01.08.2015

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The stronger groups tended to settle in the more desirable areas where there was an abundance of water, natural resources (wood, clay, iron ore, coal), and natural protection (hills, sea coast, rivers, lakes). And by the time the weaker finally arrived at a location to settle down, they were frequently so far removed from other groups that there was little contact, trade, or interaction. For these reasons while civilizations were forming in Mesopotamia, India, China, and North Africa, groups that had roamed as far as North and South America and islands in the Pacific developed little further in cultural organization than the tribal unit and possessed a technology that was far less developed than in the larger civilizations. About the early civilizations, the Apostle Paul, in Romans 1-3, states that they were created with a clear knowledge of God, but having rejected and twisted what truth they did possess, they worshipped the creature rather than the Creator.
Sumer was a collection of over thirty city-states, each possessing its own patron deity, but sharing a common religion featuring the worship of Elil with a central religious center at Nippur.
Other innovations of the Sumerians were the wooden wheel, the wooden plow, and the wooden oar for their ships. The Sumerians developed (or recovered from their spiritual memory derived from Noah) an elaborate belief system that included many gods who possessed human characteristics, a concept of personal sin, that they had been created to serve the gods, a class system of sorts between major and minor gods, and an elaborate flood story.
On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the story of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. The Sumerians were weakened due to the salinization of their wheat fields and were overcome by an invading group of people led by Sargon, the Great.
An Akkadian legend says that Sargon was abandoned by his mother in a reed basket which she placed in a river.
Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria.
The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire) required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular. Although the Babylonians absorbed much of the Sumerian worldview, they also developed a complex religion based upon astrology. The Assyrians, located to the north of Babylon, revived and were able to fight off several other invading groups that came into the Fertile Crescent from Indo-Europe and Syria.
The constant flow of invading peoples into the Fertile Crescent resulted in a blending of cultures, religions, and gene pools.
After over 400 years as slave in Egypt, Abrahama€™s descendants, under the leadership of Moses, left Egypt miraculously under Goda€™s guidance around the year 1250 B.C.
During this period of time God delivered to the Hebrews the religious system known as Judaism. After the 40 years of wilderness living, which resulted from their disobedience evidenced in worshipping the golden calf fashioned by Aaron, the brother of Moses, the Hebrews entered Canaan. The northern section, Israel, was invaded, captured, and sent into exile by Assyria in 732 B. During their centuries of development, God raised up among the Hebrews the ancient prophets, who were raised up by God to give warnings to both Israel as well as to their pagan neighbors. They were chosen by God to be his covenant people, from among whom the Messiah was born of the virgin Mary. The Philistines were descendants of a sea people who originated from around the Aegean Sea area to the east of Greece.
The Philistines were a literate people who originally spoke the language of people living in Crete, Cyprus, and the Aegean area. This civilization eventually concluded that their ruler, the Pharaoh, was actually divinity in the flesh. Perhaps the most famous of its rulers was Cleopatra who was the lover of both Julius Caesar and of Marc Anthony of the Roman Empire. He restored Egyptian religious worship and traditions back to their state prior to the radical revisions introduced by Tutakamena€™s father, Pharaoh Akhanaten. Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries.
The early Minoan settlers of Crete and southern Greece were descendants of Egyptians who first migrated to the island of Crete. They were the first to develop the skills necessary to build large stone columns for their many massive palaces, monuments, and temples. They were major importers and exporters of gold, silver, ivory, bronze, pottery, and animals from the continent of Africa to the south and developed extensive trade with Middle Asia, North Africa., and even East Asia. They were master canal builders and specialists in highly developed agriculture and irrigation systems.
It is speculated that they were extensive travelers, and that skills needed to build the pyramids constructed by the Mayans in South America may have been brought by Egyptians traveling in their reed boats.
They hosted the descendants of Abraham for over 450 years, first as guests and family members of the house of Moses, and later as slaves. Together with the Hittites after the Battle of Kadesh, the Egyptians pioneered a format for developing a long-lasting treaty between two powerful nations that numerous other subsequent civilizations followed.
The Gospel of Christ was brought to the Egyptians by the Apostle Mark who was martyred during his ministry in Egypt. The civilization that developed in the Indus River Valley rivals Egypt and Mesopotamia as the oldest known civilization.
At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™s population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia.
The Harappa civilization developed when a large number of Aryan people descended into the Indus Valley from the northeast. A large, extensive sewage system to which all of the buildings in the cities were connected.
Agriculture was made possible by the annual flooding in the spring when the ice melted and in July and August during the rainy season.
The Longshan Culture built large fortified towns along the Yellow River, fortified by large earthen walls and ramparts. There are indications that the early Chinese who settled along the Yellow River believed in the same God as the Hebrews, the God who was revealed to them in creation and in the stories received from Noah and his sons.
The Sumerians, Amorites, Egyptians, Longshan, and Harappa were some of the earliest groups that formed civilizations. The Indo-European language group spread from the Black Sea area into the Indus River Valley and into Euro-Asia.
Civilizations emerged early and quickly after the Flood throughout the four major population areas of Europe, Euro-Asia, and Asia.
The Nile River Valley was home to the great Egyptian civilization that reached its zenith during the reign of Ramses II, the probable pharaoh reigning during the time of Moses and the Exodus. An advanced Harappa civilization existed in the Indus Valley of India that conducted trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Respond correctly to at least 80% of the questions based upon the nine big ideas found in the first section above, Whata€™s Worth Knowing? Be able to list several chief characteristics and features of each of the four major river civilizations.
Create with your group ten test questions you believe all student should be able to answer after your groups presentation. Identify on a blank map the four major areas of civilization along the four river valleys and the items below.
On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the storyA  of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language.
Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria.A  He also developed a library of several thousand clay tablets, built a vast network of roads, and established the first known postal system. The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire)A  required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular. From Moses was received the Pentateuch, or the Five Books of Moses.A  He also established the first representative government, a system of government, Peoplea€™s Law, that was carried across Europe into England by the Anglo-Saxons, and became foundational for the United States of America.
After the death of Solomon, the nation of the Hebrews experienced civil war and separated into Israel in the north occupied by ten of the tribes, and Judah (from which the name a€?Jewa€? was derived) in the south occupied by two of the tribes.
Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries.A  He was so revered by the nation (for three generations of Egyptians knew no other Pharaoh) that for generations after his death he was referred to as the Great Ancestor of the nation. At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™sA  population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia. The major power in the Harappa society was the priestly caste that presided over a polytheistic religious system. While Ptolemy is most frequently associated with geography and cartography, he also wrote important works in a number of other fields including astronomy, astrology, music and optics. Although no original manuscript of this text has survived the ravages of time, several manuscript copies, dating from the closing centuries of the Byzantine Empire (ca.
For these and other reasons, Ptolemy knew mathematics to be an important part of cartography. The first Book of the Geographia is devoted primarily to theoretical principles, including a discussion of globe construction, the description of two map projections, and an extended, through amicable, criticism of his primary source, Marinus of Tyre, a€?the latest of the geographers of our timea€?. In another chapter in Book I, Ptolemy wrote that there are two ways of making a portrait of the world: one is to reproduce it on a sphere, and the other is to draw it on a plane surface.
If the second method of drawing the earth is used, that is, if the spherical earth is projected onto a plane surface, certain adjustments are obviously necessary.
Ptolemya€™s exhaustive criticism of the imperfect methods of drawing maps adopted by Marinus would lead to the expectation that he himself would have used some of his own recommended projections in constructing his maps. Book II of the Geographia opens with a prologue a€?of the particular descriptionsa€?, which is to say, the maps he was about to present, and a general statement of his mapmaking policy. The fifth chapter of Book VII contains a description of the map of the world, together with an enumeration of the oceans and of the more important bays and islands. In the eighth and last Book of the Geographia, Ptolemy returned to the business of discussing the principles of cartography, mathematical, geographical and astronomical methods of observation, and, in some cases (manuscript or printed copies) there follow short legends for each of the special maps - ten for Europe, four for Africa and twelve for Asia - mentioning the countries laid down on each plate, describing the limits, and enumerating the tribes of each country and its most important towns.
Those scholars who have argued that Ptolemya€™s original text contained no maps have neglected careful study of this Book. The obvious way to avoid crowding, Ptolemy said, is to make separate maps of the most populous regions or sectional maps combining densely populated areas with countries containing few inhabitants, if such a combination is feasible.
The illustration above gives a diagram of the parts of the known world embraced by each special map found in Ptolemya€™s Geographia. While there is little doubt still lingering that Ptolemya€™s text was originally illustrated by maps, it is not altogether certain that the maps found today in existing copies of the Geographia are indeed similar to those of the original series of maps, since the latter have not survived for comparison.
To further confound the issue, all of the other manuscript copies of the Geographia that are accompanied by maps differ one from another, presenting two basic versions. The other version, B, contains sixty-four maps distributed throughout the text, vice collected together in one place. Over and above these maps, those manuscripts with maps, both A- and B-versions, are additionally illustrated with a universal map of the entire known world at Ptolemya€™s time, either on one sheet or four sheets; only very rarely are both world maps found together.
