05.04.2014

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You can read this post in it’s entirety, think about how it relates to you, and consider implementing some low-intensity cardio training into your programming.
So out of the blue, the NSCA asked me to write an article for their Performance Training Journal. So you can thank that guy, because his incessant banter is why I’m writing this really long and drawn out blog post!
When I see field sports athletes who are chronically sympathetic-dominant, go glycolytic and gas out 3 or 4 minutes into a game, it pisses me off. Instead, a smart program will build an aerobic foundation, and then interweave high-intensity and low-intensity methods over time to build a more resilient and better conditioned athlete.
Let’s start with some of the basic physiology, and then we can get into why this stuff is actually important.
CO isn’t the only way to train the aerobic energy system, but it is a powerful one and has numerous benefits.
If you’ve ever taken a basic physiology course, you know that energy production all comes down to ATP. The other cool benefit of the aerobic energy system is that you can lean on it for hours upon end to produce energy for you. The other down side is that high-intensity anaerobic training is downright brutal, both from a mental and physical perspective. Here’s the bottom line — if you want to be able to do things for an extended period of time, you need a strong and healthy aerobic system. It’s obvious that the aerobic energy system is the big dog if you want or need to produce energy for a long period of time. Now we’re getting into the nitty gritty details that are specific to CO type training. When you do low intensity work (often noted as 120-150 beats per minute), you allow a maximal amount of blood to profuse into the left ventricle of your heart. As you force blood into that left ventricle, it’s in there just long enough to stretch the heart walls. So the adaptations on your heart are quite different between high intensity and low intensity exercise. One of the big things we assess with our clients and athletes is whether they are parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous system dominant. One of the easiest ways to determine whether someone is parasympathetic or sympathetic dominant (along with their heart adaptations) is to check their resting heart rate. If someone is consistently above 60 beats per minute, they tend to be more sympathetic dominant.
If someone is consistently below 60 beats per minute, they tend to be more parasympathetic dominant. CO style training can help decrease sympathetic drive, which helps you chill out and relax. Every good athlete will have times when they are going hard for an extended period of time and go glycolytic. Too often if an athlete has poor aerobic development, they will go hard one or two times during a game and then never shift out of glycolysis. A well developed aerobic energy system will not only keep you out of anaerobic metabolism longer, but it will also get you back into your aerobic system faster following periods of high intensity (anaerobic) exercise. Do you remember that scene in 8-Mile, where Eminem basically destroys his nemesis by calling himself out in a rap battle? So let’s say you have the fastest, strongest and most explosive athlete on the planet, and you have them start doing some cardiac output work to improve their work capacity and recovery. You don’t think about continuous training and morph into a marathon runner who looks and performs like one, big slow-twitch muscle fiber. Remember, the adaptations you create in your body are based on ALL of the training you’re doing, not just one medium.
If you’re running fast, jumping high, and lifting heavy things in your current program, all of these things will help offset and mitigate some of the perceived drawbacks to CO-style training. The key is to maintain that adaptation – come back to CO-style training from time-to-time, but by all means use more high-intensity methods of aerobic training to preserve those gains. Most team sports (soccer, basketball, volleyball, football, etc.) are incredibly reliant on the aerobic energy system.
If you simply watch a sport and watch the ball the whole time, it looks helter skelter – people are running around like chickens with their heads cut off. Sure, there are certain players that are running around like chickens with their heads cut off, but most are going through bouts of high intensity movement, interspersed with times of low-intensity cruising or flat-out standing around. In fact with my professional athletes, I’ll actually ease them back into their off-season workouts with lower intensity exercise whenever possible. But before I get them in the gym, they will probably take 2-3 weeks of down time to rest and heal up from the season. Not only does low-intensity exercise offset the chance that they will get injured when they get back to training, but it also helps re-build a foundation that they might have lost during that time off! Quite simply, I know that the bigger and more stable their aerobic foundation is going into a season, the more resilient they’ll be. I could literally have them on a powerlifting routine M-W-F, with cross country running on T-Th-Sa and they would probably improve in both strength and conditioning. Furthermore, they did 10 minutes of low intensity cycling as a warm-up every day prior to their Tabata session, for a total of 70 minutes of low intensity work every week. So hopefully I’ve convinced you that their are numerous benefits to CO training, and that more times than not they outweigh the negatives. Now let’s look at how we determine if someone is a good candidate for CO training, as well as exploring training options.
Between these three tests we can determine the efficiency of an athletes heart, his heart rate recovery, and predict his anaerobic threshold. If your goal is to determine if someone needs low intensity, long duration work (from know on known as cardiac output, or CO), resting heart rate may be your best bet. Our goal for most clients and athletes is to get their resting heart rate under 60 beats per minute.
When a client or athlete has a high resting heart rate, I can assume that they are sympathetic dominant (constantly fight or flight).
Furthermore, I know they probably don’t sleep well, either, which further compromises recovery.
