only. When the batteries are low, the car is charged from the grid; when grid needs power, it can draw on the electricity stored in parked cars that are plugged in. The first small-scale practical trial of V2G is being prepared in Googlea€™s Silicon Valley parking lot.
A V2G system can provide electricity storage to help solve the one real difficulty associated with very large-scale use of solar and wind energy: they are intermittent. The batteries wore out much faster than the rest of the car, making it prohibitively expensive to use them in a V2G system.


But tests show that newly designed lithium-ion batteries will last far longer than the car.
With them, V2G can provide one way for solar and wind energy to reliably provide the majority of the electricity we need.
A cost reduction of about a factor five is needed; it is expected in the next few years as production technology matures and economies of scale kick in. Only a few percent of all cars would be needed to provide large-scale back up for renewable electricity sources. Phoenix Motorcars is making an all electric five-passenger pick-up truck, with a range of ~130 miles and an efficiency of about 3.5 miles per kWh. Tesla Motors is making a sports car that goes from zero to 60 mph in four seconds and has an efficiency of about 5 miles per kWh.
Lithium-ion battery pack costs need to come down by about a factor of five before such cars can be commercially competitive.
One great advantage of such vehicles, of course, is that they can be charged using renewable electricity sources.
The greatest energy efficiency improvements are assumed to occur in the transportation sector, because that has the greatest potential, especially in a transition to electric or mostly electric personal vehicles. Leta€™s first note that, except for waste cooking oils, using food sources for energy is not a very good idea. Even at moderate levels of production, using corn for ethanol fuel is causing a rise in food prices in the United States, Mexico, and elsewhere.
The emissions of CO2 from the destruction of the peat bogs in Indonesia, where the palms are grown, are much greater than if petroleum were used in transport.
Using food crops as a major source of fuel is unsustainable in a world of eight to ten billion people (by 2050) who are acquiring the means to eat well. Biofuels are important for a renewable energy future, but we must use a sharp pencil to choose the right ones.
Some approaches that are being funded, like converting corn stover and prairie grasses to ethanol (a€?cellulosic ethanola€?), are worthwhile. The right species can provide 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of biodiesel per acre, compared to about 300 gallons of gasoline equivalent for ethanol from corn.
The main inputs are water, sunshine, and todaya€™s pollutants a€“ carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides from power plant exhaust.
The technology has been demonstrated on a small-scale at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A pilot test over 19 summer days at the Arizona power plant produced an yield of 98 grams of dry matter per square meter per day, indicating an annual potential at present of 200 metric tons per year or more. Other high productivity biomass includes aquatic plants that are now considered as nuisances or worse. The former may be the most productive plant on Earth, with a solar energy capture efficiency of up to 5 percent a€“ yielding up to about 250 metric tons of dry organic matter per hectare per year.
Aquatic weeds grow well in high-nutrient content water, such as agricultural run-off and municipal wastewater. They have been used as part of experimental wastewater treatment systems, off and on since the 1970s, but they have never been a significant part of energy considerations. Overall, the requirements for liquid and gaseous biofuels in the residential, commercial, transportation and industrial sectors present possibly the most difficult challenge to a transition to a renewable energy economy.
Combing high productivity prairie grasses and very high productivity aquatic plants (including microalgae) with high efficiency would still result in requirements of 5 to 6 percent of the land area of the United States.
But with the right choices of plants, the biofuels could be grown on land that is now not suitable for agriculture a€“ even in desert areas. For instance, wastewater from the Los Angeles metropolitan area could be treated in the Owens Valley, where aquatic plants could be grown as part of the treatment.
It would be highly desirable to reduce land area requirements in a renewable energy economy. One way would be to focus on commercializing direct solar hydrogen production technologies, which are still largely in the laboratory stage. However, large-scale development of this technology would also require development of a hydrogen pipeline infrastructure, which would be a major undertaking amidst several other major transformations. Hydrogen use would be mainly for industry as a feedstock and possibly as compressed hydrogen for use in internal combustion engines, if developmental problems are resolved.6 A Renewable Electricity Grid The United States is blessed with enormous renewable energy potential.