As with modern maps, Ptolemaic maps are oriented so that North would be at the top and East at the right, because better known localities of the world were to be found in the northern latitudes, and on a flat map they would be easier to study if they were in the upper right-had corner.
Displayed on the left-had margin of these world maps are seven Clima [Klima] and Parallel Zones.
Overall Ptolemya€™s world-picture extended northward from the equator a distance of 31,500 stades [one mile = 9 to 10 stades; there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade] to 63A° N at Thule, and southward to a part of Ethiopia named Agysimba and Cape Prasum at 16A° S latitude, or the same distance south as Meroe was north. It has been repeatedly pointed out that the distances set down by Ptolemy in his tables for the Mediterranean countries, the virtual center of the habitable world, are erroneous beyond reason, considering the fact that Roman Itineraries were accessible. The geographical errors made by Ptolemy in his text and maps constitute the principle topic of many scholarly dissertations. Paradoxically, Ptolemya€™s eastward extension of Asia, reducing the length of the unknown part of the world, coupled with his estimate of the circumference of the earth, was his greatest contribution to history if not cartography. Ptolemy provides a descriptive summary in his text in which he tells us that the habitable part of the earth is bounded on the south by the unknown land which encloses the Indian Sea and that it encompasses Ethiopia south of Libya, called Agisymba.
The southern limit of the habitable world had been fixed by Eratosthenes (#112) and Strabo (#115) at the parallel through the eastern extremity of Africa, Cape Guardafiri, the cinnamon-producing country and the country of the SembritA¦ [Senaai]. Ptolemy records, following Marinus, the penetration of Roman expeditions to the land of the Ethiopians and to Agisymba, a region of the Sudan beyond the Sahara desert, perhaps the basin of Lake Chad, and he supplied other new information regarding the interior of North Africa. The eastern coast of Africa was better known than the western, having been visited by Greek and Roman traders as far as Rhapta [Rhaptum Promontory opposite Zanzibar?] which Ptolemy placed at about 7A° S. According to Greek tradition, an extension of 20A° in the width of the habitable world called for a proportionate increase in its length. Ptolemya€™s knowledge of the vast region from Sarmatia to China was, however, better than that of previous map makers. Many faults appear in Ptolemya€™s picture of southern Asia, although for more than a century commercial relations between western India and Alexandria had been flourishing.
Even the more familiar territory of the Mediterranean basin demonstrated that insufficient contemporary knowledge was available and Ptolemy erred in many important cartographical details. Map on grid system, in Ptolemy, La geographia, 1561-64, 26 x 14 cm, a€?Oxford University Byw.
However, Ptolemy was apparently the first of the ancient geographers to have a fair conception of the relations between the Tanais, usually considered the northern boundary between Europe and Asia, and the Rha [Volga], which he said flowed into the Caspian Sea. In spite of the egregious errors on all of Ptolemya€™s maps, his atlas was indeed an unsurpassed masterpiece for almost 1,500 years. During the intellectual narrow-mindedness of the Middle Ages even Ptolemy and his methods of map construction were forgotten, at least in the west.
The presently known version of Ptolemya€™s works began to surface when the Byzantine monk Maximos Planudes (1260 - 1310) succeeded in finding and purchasing a manuscript copy of the Geographia. Another scholar of the Byzantine age is known to have been interested in Ptolemya€™s Geographia - the noted polyhistor Nikephoras Gregoras (1295 - c. In 1400 a Greek manuscript copy of the A-version (twenty-six maps) was obtained from Constantinople by the Florentine patron of letters, Palla Strozzi, who persuaded Emmanual Chrysoloras, a Byzantine scholar, to translate the text into Latin.
Again, the original manuscript of Angelusa€™ translation and the first maps of Ptolemy in the Latin language have not survived, but a manuscript copy, dated 1427, prepared under the direction of Cardinal Fillastre, can be found in the library at Nancy, France (thus known as the Nancy Codex). In manuscript form, four other cartographers are significant in editing and influencing the evolution of Ptolemya€™s atlas.
After the discovery of copper-plate and wood-engraving, Ptolemya€™s atlas became one of the first great works for the reproduction of which these arts were employed. The totally revised 12th edition of the Traction Engine Register was published in April 2016 and commemorates fifty years since the first edition in 1966. This unique listing of all the known surviving road steam vehicles in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland has been regularly updated since the first edition.
The Register, now has 3826 entries, and has been thoroughly revised by over 2000 individual changes resulting from of changes of ownership and additional technical or historical information. The listings include details of 2851 self moving traction engines, steam road rollers and steam wagons, 687 portable engines, 160 steam fire engines and 125 fairground ride and organ engines. The National Traction Engine Trust has enquired about this situation and we can confirm that all copies are distributed from our printers via Royal Mail at the same time.
As a result, although it is appreciated that it is frustrating at times, there is very little we can actually do.
To coincide with the event we are also delighted to announce that a number of engines will be visiting during the day. The National Traction Engine Trust is pleased to announce the creation of a brand new channel on YouTube, that will be developed on a number of levels in the coming years to further enhance the Trusts media profile and create interest in the hobby at large. It is very much hoped that it will take on a life of it’s own in the same way that the NTET Facebook Page has done and be littered with interesting videos of engines going about their work on and off the road. Drafted into the Public Relations department to form the core team who will manage the project are Oliver Moore, Daniel March and Andrew Rothe all of whom are keen to add their own stamp of originality to proceedings. Head of Communications, Matt Shipton commented on the formation of the team, “I am extremely excited at the prospect of the YouTube Channel getting a new lease of life. At this early stage quite a bit of background work needs to be done, but as ever we will keep you posted on progress via the official NTET avenues on the website and social media. The Federation of British Historic Vehicle Clubs is currently running a Historic Vehicle Survey on their website.
A number of dates and venues have been set for the National Traction Engine Trust Exhibition Unit to attend during the 2016 season. With Spring starting to show real signs of sticking around, many people thoughts are turning to the forthcoming event season.
We curently have a few spaces left for this year, so if it takes your interest have a quick look at our Driving Course page to find out a little more.
The NTET marquee this year at GDSF will host in part The Steam Plough Club's 50th Anniversary. Some assistance in expenses in bringing the models to GDSF and Exhibitors passes would be made available.
Held over the weekend of May 20th - 22nd, Fawley Hill Steam Weekend is an event that is held in very high esteem within the steam world. However like so many other events up and down the country they are always on the look out for helpers who might be interested in acting as Marshals for the event. As the National Traction Engine Trust continues to forge links with other organisations within the Preservation Scene we are dlighted to be able to offer our supporters an opportunity to get hold of a free DVD from the Canal & River Trust. This offer is only available for a limited time so order today to enjoy exploring our centuries-old waterways and discovering how the Canal & River Trust are working to maintain the 2,000 miles of historic canals and rivers in their care. The National Traction Engine Trust is delighted to be taking part in the Practical Classics Restoration Show, held at NEC Birmingham on 5-6 March 2016. Aimed at those interested in vintage vehicle restoration, the show focuses on projects and techniques, with clubs putting on displays of vehicles before, after and during the restoration process. The Trust will be adding something different to the mix, promoting the road steam hobby and giving a glimpse into the restoration processes which go on in our world. Visitors to the stand will be able to chat to Trust members about the engines, our hobby in general and how the NTET fits into the larger vintage vehicle scene.
World Motoring Heritage Year has been declared during 2016 to mark FIVA’s fiftieth anniversary but more importantly to raise awareness of the enormous heritage value that lies in historic vehicles preserved by thousands of enthusiasts around the world. Drive It Day™- marking World Motoring Heritage Year 2016, will take place on 24 April. The National Traction Engine Trust is delighted to be able to announce that Jo Hurley has been named as the new General Secretary to the organisation. In welcoming Jo to the General and Executive Councils of the Trust we would also like to thank all those who expressed an interest in the position and of course to Jeffrery Shackell who was the filled the role admirably previously. We have promised to get it placed online here at the NTET Website, but due to a technical problem we are unable to do so for a couple of days. Due to a family bereavement our Membership Services aficionado Lisa may well be difficult to get hold of in the next week or so.
If you have any questions you feel are urgent and can not wait please contact the PR Office, where we will do all we can to assist. As previously reported, the National Traction Engine Trust Driver Training Course takes place on May 7th & 8th at Astwood Bank in Worcestershire.
As part of the training programe the NTET may award a number of Scholarships to the course each year.
The scholarships are open to non-engine owners being members of non-engine owning families, who are members of the NTET.
In 2015, the radio station moved back onto the show site into purpose-built studios within the new Control & Operations Centre complex, thus enabling improved communication of show information, and an improved FM signal from a higher aerial mast. GDSF Managing Director, Martin Oliver said “I am delighted that we have been able to once again come to an agreement with Patrick Heeley of Event Radio Associates and the National Traction Engine Trust to enable Steam Fair FM (SFFM) to broadcast at the 2016 GDSF.
Matt Shipton of the NTET said “The National Traction Engine Trust is delighted once again to be able to support Steam Fair FM for the 2016 event.
The next Engine Owners, Drivers and Crew Meeting will be held at the The Village Hall, Kilsby, near Rugby, Warwickshire.
All engine owners, crew and other interested parties are invited to attend whether members of the Trust or not.
The 2016 National Traction Engine Trust schedule of meetings and conferences has been provisionally set and are listed below for your general information. The NTET is awarding Scholarships to the NTET Driver Training Course which is held in May each year. The scholarships are open to non-engine owners being members of non-engine owning families, who are members of the NTET or the Steam Apprentice Club. NOTE: The Scholarships only cover the Course Fees, NOT incidental Expenses such as travelling, accommodation and food. Name, age, previous experience with steam engines, how you became interested, in traction engines, and any other information that you consider to be relevant to support your application. With the decks cleared and festivities now just a few days away, the membership office will be officially closed until the New Year so anything sent between now then may take a few extra days to process. Don't let that put you off though - the National Traction Engine Trust welcomes new members, old members rejoining and everything in-between. Our rally authorisation team are hard at work compiling the 2016 National Traction Engine Trust Rally List which is distributed far and wide at the beginning of every rally season.
It is with great sadness that the National Traction Engine Trust has to announce that Hamish 0rr-Ewing died on 17th November 2015 peacefully at home. Hamish was one of the orinators of the steam preservation movement and was highly regarded by many as a true gent. We are currently contacting various other organisations, clubs and societies and inviting them to join us in promoting what we hope will become a nationwide and annual spectacle. The matter was discussed at length during the October meeting and again on December 13th  where Mr Allison provided the General Council with full details of the work which he has done on his engine. The Federation of British Historic Vehicle Clubs has recently announced that next years date for the event is Sunday April 24th (2016). Further details will follow both here on the National Traction Engine Trust Website and that of the FBHVC's own media channels.
A National Traction Engine Trust membership would make a fantastic seasonal present for both family and friends. It's a gift that keeps on giving all year long with all the usual trimmings attached, including our Steaming Magazine and Online Members Area. Final 2nd Class postage in the UK is 19th December, with the rest of the world varying so you'll need to check on the Royal Mail Website. For all those wishing to join online, please email our Membership Secretary who will include a Christmas card with a message of your choice to include for the person you are buying the membership for. Please note: Any applications received after December 19th will not get processed until after Christmas.
The harsh reality of the situation is that school term dates are now a major issue for the GDSF and this year’s show has conclusively proved that the show will be financially unsustainable if we continue to clash on a regular basis with the start of the new school year. For trade stand holders, caterers and fairground operators, the decrease in footfall at the 2015 GDSF meant that, in most cases, customer spend was down and there is no doubt that for 2016 we have to reassure them footfall will return to the healthy levels we had before the beginning of school term time became a serious issue.
Whilst our traditional dates do not affect all schools across the country in 2016, there are a significant number of counties which are affected and crucially for the GDSF, the schools in Dorset and in our neighbouring counties of Somerset, Wiltshire and Devon, all go back on the Thursday FOLLOWING the August Bank Holiday next year, a fact which clearly endorses our decision to now bring the show forward by a week back into the school holidays. As regards the matter of the GDSF regularly coinciding with other key events in our own county of Dorset, this has been a growing concern for a number of years.
The impact that both these events have on the GDSF may not be entirely evident to those people who don’t live in our area. We do recognise that there are other established STEAM events which take place over the August Bank Holiday weekend and it is certainly not our intention to purposely clash with any of these rallies. It is fully appreciated that there will inevitably be some exhibitor crossover between the GDSF and other steam rallies traditionally held over the Bank Holiday weekend but what else is the GDSF meant to do if it needs to change its dates in order to be sustainable and the only dates available are the Bank Holiday weekend? This has been a very difficult decision for the GDSF Board of Directors to make but there are times when tough choices have to be made and when things need to be changed and adapted. I can assure those people who have expressed their frustration at our decision that it has not been taken lightly and we know that unfortunately not everyone will be happy. Dacre Lacy Cup – Given by Alastair Dacre Lacy, an early chairman of the club, a member of the original committee and number one on the roll. Golden Film Shield – Awarded for outstanding work in the full field of the traction engine movement. Jack Holloway Trophy – Presented to someone who has given considerable service to the Trust.
Jack Holloway Portables Fruit Bowl – Awarded as the title suggests Jack Holloway felt the need to recognise this side of rally work and engine owning.
Eric Middleton Trophy – given by enthusiasts on his death who assisted him at his Hartlebury home on his large collection of engines. With the vast majority of schools across the UK going back immediately after Bank Holiday Monday, we were aware throughout the year that the start of the new school year would affect us in 2015. The reduced attendance this year is, of course, a major concern and comes on top of 2 very wet shows in 2012 and 2014 in which our financial reserves were weakened.
As well as the issue of school term time, the GDSF Directors have been concerned in recent years that the GDSF regularly clashes with other large events taking place in the area on the same dates, these being the Bournemouth International Air Show, the Dorchester Show and from 2015, the Beaulieu International Auto Jumble.
With all the above in mind, particularly the ongoing clash with school term time, the GDSF Board of Directors following their 2015 review are of the firm opinion that in order to safeguard the GDSF’s future financial sustainability, it is imperative that we move our dates back by a week to coincide with the August bank holiday weekend. Therefore, I confirm that our dates for 2016 will change from those currently listed of Wed 31st August - Sun 4th Sept to Thursday 25th Aug – Monday 29th Aug 2016.
Many of you will recall that we have previously resisted any change to the dates of the show. We are currently writing to all exhibitors, traders and contractors to inform them of the change of dates for 2016. I hope you will agree that this decision is really the only viable solution to ensure the Great Dorset Steam Fair has future stability and can be enjoyed for many more years to come by everyone who wishes to attend.
Finally, we are aware that at the 2015 show the new layout for public car parking and camping meant that the flow of pedestrians around and through our two main showfields was not universally welcomed by exhibitors and traders.
The N in NTET stands for National and so it was fantastic to go to Scotland and be based in Aberdeen as the guests of the Bon Accord Steam Engine Club.
Hospitality flowed, and we are especially grateful to the excellent lunches provided for us at no cost by Mike Dreelan and Alfie Cheyne in particular. The weekend of course was the swansong of AGM organisers Anthony & Wendy Thompson - standing down after this event - who with Michael Anderson of the Bon Accord Club, made it the occasion of a lifetime - and a very hard act to follow indeed.


In the recent issue of Steaming, it stated that members would have to pay for the light refreshments that are to be provided on the visit to Mike Dreelans premises on Sunday November 22nd. The National Traction Engine Trust is sorry for any confusion caused to either guests or hosts and we extend out apologies to Mr Dreelan and his team. The role, which on occasion can become onerous, does require a great deal of time in sifting through emails and government postings when determining whether or not a particular topic might affect our hobby.
David continues to enquire amongst those I feel are appropriate, but members should feel to promote potential candidates to him also. With respect the position is not the job for someone who is involved with bringing up a young family or for someone who is unable to attend the occasional daytime and long distance meetings with government or agency officials. With the great and the good descending on Aberdeen next week for the Annual General Meeting and associated visits, the National Traction Engine Trust Pop Up will be found in Gloucester Quays from the 19th through to the 22nd of November continuing to build on the ground already laid in recent months.
It is often said that the Trust needs to get out and about more, and be seen as well as heard.
Of course the Trust is playing a small part in the overall event, but the Pop Up will be found up near the Steam Engines, so if your not heading to Aberdeen and you want to have a chat about all things NTET, come along and say hello.
Haridwar is one of the places where the drops of the elixir of immortality, Amrita, accidentally spilled from the pitcher of the celestial bird Garuda.
Initially they were propelled to distance themselves from each other by major language differences.
Because they settled in these areas and because they settled first, they had more time and resources to develop civilizations. One thing that is usually required for a culture to develop is interaction with other culture groups. Hence, the imperialistic armies of Europe with canons, ships, and guns met tribesmen in parts of Africa armed with spear and bows and arrow.
The Sumerians were a people who perhaps migrated from the Caspian Sea area into the Fertile Crescent, the fertile area lying between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Sumerian priests would climb these tall towers thinking that at the top they might encounter the gods who would descend from the sky to meet with them.
Little is known about this period or people, but there are written records that indicate that there were kings who ruled Sumer during the antedeluvian period (period of time between Creation and the Flood).
They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area. Sargon established the powerful and vast empire of Akkad that ruled over most of the Fertile Crescent.
Therefore, Hammurabi developed an extensive set of laws to govern the culture and the economy. They observed the movement of the stars through astronomy in an attempt to understand the behavior and will of the gods. People in the area became known as a€?Mesopotamiansa€? rather than Amorites, Sumerian, Assyrians, or Babylonians.
The growth of population created problems with sewage, garbage, overcrowding in urban centers, decreasing drinking water supplies, disease, and the constant threat of a new people group arriving to take advantage of the fertile soil -- even though salinization continued to be a constant problem. In a revelation from Elohim, Abraham was promised an inherited land that would remain the possession of his descendants. During a period of 40 years in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan Moses received from God the Ten Commandments while communing with God on the top of Mount Sinai. Under the leadership of Joshua, the Hebrews systematically defeated all the people groups living in the land of Canaan and possessed the land promised to them by God.