North Dakota, Texas, Kansas, South Dakota, Montana, and Nebraska each have wind energy potential greater than the electricity produced by all 103 U.S. Indeed, the area of parking lots and commercial rooftops is large enough to provide most U.S. The footprint of wind turbines, including roads and other infrastructure is ~0.6 hectares per megawatt (though it varies a good deal). A trillion kWh of solar electricity can be generated on less than 1,600 square miles in sunny areas, including a 30 percent allowance for infrastructural land. Individual technologies aside, can a reliable electricity grid be created using renewables alone? If so, how do we get from here a€“ coal, nuclear, natural gas, and hydropower a€“ to there?
For instance, hydropower use can be restricted mainly to times when the wind is not blowing. During that time, natural gas-fired power plants with a capacity three times larger than U.S.
This huge capacity can be used to provide backup for wind and solar, at night and times of low wind.
With this approach, the fraction of solar and wind energy in the grid can be increased from under one percent at present to 30 percent or more over the next two decades, without resort to storage technologies that are now uneconomical. Intermittency of solar and wind is therefore no bar to meeting electricity growth requirements with a combination of efficiency and an optimized mix of solar, wind, hydro, and natural gas standby power for about two decades.
In fact, a distributed grid that uses commercial rooftops and parking lots as a key feature, would be more secure than the one we have today. In the longer term, some baseload power plants using solid biomass, geothermal energy, and some intermediate load solar thermal power plants with thermal storage will be necessary to anchor the system, unless electricity storage technologies such as ultracapacitors and sodium-sulfur batteries become much more economical than they are today.
Figure 3: A renewable electricity grid configuration The costs of electricity per kWh from such a grid may be in the range of 12 to 18 cents per kWh, if solar energy costs continue to decline for the next few years. However, the overall cost of energy services will not be higher if appropriate investments are made in efficiency. Determination, a vigorous research, development, and demonstration program, and sensible overall policies are essential requirements.
But we can solve all three problems a€“ climate change, nuclear power as a source of proliferation, and insecurity of oil supply a€“ simultaneously. Done right, it will not burn a hole in the national pocketbook a€“ the amount we spend on energy services, such as heating, cooling, lighting, and personal transportation, as a fraction of Gross Domestic Product would remain about the same as energy expenditures in 2005 a€“ about eight percent. The main policy recommendations arising from the analysis are as follows: Enact a physical limit of CO2 emissions for all large users of fossil fuels (a a€?hard capa€?) that steadily declines to zero prior to 2060, with the time schedule being assessed periodically for tightening according to climate, technological, and economic developments. The cap should be set at the level of some year prior to 2007, so that early implementers of CO2 reductions benefit from the setting of the cap. There would be no free allowances, no offsets, and no international sale or purchase of CO2 allowances. The estimated revenues a€“ approximately $30 to $50 billion per year a€“ would be used for demonstration plants, research and development, and worker and community transition. Eliminate all subsidies and tax breaks for fossil fuels and nuclear power (including guarantees for nuclear waste disposal from new power plants, loan guarantees, and subsidized insurance).
Build demonstration plants for key supply technologies, including central station solar thermal with heat storage, large- and intermediate-scale solar photovoltaics, and CO2 capture in microalgae for liquid fuel production.
Leverage federal, state, and local purchasing power to create markets for critical advanced technologies, including plug-in hybrids. Enact stringent building efficiency standards at the state and local levels, with federal incentives to adopt them. Enact stringent efficiency standards for vehicles and make plug-in hybrids the standard U.S. Adopt vigorous research, development, and pilot plant construction programs for technologies that could accelerate the elimination of CO2, such as direct solar hydrogen production (photosynthetic, photoelectrochemical, and other approaches), hot rock geothermal power, and integrated gasification combined cycle plants using biomass with a capacity to sequester the CO2. The solar PV installed capacity requirement would, of course, be lower in sunnier parts of the United States.



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