They gradually adopted the language of the Canaanites and blended their religion with that of the Canaanites and featured the worship of the god Baal. Therefore they could not corrupt the divine blood line through marriage with common people. The i??entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. For one brief period, however, one of the Pharaohs, Akhenaten, promoted a form of monotheism. Cleopatra was a descendant of General Ptolemy who was given governance over Egypt by Alexander the Great of Greece.
When Ashkenaten became Pharaoh he banished the gods of Egypt, banished their priests, emptied their temples, and forbade their worship or sacrifices made to them. He (1) ended the worship of Aten, contrary to his fathera€™s policy, and (2) restored the worship of Amun. His wife petitioned the king of the Hittites, asking to be given as a wife to one of his sons. He was known as a war pharaoh, leading campaigns against the Hittites, Syrians, Libyans, Nubians, and other neighboring nations. They founded the Minoan civilization and their capitol city of Knossos on the island of Crete. They fell victim to the plagues brought by God against the Pharaoha€™s (likely Rameses II) stubbornness to refuse to allow over one million Hebrew slaves to leave Egypt peacefully. The Indus River civilization, known as the Harappa civilization, was located in present-day Pakistan, appearing about 1500 B.C. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean i??area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. The priests were both religious and military leaders and ruled from walled citadels in the major cities. The Chinese today consider this river basin to be the cradle of Chinese civilization and refer to the river as a€?the mother river.a€? It has an east-i??west extension of about 3,000 miles from the Kulun Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and a north-south extension of 684 miles. It is probable that they moved into the Yellow River area after the Tower of Babel event and retained the knowledge of God received from Noah and his offspring. It had elaborate drainage and sewage systems superior to those in many parts of modern India today. They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area.A  Cuneiform (from the Latin cuneus, three-sided wedge) used wedge-shaped markings made with bamboo pens on soft clay. The entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages.
He composed a Table of Reigns, a chronological list of Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman sovereigns dating from Nabonasar to Antoninus Pius, a biographical history of kingship. He was interested in the earth, all of it, not just the habitable part, and tried to fit it into a scheme of the universe where it belonged.
Marinus had given this matter considerable thought, rejecting all previously devised methods of obtaining congruity on a flat map; yet, according to Ptolemy he had finally selected the least satisfactory method of solving the problem.
There is also an introduction to data collection, evaluation, preparations for drawing, how and in what order to mark boundaries, and how to use the appended tables. When traveling overland it is usually necessary to diverge from a straight line course in order to avoid inevitable land-barriers; and at sea, where winds are changeable, the speed of a vessel varies considerably, making it difficult to estimate over-water distances with any degree of accuracy. The Indian Ocean, which is assumed to be bordered on the south by an unknown continent, uniting southern Africa with eastern Asia, is stated to be the largest sea surrounded by land. It is these legends which, in some editions, have been placed on the reverse of the maps, and they appear to have been originally intended for that purpose.
In Chapter Two Ptolemy said, a€?It remains for us to show how we set down all places, so that when we divide one map into several maps we may be able to accurately locate all of the well-known places through the employment of easily understood and exact measurements.a€? On the other hand, some scholars even go so far as to say that maps were already drawn before certain portions of the text was addressed, so that they could be used as models for the completion of other portions of the text.
For instance, in a single map embracing the entire earth, he said, there is a tendency to sacrifice proportion, that is, scale, in order to get everything on the map.
If several regional maps are made to supplement the general world map, they need not a€?measure the same distance between the circlesa€?, that is, be drawn to the same scale, provided the correct relation between distance and direction is preserved.
It demonstrates how Ptolemya€™s world had been systematically divided into twenty-six regions, each of which is mapped on a separate sheet. The reason for this doubt lies in the question of authorship of the maps which accompany extant copies.
According to map historian Leo Bagrow, one version, A, contains twenty-six large maps included in the eighth Book of the text, each folded in half and, on the back, having a statement of the region portrayed, its bounds and a list of principle towns.
In some manuscripts of the B-version, and in those without maps, the texts from the backs of the maps are combined together in a special edition, divided into chapters numbered 3-28. Of the Greek manuscripts of the Geographia, as a whole or in part, known today, eleven of the A-version and five of the B-version have maps. The meridians are spaced from each other a€?the third part of an equinoctial hour, that is, through five of the divisions marked on the equatora€?. In Ptolemya€™s time, the latitude, or distance from the equator, was generally astronomically calculated from the length of the longest and the shortest day.
The numbers on the right of the Clima give the number of hours in the longest day at different latitudes, increasing from 12 hours at the equator to 24 hours at the Arctic Circle. The a€?breadtha€? of the habitable world according to Ptolemy then equates to 39,500 stades [3,950 miles]. The earth was only 18,000 miles around at the equator; Poseidonius had stated it, Strabo substantiated it, and Ptolemy perpetuated it on his maps. Of these, the Indicum Mare [Indian Ocean] is the largest, Our Sea [the Mediterranean] is the next and the Hyrcanian [Caspian] is the smallest. This parallel also passed through Taprobane usually considered the southernmost part of Asia.
As to the source of the Nile, both Greeks and Romans had tried to locate it, but without success. Ptolemy extended the west coast of Africa with a free hand, and even though he reduced the bulge made by Marinus more than half, it was still way out of control. He shows, for the first time, a fairly clear idea of the great north-south dividing range of mountains of Central Asia, which he called Imaus, but he placed it nearly 40A° too far east and made it divide Scythia into two parts: Scythia Intra Imaum and Scythia Extra Imaum Montem [Within Imaus and Beyond Imaus].
His Mediterranean is about 20A° too long, and even after correcting his lineal value of a degree it was still about 500 geographical miles too long.
Ptolemy was also the first geographer, excepting Alexander the Great, to return to the correct view advanced by Herodotus and Aristotle, that the Caspian was an inland sea without communication with the ocean (the Christian medieval cartographers were a long time in returning to this representation of the Caspian).
Its wealth of detail still constitutes one of the most important sources of information for the historian and student of ancient geography. Many of the legends and conventional signs that he used are still employed by cartographers with only slight modifications.
Ptolemya€™s works were, however, thriving and contributing valuable insight to knowledgeable Arabs and those having access and understanding of the Arab or Greek language (it was only in the Islamic states and in these languages that the works of the Alexandrian scientist were preserved (see monographs #212, #213, #214-17, lbn Said, al-lstakhri, Ibn Hauqal, al-Kashgari, etc.
Very few scholars, let alone other literate persons in Western Europe were familiar with the Greek language at this time, therefore this translation was a great stimulus to a€?popularizinga€? Ptolemy.
Curiously enough it was first printed at Vincenza in 1475 (the date printed of 1462 is in error) without maps!
It is an invaluable aid to anyone with an interest in road steam engines providing an accurate and authoritive listing of the known survivors. If members continue to experience problems it would be appreciated if you kept us informed. We would like to have on static display in the marquee models of ploughing engines and equipment as part of the general display. It has long been an ambition of FIVA, and its member national federations, to gain recognition for the heritage value of historic vehicles and marking World Motoring Heritage Year through events held around the globe will be a powerful demonstration of the breadth and depth of enthusiasm for our mobile heritage.
We politely ask that any correspondence to the Membership Office be limited until Saturday February 6th, where upon it is hoped normal service will be resumed. The ongoing partnership with the show and NTET will ensure that we have access to the very best show and exhibit news, interviews, reviews and all the information about what’s happening.
The partnership agreement between the three organisations worked very well in 2015 and I would like to thank Patrick and the NTET for their continued support into this year.
Our involvement in 2015 took a few people by surprise, but it proved an ideal opportunity for the National to get our various messages out to a wider audience. We are delighted to confirm we have a fully restored engine and some component parts of another engine that will generate huge interest at the event. We will keep you posted on each event on an individual basis as and when further details are available.
The Scholarship covers the course fees for one year, NOT incidental expenses such as travelling, accommodation and food.
During said debate, and those previous it has been implied that the General Council and the National Traction Engine Trust as a body have failed to adhere to the members wishes and refuses to remove Mr Allison from his position on the General Council.
After discussion it was agreed that he will be granted leave of absence from the General Council, until the next National Traction Engine Trust AGM.
This will explain in detail the changes made and will give the wider membership the whole picture so that they may decide for themselves. Many of you have kindly acknowledged that there are genuine and serious reasons for the GDSF having to change its dates for 2016 and, on behalf of the GDSF Board of Directors, I appreciate your support. Importantly, exhibitors were also greatly affected this year, this being a key point discussed at our recent GDSF Section Leaders meeting whereby the new dates for 2016 were unanimously supported. The South West is a key catchment area for us and we simply MUST ensure the dates of the GDSF allow for families to attend without the restriction of school term time.
Clearly it has never been a good situation for us but it is something which until now we have accepted. However, the land we use is only available to us for a short window each year and means that the ONLY possible alternative date for us to hold the GDSF is over the August Bank Holiday weekend.
We do understand that some exhibitors will be faced with a hard choice but we will completely understand those wishing to continue to support their regular Bank Holiday shows.
We have given considerable thought to all the implications and feel we have come to a sensible and the right decision to ensure the viability of the GDSF for generations more to enjoy.
The cup was given for outstanding engine preservation but not necessarily confined to a specific engine. However, we did not envisage the extent to which it did and this has left us with legitimate and serious concerns regarding the viability of continuing to hold the GDSF on the Wednesday to Sunday following the Bank Holiday Monday each year, dates which we have traditionally used for over 30 years.
The return to school after the summer holidays this year has proved to be pivotal for the GDSF and our research into school term dates across the country over the next few years indicates that we are highly likely to clash on a regular basis with the schools going back. Both the Bournemouth Air Show and Dorchester Show take place within a 20 mile radius of the GDSF showground and the Beaulieu Auto Jumble is only 38 miles away.
To clarify, this means that the show in 2016 will be held from the Thursday before the August Bank Holiday, up to, and including the August Bank Holiday Monday, still retaining our 5 day status.
However, the 2015 show has been a defining year and, without doubt, has shown that we would be foolish and unwise not to act now to resolve the difficulties in clashing with the start of the new school year and the ongoing competition from other regional events. However, I am sure you will appreciate that it has taken time since the 2015 show for the Board of Directors to consider all the necessary implications of a date change and that this is the best and only option for us to take. May I take this opportunity of thanking you all for your past support and I very much hope that we will see you at the show next year. The welcome from all we met was so warm and genuine, it was a shame to leave and come home. Thanks again to all who were involved - we will come back to renew friendships before too long I hope. This is not the case and any refreshments provided will be free of charge to Trust Members and their friends. Well the Gloucester Quays Victorian Market attracts around 25,000 people a day and is considered to be one of the best of it's kind in the UK with coaches coming from far and wide. There is nothing so uncomfortable as being around people who dona€™t speak your language, and nothing more comfortable than finding others who do!
Those who were constantly on the move and being chased from place to place by the stronger had less opportunity to develop a civilization or to benefit from natural resources. The Spanish conquistadors, while few in number, were able to subjugate an entire Latin American continent due to their superior technology. They cultivated fields of wheat, groves of date palms, developed herds of cattle, manufactured pottery and woven baskets, and developed a wide-ranging trade system using their sea-worthy boats.
He ruled by means of a powerful military nobility that lived off of a vast taxation network extracted by those whom they subjugated.
As with the Vikings much later in history, the sea people were ruthless, relentless in their attacks, and arrived at unexpected times. The history of the Hebrews after the Exodus from Egypt is a story of constant conflict with the Philistines, including the story of Samson and Delilah, and the numerous battles between the Hebrews and Philistines under the Hebrew king, David. The Nile provided a fertile valley carved out of hot, sandy desert that was able to sustain a large civilization extending along the narrow river valley from the Mediterranean in the north to Ethiopia in the south.
A variety of causes have been suggested for his early death, and for many years it was suspected that he was murdered. He abandoned the new royal city built by his father at Akhanaten and moved the capitol back to the traditional capitol at Thebes.The royal celebrations and sacrifices to Amun were restored, winning him great favor with many of the people. He was also the most prolific builder of monuments honoring his rule, as well as pyramids for the burial of his many children. The priests were intermediaries between the people and the numerous gods and goddesses discovered on clay seals and figurines. This period is also credited with the development of the Chinese five-tone music scale, the five-stringed zither, and pan-pipes. Persia is supplying rockets to Hezbollah, American troops are in Babylonia, and Assyria questions whether it wants to be part of the new Iraq. Little is known personally of this pivotal man aside from the general period during which he was active ca. His Analemma was mathematical description of a sphere projected on a plane, subsequently known as an a€?orthographic projection,a€? which greatly simplified the study of gnomonics. He was also interested in the relationships between the earth and the sun, the earth and the moon, in scientific cause and effect of climate; and above all, he was concerned with a scientifically accurate portrayal of the spherical earth in a convenient readable form.
These Byzantine copies of the Geographia are comprised of eight a€?Booksa€? which Ptolemy introduces by supplying two very influential definitions - that of chorography and geography.
Marinus had laid out a grid of strait lines equidistant from one another for both his parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Because while Ptolemy employs his conical projection in his first general world map, for the remaining twenty-six special regional maps he uses the rectangular projection of Marinus with due observance of the ratio between the longitude and latitude at the base of the map. Books II-VI and the first four chapters of Book VII are devoted to a complete catalogue of some 8,000 inhabited localities laid down in the twenty-six special maps of the geography. Nevertheless Ptolemy concluded that the most reliable way of determining distances was by astronomical observation, and by no other method could one expect to fix positions accurately. In addition, a description of a projection of the inhabited hemisphere on a plane, by which it could retain its circular outline, or globular aspect is also given.
The better known regions have many place-names, while the lesser known have few, and, unless the map is carefully drawn, it will have some crowded, illegible areas, and some where distances are unduly extended.
Ptolemy repeated that it would be not too far from the truth if instead of circles we draw straight lines for meridians and parallels. Generally these sheets are of about the same size, but the scales vary according to the space required for the legends.
Did Ptolemy actually design and construct the maps himself, were they made by a draftsman working under his supervision, or were they added, perhaps as late as 1450, by an energetic editor who thought the text needed some graphic emendation? The geographical coordinates of these towns are given, not in degrees, but in time; the longitude is expressed in hours and minutes corresponding to the distance from the meridian of Alexandria (one hour = 15 degrees, one minute = 15 minutes of a degree), and the latitude is expressed in terms of the length of the longest day, in hours and minutes (the greater the distance from the equator, the longer the day in summer). Some of the manuscripts without maps contain references to accompanying maps, since lost, and in others, spaces have been left for maps to be inserted. In other words, the total span of twelve hours, representing the length of the habitable world, was to be partitioned by a series of thirty-six meridians spaced five degrees apart at the equator and converging at the North Pole. The earth was accordingly divided into a number of zones, parallel to the equator and within which these days had a certain length, for instance of 12 -13, or 15 -16 hours.
Ptolemy a€?correcteda€? this length to 180A° (9,000 miles), still 50A° (2,500 miles) too long, an error arising from using the Fortunate Islands as his prime meridian which he placed about seven degrees (350 miles) too far to the east. It is very unlikely, in view of the secrecy attached to all maps and surveys of the Roman Empire. This a€?shorter distancea€? that a mariner would have to travel west from the shores of Spain in order to reach the rich trading centers of Asia may have contributed to Columbusa€™ belief, or that of his royal sponsors, that they could compete with their rival neighbors, Portugal, in the newly opened sea-trade with India by sailing west. The Emperor Nero had sent an expedition into Upper Egypt, and it had penetrated as far as the White Nile, about 9A° N latitude. On the same approximate parallel he located the region called Agisymba, inhabited by Ethiopians and abounding in rhinoceri, supposedly discovered by Julius Maternus, a Roman general. A more obvious area to stretch the length of the world was in eastern Asia where there was every likelihood of additional territory yet unexplored.
Asia and Africa are extended considerably to the east and south, far more so than on any previous maps, but not without cause.
His Mare Nostrum, from Marseilles to the opposite point on the coast of Africa, is 11A° of latitude instead of the actual 6.5A°. This is especially true in the study of the earliest tribes that encompassed the Roman Empire in the first century of the Christian era, who were at that time barbarians, but who later bore the burden of civilization in Europe.
He originated the practice of orienting maps so that North is at the top and East to the right, a custom so universal today that many people are lost when they try to read a map oriented any other way. Planudes constructed a map based upon the instructions found in Ptolemya€™s eight books and subsequently, through Athanasios, Patriarch of Alexandria, had a copy of the Geographia, with maps made for Emperor Andronicus III. He is also credited with the four-page world map found in some manuscripts, chiefly the B-version.
When Chrysoloras was unable to complete the translation, it was finished by one of his students, Jacobus Angelus of Scarparia, between 1406 and 1410. In all, seven editions were printed in the 15th century, of which six were provided with large maps in folio, and thirty-three in the following century (a selected list taken from Tooley accompanies this monograph). Technical details include the registration and engine numbers, names, engine type and present location. Ten extra pages have been required include the new entries and over a thousand informative notes. The FM service, and full programming, will then commence on Monday 22nd, as the show gates open to admit exhibitors, traders and prepaid public campers. Up to the minute traffic news and weather reports will continue to be a priority, and we’ll be welcoming listener dedications, and playing the greatest Vintage Hits all day and night! We are very much looking forward to building on what we achieved last year and engaging further with visitors, exhibitors and casual listeners alike.
It should be noted at this point that Mr Allison was elected to the General Council at the 2011 AGM despite a speech opposing him as a candidate. Virtually all of our Section Leaders confirmed that many exhibitors had experienced difficulties in attending the 2015 GDSF due to the clash with school dates. Being held only 20 miles down the road from the GDSF showground and with over 60,000 people through the gate, its obvious competition is there for all to see. Our Tarrant Hinton showground is a working farm and with over 50% of the acreage we use in arable crops there is no possibility of the GDSF coming any earlier than the Bank Holiday weekend.
Any exhibitors who cannot make next year’s GDSF for this reason, we thank you for your past support. Our usual dates following the Bank Holiday Monday each year that have traditionally served us well are no longer acceptable. Quite simply, Autumn term is starting earlier than ever before with the added difficulty of parents being unable to take their children out of school without the risk of being fined.
There is no doubt that we lose exhibitors and visitors to all these events due to the obvious competition that they provide when our dates overlap.
The added benefit of coinciding with the August Bank Holiday is that there are many thousands of tourists in the Dorset area during that weekend and we can potentially tap into that huge visitor market, something that we have never been able to do before.
We believe that if we do not address the problem now, then we run a high risk of the Great Dorset Steam Fair becoming commercially unsustainable. We saw superb collections, of engines, cars, commercial vehicles and tractors - plus a 15th century castle and the obligatory distillery, so much that the AGM itself was almost an afterthought. A general understanding is required of the working of government departments and agencies such as DVLA, DVSA and DofT.
The event has over 250 stalls, all of excellent quality as well as the brand names in the main arcades. Situated in the banks of the holy Ganges, Haridwar has found its place in many Hindu scriptures.
And Christian missionaries from Europe and the United States armed with computers, flashlights, and modern medicines, encountered stone age tribesmen in the islands of the Pacific as late at the end of the 20th century.
They developed a system that divided a circle into units of sixty, from which we today get our minute composed of sixty seconds and a system of counting based upon the unit of ten. Two of the consequences were (1) a confusion of languages, and (2) a huge flood that lasted for seven days and seven nights. But they were described as being primarily a nomadic people who were never conquered, refused to live in houses, and moved frequently from place to place. One of their number who had gained prominence in Egypt, Joseph, was able through his position to ensure their safe move into Egypt. Eventually they were controlled by the Egyptians who at times extended their control northward to Syria. This was not a monotheism that resulted from special revelation granted by the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but developed from his angry response to all those who belittled him when he was a boy. But more recent examination of his mummified remains indicate that he had severe scoliosis, a broken leg that had become infected, and probably died from several genetic diseases, caused by the fact that his mother was one of his fathera€™s sisters.
He fathered at least 80 sons and 60 daughters, all with the purpose of leaving behind a royal line and a successor to the throne. Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.
Knowledge of the Aryans comes primarily from a series of stories called vedas passed down orally in India.
Fertility was seemingly a major emphasis of the Harappa religion and was the cause of the veneration of sacred animals, especially bulls.


The vast area of fertile soil and extensive forests was fueled by tremendous amounts of soil that annually washed down from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean. Recent studies now propose that it was a change in the path and frequency of typhoons that brought the decline of the Harappa civilization. It merges with the Yangtze River as it nears the Pacific Ocean to form a vast and fertile plain. Oracle bones were simply that: bones on which cracks in the bones were deciphered by oracles who added written pictographs for interpretation.
He also developed vast wheat and barley fields, groves of date palms, and under his leadership Babylon became a central power in Mesopotamia. Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.A  Large granaries were built to hold surplus wheat and barley. His work entitled PlanisphA¦rium [the Planisphere], described a sphere projected on the equator, the eye being at the pole, a projection later known as a€?stereographica€?. More than any one of the ancients, Claudius Ptolemy succeeded in establishing the elements and form of scientific cartography. He defines chorography as being selective and regional in approach, a€?even dealing with the smallest conceivable localities, such as harbors, farms, villages, river courses, and the likea€?. Its position under the heavens is extremely important, for in order to describe any given part of the world one must know under what parallel of the celestial sphere it is located. He seems to have studied and made astronomical observations in Tyre, the oldest and largest city of Phoenicia, which, even at that late date, maintained important commercial relations with remote parts of the world. This was contrary to both truth and appearance, and the resulting map was badly distorted with respect to distance and direction, for if the eye is fixed on the center of the quadrant of the sphere which we take to be our inhabited world, it is readily seen that the meridians curve toward the North Pole and that the parallels, though they are equally spaced on the sphere, give the impression of being closer together near the poles.
Traditional information regarding distances should be subordinated, especially the primitive sort, for tradition varies from time to time, and if it must enter into the making of maps at all, it is expedient to compare the records of the ancient past with newer records, a€?deciding what is credible and what is incrediblea€?. It is remarkable that such questions never seemed to have occurred to Ptolemy, as: What is there to be found beyond Serica and Sinarum Situs? Ptolemy himself never actually employed this manner of projection, which has since, through more or less modified, been preferred by geographers for maps representing one of the hemispheres. Some map makers have a tendency to exaggerate the size of Europe because it is most populous, and to contract the length of Asia because little is known about the eastern part of it. As for his own policy, he said, a€?in the separate maps we shall show the meridians themselves not inclined and curved but at an equal distance one from another, and since the termini of the circles of latitude and of longitude of the habitable earth, when calculated over great distances do not make any remarkable excesses, so neither is there any great difference in any of our mapsa€?.
As this diagram shows, each regional map would encompass, besides its own proper territory, some parts of the neighboring countries. Ptolemy does not state specifically in his text whether he personally made any maps, and proponents of the theory that Ptolemy made no maps for this Geographia base their case on the notation in two of the existing manuscript copies, that a cartographer named AgathodA¦mon of Alexandria was the author of the accompanying map(s). It is no less difficult, also, to determine when the maps of the two versions (A and B) were made. The meridians in the southern hemisphere are extended from the equator at the same angle as those above it, but instead of converging at the South Pole they terminated at the parallel 8A° 25a€™ below the equator. The concept of the division of the earth into zones began as early as the sixth century B.C.
While Ptolemya€™s map is based upon the theory that the earth is round, it bares repeating that it is to his credit that he depicts only that half of its surface which was then known, with very little attempt to speculate on or a€?fill-ina€? the unknown parts with his imagination. More specifically, Ptolemya€™s knowledge concerning the fringes of the habitable world and civilization was broader than earlier writers, such as Strabo (#115), but in some respects it was a little confused. With Thule as the northern limit of Ptolemya€™s habitable world, he thus extended the breadth of this world from less than 60A° (Eratosthenes and Strabo) to nearly 80A°. The silk trade with China had produced rumors of vast regions east of the Pamir and Tian Shan, hitherto the Greek limits of Asia.
These distortions represented an actual extension of geographical knowledge and are doubtless based on exaggerated reports of distances traveled. 80) containing sailing directions from the Red Sea to the Indus and Malabar, indicated that the coast from Barygaza [Baroch] had a general southerly trend down to and far beyond Cape Korami [Comorin], and suggested a peninsula in southern India.
While Ptolemy's map is based upon the theory that the earth is round, it bares repeating that it is to his credit that he depicts only that half of its surface which was then known, with very little attempt to speculate on or a€?fill-ina€? the unknown parts with his imagination. To be sure, there are other geographical fragments, individual maps and charts, isolated examples of the best in Greek, Roman, and Arabic cartography, but Ptolemya€™s Geographia is the only extant geographical atlas which has come down to us from the ancients. His map projections, the conical and modified spherical, as well as the orthographic and stereographic systems developed in the Almagest, are still in use. This particular copy has not been recovered, however another copy attributed to Planudes is preserved, in part, in the monastery of Vatopedi on Mount Athos.
It was also during this time, the 14th century, that the twenty-six maps of the A-version were divided up into sixty-four. This oldest Latin translation of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (confusingly and arbitrarily titled Cosmographia by Angelus) was at first disseminated in numerous, often splendidly decorated manuscript copies. A re-issue of the preceding, but with a new title-page, an account of the New World by Marcus Beneventanus, and a new map of the world by Ruysch, Nova Tabula. The most important edition of Ptolemy, containing the 27 maps of the ancient world and 20 maps based on contemporary knowledge, under the superintendence of Martin WaldseemA?ller. Maps, with the exception of Asia V, printed from the same blocks as 1522 edition, and like them almost unaltered copies on a reduced scale of the maps of the 1513 edition. Virtually all of the new entries are as a result of imports or repatriations of British built engines that had been operated abroad or are imports of American built engines.
The station will broadcast 24 hours a day through to the last show day, and will continue until lunchtime on Tuesday 30thAugust to provide traffic and travel information for those leaving the site. Plans are already well advanced for our Marquee presentation and with a number of other initiatives being talked over behind the scenes, 2016 will be an exciting one for the National Traction Engine Trust and Steam Fair FM, along with the Great Dorset Steam Fair, it is an ideal resource in our various communication channels. Similarly, the Bournemouth Air Show is a superb event and is regarded as one of the biggest free entry Air Shows in Europe. Harvest has to be a paramount consideration for both us and the landowners and there is simply no other date option for us to consider. Passing without incident, it led on to a convivial dinner and an hilarious after dinner speaker who definitely had the Chairman in his sights that evening. A Traditional Fun Fair is always in attendance as are an excellent group of Dickensian actors, who have to be seen to be believed. The weaker tended to move out farther, and the stronger tended to settle down more quickly and claim their space. Ur was a community of moon-worshippers and from among them God called out Abraham and his family to become the father of all who have faith (Romans 4). They practiced taxation, conquest of neighboring peoples, slavery, and developed an early monarchial form of government.
A Sumerian king, Ziusudra, survived the flood in a large boat, in which he preserved the seeds of plants and life. There they were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians, and they remained slave for over 400 years. The southern section, Judah, with its capitol, Jerusalem, was invaded, captured, and exiled by Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B. Eventually, however, the sea people were able to settle along the Mediterranean coastline of the land of Canaan and were known as the Philistines.
They possessed a written language, but deciphering the script used is still in its early stages. Estimates now available from satellite imagery shows a ridge of fertile soil up to 20 feet deep, 10 miles wide and 100 miles long that straddles the Indus River. The pattern of the annual typhoons gradually moved increasingly eastward and the people followed the rainfall in scattered, smaller groups. Because only 10% of the Chinese land is productive for food, the Yellow River basin was crucial in the development and survival of the Chinese people. 90 to 168 (during the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius) and that he lived in, or near, Alexandria Egypt. This he did through his second great treatise, Geographike Syntaxis, called by him, a€?the geographical guide to the making of mapsa€?, and, in later centuries, shortened to simply Geographia, or (incorrectly) Cosmographia. Geography, he said, differs from chorography in that it deals with a€?a representation in picture of the whole known world together with the phenomena that are contained thereina€?.
Otherwise how can one determine the length of its days and nights, the stars which are fixed overhead, the stars which appear nightly over the horizon and the stars which never rise above the horizon at all.
This a€?tutora€™ of Ptolemy had read nearly all of the historians before him and had corrected many of their errors (presumable errors relating to the location of places as contained in travelersa€™ itineraries). Ptolemy was well aware that it would be desirable to retain a semblance of spherical proportions on his flat map, but at the same time he decided to be practical about it. With one exception (an Italian translation by Berlinghieri), every editor of Ptolemya€™s Geographia has published, not the original maps, but a modification of them by Nicolaus Germanus (Donis), who, with praiseworthy exactness and without any further alterations, reproduced the originals, on a projection with rectilinear, equidistant parallels and meridians converging towards the poles.
It is an exception when geographical or descriptive remarks are added to this bare enumeration of names. Therefore if a geographer were obliged to fall back on the reports of travelers, he should exercise some discrimination in his choice of authorities. What could be found to the north of Thule, or to the south of Agysimba and Cape Prasum: Where would you arrive if you sailed westward from the Fortunate Islands? And some cartographers surround the earth on all sides with an ocean that, according to Ptolemy are a€?making a fallacious description, and an unfinished and foolish picturea€?.
But, as is also usual in modern atlases, these neighboring areas of the map are only roughly sketched, while the principle area is shown in full detail.
From these same manuscripts it is stated that a€?he drew them according to the instructions in the eight books of Claudius Ptolemya€?. Certain indications point to the Byzantine period, with the exception of AgathodA¦mona€™s single-sheet world map.
And it is highly probable that Ptolemy the astronomer, who is usually discredited by later geographers because of his methods and the kinds of information he compiled, had no more standing among some of his influential contemporaries than he would today in the most approved geographical circles of the civilized world.
The only good reason for discussing a few of the glaring faults of the Geographia is that it was the canonical work on the subject for more than 1400 years. In the northern regions, for example, he had been ill-advised with regard to Ireland, and positioned it further north than any part of Wales; likewise, Scotland was twisted around so that its length ran nearly east and west. Ptolemy stated that the Nile arose from two streams, the outlets of two lakes a little south of the equator, which was closer to the truth than any previous conception until the discovery of the Victoria and Albert Nyanza in modern times. All such information was of doubtful origin, and in laying down the coastline of Eastern Asia, Ptolemy ran the line roughly north and south. Ptolemy, apparently following Marinus, ignored this document, or else never saw it because the shape of his India is unduly broadened and foreshortened.
Leaving the habitable world from the Strait at the Pillars of Hercules to the Gulf of Issus, it passed through Caralis in Sardinia and Lilybaeum in Sicily (30A° 12a€™ and 37A° 50a€™ N). Ptolemy stated that the Nile arose from two streams, the outlets of two lakes a little south of the equator, which was closer to the truth than any previous conception, or any later one until the discovery of the Victoria and Albert Nyanza in modern times.
There is nothing in the literature to indicate that any other such systematic collection of maps was ever compiled, with the exception of the maps of Marinus, about which almost nothing is known, save what Ptolemy has mentioned.
The listing of place-names, either in geographical or alphabetical order, with the latitude and longitude of each place to guide the search, is not so different from the modern system of letters and numerals employed to help the reader, a little convenience that is standard on modern maps and Ptolemaic in origin. Four new mapsa€”France, Italy, Spain and Palestinea€”being based on contemporary knowledge.
The map of the world is the first to show contemporary discoveries, and the first map to bear the name of its engraver, Johannes Schnitzer de Armssheim. The other 6 mapsa€”northern Europe, Spain, France, Poland, Italy and the Holy Landa€”are based on contemporary knowledge. Includes the Tabula Terra Nova, the first map specifically devoted to the delineation of the New World. Again only 20 miles away from the GDSF it attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors over its 4 day duration, according to official figures from Bournemouth Tourism.
Quite simply, we either do something about the school situation now or we do nothing and watch the show collapse in the next year or two.
It was with Abraham that God made his redeeming covenant that resulted in the coming of Jesus into the world as Savior. But the Hebrews for the most part lived under a series of male and female Hebrews judges, and then a series of kings. Because they were viewed as gods in the flesh, they strove to keep the royal bloodline pure through marriage between brothers and sisters. In addition to the rich alluvial soil, water was plentiful from typhoons that annually dumped immense amounts of rainfall on the area. In addition, the fact that the Harappaa€™s bronze tools and weapons were inferior in design and quality to those manufactured in Egypt and Mesopotamia may also have resulted in invasions as the cities declined in population. The river gained its name from the color of the mud and silt that flows from the Kulun Mountains. During the second century, Alexandria was not only the richest city in the world, with regard to learned institutions and treasures of scholarship, but also the wealthiest commercial place on the earth. This work is actually the first general atlas of the world to have survived, rather than a a€?Geographya€? with a long textual introduction to the subject of cartography. As he proceeds to elaborate his definition of geography, it becomes apparent that Ptolemy conceived that the primary function of geography was a€?mapmakinga€?, and that, to him, geography was synonymous with cartography.
He had, moreover, edited and revised his own geographic maps, of which at least two editions had been published before Ptolemy saw them. Finally, Ptolemy thought, about all one could do was to locate unfamiliar places as accurately as possible with reference to well-known places, in as much as it is advisable on a map of the entire world to assign a definite position to every known place, regardless of how little is known about it. The longitudes would be determined from the meridian of Alexandria, either at sunrise or sunset, calculating the difference in equinoctial hours between Alexandria and point two, whatever it might be.
As mentioned earlier, the original text called for twenty-six regional or special maps, which in all extant manuscript copies bear a strong family resemblance and are laid down on the projection apparently used by Marinus in the form of isosceles trapezoids. However, this statement has never been dated and, confusingly, AgathodA¦mona€™s single-sheet world map employs a projection unlike any proposed by Ptolemya€™s text. But, again, when they were constructed - totally and faithfully copied from the originals, or constructed from Ptolemya€™s instructions but without benefit of original models - is significant in trying to determine the degree of similarity to their a€?prototypea€™ and the possibility of additions or corrections based upon more contemporary knowledge. Different from what is now accepted as the meaning, this word in ancient maps had a purely geographical, not a meteorological significance, although they also perceived that the climate of a region was somewhat related to its distance from the equator. Similarly he showed the length of the Mediterranean as 62A°, whereas, in reality it is only 42A°. Geographers of the 15th and 16th centuries relied on it so heavily, while ignoring the new discoveries of maritime explorers, that it actually exerted a powerful retarding influence on the progress of cartography. Instead of continuing it to the Land of the LinA¦ [seacoast of China] he curved it around to the east and south, forming a great bay, Sinus Magnus [roughly the Gulf of Siam].
Carthage is positioned 1A° 20a€™ south of the parallel of Rhodes; actually it is one degree north of it. Corrected and amended by a succession of editors, this version also formed the basis upon which all of the editions of the 15th century are built. The text is a metrical paraphrase by Francesco Berlinghieri, and is the first edition in Italian. The greatly increased number of a€?modern mapsa€? makes this in effect the first modern atlas. Moving the GDSF to the Bank Holiday weekend will mean we will no longer have the obstacle of clashing dates with either the Dorchester Show or the Bournemouth Air Show.
Something has had to change and that is to move the show to enable it to fall back within the school summer holidays.
Sumer was located near to where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers merge and flow into the Persian Gulf.
Both the veneration of bulls and the use of the lotus position were later developed further in Hinduism and Buddhism in India.
It was a place where seafaring people and caravans from all parts of the known world would use to congregate, thereby providing the opportunity to collect knowledge of far away lands and seas. Here for the first time are documented the duties and responsibilities of the mapmaker, his limitations, and the nature of the materials he was to work with.
The final drafts were nearly free from defects and his text, which we know of only through Ptolemy, was so reliable in Ptolemya€™s estimation that a€?it would seem to be enough for us to describe the earth on which we dwell from his commentaries alone, without other investigations.a€? According to Ptolemy, the most significant feature of the maps of Marinus was the growth of the habitable world and the changed attitude toward the uninhabited parts. When such a conical surface is extended on a plane, a network with circular parallels and rectilinear, converging meridians arise. Unlike Marinus who listed longitude on one page and latitude on another, Ptolemy began the tradition of listing the positional coordinates together and in a usable system that was practical to follow.
Some of the other conspicuously modern conventions include the previously noted lack of ornamentation, his method of differentiating land and water, rivers and towns, by means of either hachures or different colors, and his use of a€?standardizeda€™ symbols all of which is accepted at first glance without a thought being given to the origin of the technique.
This particular world map is usually found at the end of Book VII, preceded by three chapters containing some practical advice, a general description of all known areas of the world and the three principle seas (the Mediterranean, the Caspian and the Indian Ocean), with their bays and islands, and instructions for drawing a sphere and maps on a plane surface. It is noteworthy here to point out that, regardless of when these existing manuscript reproductions were made, they somehow escaped the pictorial fancies such as sketches of animals, monsters, savages, ships, kings, etc.
The eastward extension of Asia is also exaggerated, measuring about 110A° from the coast of Syria to the outermost limits of China, instead of the true distance of about 85A°. The Geographia was both a keystone and a millstone, a pioneering effort that outlived its usefulness. The northern coast of Germany beyond Denmark, Cimbrica Chersonese, is shown as the margin of the Northern Ocean, and running in a general east-west direction.
Continuing it around to the south until it joined Terra Incognita at the southern limit of the habitable world, he made a lake of the Indicum Mare [Indian Ocean]. For the most part, the lands beyond the Ganges were not well known until a thousand years later when the brothers Polo first acquainted western Europe with the existence of a number of large islands in that part of the world. Byzantium is placed in the same latitude as Massilia, which made it more than two degrees north of its true position. It is also the only edition with maps printed on the original projection with equidistant parallels or meridians.
She was the daughter of Akhenaten and his favorite wife, Nefertiti The result was two daughters who both died in infancy. In spite of such scant personal knowledge, Claudius Ptolemya€™s writings have had a greater influence on cartography, and on geography in general, than that of any other single figure in history.
141), a composition dealing with astronomy and mathematics, more commonly known by its hybrid Greco-Arabic title, the Almagest, in which he lays down the foundation of trigonometry and sets forth his view of the universe. This single treatise remained the standard work on geographical theory throughout the Middle Ages, was not superseded as such with the 16th century, and constitutes one of the fundamental tenants of modern geodesy. Cartography is not an artistic endeavor according to the Greek scholar, but should be concerned with the relation of distance and direction, and with the important features of the eartha€™s surface that can be indicated by plain lines and simple notations (enough to indicate general features and fix positions). Marinus was a good man in Ptolemya€™s estimation but he lacked the critical eye and allowed himself to be led astray in his scientific investigations. Lest the proportions of certain parts of the mapped territory should be too much deformed, only the northern or the southern hemispheres should be laid down on the same map by this projection, which is consequently inconvenient for maps embracing the whole earth. This particular projection shown of the general map of the habitable world, the one believed to be employed by Ptolemy in his original general map, is laid down in the lazy mana€™s projection he talked about, the modified conic instead of the spherical projection that he recommended for a faithful delineation of the eartha€™s surface. Many scholars ascribe these three chapters to AgathodA¦mon, as the descriptive text for his map.
As can be seen from these world maps, Ptolemy divided the northern hemisphere into twenty-one parallels, noted, again, in the margin of this maps.
To judge, therefore, from the map, Ptolemy discarded both the older Greek belief that the earth was surrounded by water, and Herodotusa€™ description of the Phoeniciana€™s circumnavigation of Africa.
And there were no good maps of the East Indian Archipelago until after the Portuguese voyages to the Indies. This particular error threw the whole Euxine Pontus [Black Sea], whose general form and dimensions were fairly well known, too far north by the same amount, over 100 miles.
The same applies to the Beaulieu International Auto Jumble and we will not coincide with them next year either. Here he explains his belief that the earth is a stationary sphere, at the center of the universe, which revolves about it daily.
According to Ptolemy, even Marinus had made mistakes, either because he had consulted a€?too many conflicting volumes, all disagreeing,a€? or because he had never completed the final revision of his map. However, Ptolemy rigorously applies the conical projection only to the northern part of his map of the world. The parallel bounding the southern limit of the habitable world is equidistant from the equator in a southerly direction as the parallel through Meroe is distant in a northerly direction. Yet this Ptolemaic theory was later mysteriously a€?re-interpreteda€? by Martin WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (see monograph #310 in Book IV) and again by Gerard Mercator in 1569 as a belief by Ptolemy in an all encircling great ocean. Yet this Ptolemaic theory was later mysteriously a€?re-interpreteda€? by Martin WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (see monograph #310) and again by Gerard Mercator in 1569 as a belief by Ptolemy in an all encircling great ocean. While his proofs of the sphericity of the earth are still accepted today as valid, Ptolemy rejected the theory of the rotation of the earth about its axis as being absurd. To represent the known parts of the southern hemisphere on the same sheet, he describes an arc of a circle parallel to the equator, and at the same distance to the south of it, as Meroe [MA¦roe] is to the north, and then divides this arc in parts of the same number and size, as on the Parallel of Meroe. That paradox notwithstanding, though, Ptolemya€™s depiction of a southern Afro-Asian continent and a land-locked Indian Ocean provided little comfort during the intervening 1,300 years to those early explorers, and later the Portuguese, in their attempts to find an all water route to India. Your very kind financial support and prayerful intercession will greatly help every one of these children in future exams.
However, Marinusa€™ treatise on geography, with its maps, should still be ranked among the most important of the lost documents of the ancients, if for no other reason than that it was the foundation upon which Claudius Ptolemy built.
The network is then obtained by joining the intersections to corresponding points on the equator. The twenty-one parallels are spaced at equal lineal intervals and each one is designated by (1) the number of equinoctial hours and fractional hours of daylight on the longest day of the year and (2) the number of degrees and minutes of arc north of the equator. New school books are needed regularly for every child, and not forgetting their constant need of a nice school uniform, as they are growing all the time. For example, the first parallel of latitude north of the equator was distant from it a€?the fourth part of an houra€? and a€?distant from it geometrically about 4A°15a€™a€?. One other parallel is added south of the equator, identified with the Rhaptum promontory and Cattigara and about 8A° 25a€™ distant from a€?The Linea€?. All of the parallels north of the equator are located theoretically with the exception of three: Meroe, Syene and Rhodes.
I am the director of Littleblooms Children Ministry in coastal region in Andhra-Pradesh in India.A A I am pastor and director of this ministry. The first one, Clima I per Meroe, (so called because it passes through Meroe, near modern Shendi, a city of Africa at 17A° N latitude) was established traditionally as 1,000 miles below Alexandria and 300 miles from the torrid zone; it was also known as the royal seat and principal metropolis of Ethiopia [Africa].
A Our daily Gospel and Outreach Gospel:-I am preaching the Gospel to our Hindu people who are in practice of idol worship. I want to advocate the Message of our Lord Jesus to all our people who are at our interior sites. By our regular prayers number of Hindu people are coming towards Lord Jesus and they are accepting Him as their Lord and Savior. A About our Orphanage:I am running one orphanage for the welfare of our helpless orphan children. A Our-Children: Generally Parking Boys shall pass their time at Public places like bus stops, railway stations and at some enterprise centers like petrol bunks. They struggle the entire day for their owners, where they are accustomed with having insufficient food. As a matter of fact nowadays in India these victims are becoming as powerful criminals and anti social elements.
Lack of proper family treatment and at the bad conditions of their dire needs, they are moulding like this. Sometimes these orphan children are competing with dogs at dustbins, during the feasts of the wealthy people.
Here in our India, every person will glance on their panic situation,but nobody shall come forward to host them. Thus I proposed and planned to start an orphanage for the uplifiting of this helpless children. These words impressd me much and I decided to take the responsibility of the helpless children.
A Our-Needs: For want of regular monthly support I am not able to feed the children properly. The hunger makes them greedy and so they rush forward to eat whtever filthy thing they find on their way. Consequently they are sick,which leads to need for a doctor to whom I am not able to pay his bills properly, so the kids always seem to be sick and gloomy.It is really a disgrace on our part as God's servants. At the same time there are terrible criticisms from people for the condition of the orphan children. But I am sustaining them with penniless conditions.If I go to my church people asking a offering or any assistance, they also exist under financial frustation. Since all these days I am searching for a heavenly person like you in order to look in to the need of our orphan children.Little support extended by you shall keep up the lives of our orphan kids and it shall be the heavenly blessing for you. If you would like to sponsor one of these little children, then A?25 a month will help feed, clothe and school one. THANK YOU FOR TAKING THE TIME TO LOOK AT THE WORK AND ENDEAVOURS OF LITTLE BLOOMS ORPHANAGE, AND FOR YOUR VERY LOVING GIVING TO HELP LAKSHMI AND ME CARE FOR ALL OUR LOVELY CHILDREN;.
IMPORTANT NOTICE LITTLE BLOOMS CHILDREN`S ORPHANAGE INDIA MY INDIA MISSIONS TRIP APOSTOLIC BIBLICAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY NEW DELHI INDIA NAZARENE ISRAELITE ??? INTERESTING VIDEOS OPEN LETTER TO PRESIDENT OBAMA NAZI GENOCIDE PERSECUTION OF THE JEWISH RACE HITLER`S HOLOCAUST BLUEPRINT CHRIST KILLERS???



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