So when this athlete walks in, I know that CO training will be one tool in my toolbox to help them. Meatheads like to do stuff like drag sleds, push the Prowler, or some combination of a bunch of different exercises and mobility drills. A basketball player could get some court-work in – footwork, ball handling, working on specific moves, etc. The most obvious example of someone who will benefit from this type of training is an athlete who gasses out quickly when performing their sport. If they have a poor aerobic base, quite simply, not only will they not be able to go for long periods of time, but their ability to recovery from high-intensity bouts of exercise will be compromised as well.
But athletes who play aerobic dominant sports such as football, basketball and soccer are the obvious examples.
And all of this leads to chronic over activation of the sympathetic nervous system and stress response. Two of the best things we can do for our health and livelihood on a daily basis is take 10 full, deep breaths every day and do some low-intensity exercise a couple times a week.
Trust me, if you drop your resting heart rate 15-20 beats per minute, I have no doubt you will look and feel markedly better.
If your only goal is fat loss, high-intensity intervals are a sure-fire way to expedite this process. High-intensity intervals combined with longer rest intervals will also help develop the aerobic energy system. If you participate in a sport that is highly anaerobic in nature (such as wrestling, MMA, etc.) you need to dedicate the last portion of your training to developing the glycolytic energy system. If you read the Joel’s work, or even reference the Tabata study, it leads us to believe that the bulk of your adaptations in the glycolytic energy system occur in the first 4-6 weeks of training, with 8 weeks being on the outer limits. Maybe it would be smarter to take a step back so we can take 3-4 steps forward in the future. Whether your goal is to become a dominant athlete or just move and feel better, I think cardiac output training has a place in most people’s programs. It’s not as sexy, intense or hardcore as high-intensity interval training, but the benefits are numerous and wide-ranging. Sharing on Facebook, re-tweeting on Twitter, or just e-mailing this to a friend would be greatly appreciated. Makes a great deal of sense…from my own experience, adding some amount of slower state cardio can be beneficial to overall athleticism.


BSP – I would love to get our industry to a point where you can evaluate someone and prescribe them exactly what they NEED, not what they want. In all seriousness, this is a really important training piece that gets left out far too often. I was also thinking of how to determine for an individual what the max heart rate would be and based on that where the actual CO training numbers would end up. Go as hard as you can for 1-minute, and then track how long it takes for your heart rate to get back under 130 bpm. Note: the formula needs to be individualized for participants 16 and younger and athletes 65 and older.
Talking sport-specific for minute – a lot has been made of poles and long distance running not being beneficial for pitchers. Also, after checking my heart-rate just now, thinking about the stress at my job and my sleep patterns, this article was a great wake-up call!
Hey Phil, I would imagine that if pitchers would get their rest heart rate down, they will also be less stressed and more focused on the mount when it really matters. Phil – It all comes down to knowing why you are doing something, and putting it in at the appropriate time. FWIW, I’m a former distance runner, so I really think my heart made some pretty significant semi-permanent adaptations during that lengthy period.
Mike, I don’t know what your experience is, but maybe due to improved recovery and work capacity, I have found LSC very anabolic when combined with diesel strength training!
An interesting anecdote: at my best (19 yrs old) I could dunk two hands off a drop step at 220lbs.
CO is part of a well rounded and balanced fitness routine.There is nothing bad about steady state cardio. And when I use the word extreme that is going to be determined per person using multiple factors,such as age, their current level of fitness, their recover-ability, the intensity or distance of the CO training, etc..
I am so tired of individuals taking a small amount of information without exploring an issue thoroughly and running withit. Mike I love you material and know when ever I get an inbox from you I am can be sure of a quality, well researched and well applied read.
Anyways its my day off so im off to eat luncb (god forbid it might even have a grain or two in it), hit the weights room and likely throw in a long afternoon run around my local park to unwind for the weekend.
I find it interesting that what you are advocating is actually nothing new if you come from an endurance based background as opposed to a S&C one. In this article, I’m going to teach you everything you need to know about using tramadol for opiate withdrawal. I’m going to share my experience using tramadol for opiate withdrawal with you shortly.
Since tramadol has opiate effects in the body, it can be useful for relieving withdrawal symptoms such as: anxiety, diarrhea, gastrointestinal distress, sweating, hot and cold flashes, insomnia, depression, nausea, achy muscles and limbs, and fatigue. Another thing I find interesting is that tramadol inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. This means that it could potentially also be useful for boosting mood-enhancing chemicals in the brain during opiate withdrawal.
It was so long ago I honestly can’t remember, but I think I was only prescribed between three and six 50 mg tramadol within 24 hours. Don’t use tramadol for opiate withdrawal in the foolish and irresponsible way that I did.
Tramadol can be habit-forming and addictive (many people have become severely addicted after using tramadol for opiate withdrawal).
If you use tramadol consistently, tramadol withdrawal can be just as bad as opiate withdrawal. Depending on severity of addiction and biochemical uniqueness, tramadol may not work well for everyone.
Patients were put into two groups: methadone group (60 mg per day) and tramadol group (600 mg per day). No significant differences existed in overall Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale (OOWS) scores between the two groups (P = 0.11). Side effects in the tramadol group were as or less common than in the methadone group, with the exception of perspiration. 115 patients were put into two groups (45 in the buprenorphine group, 70 in the tramadol group).
Tramadol patients had significantly higher average withdrawal symptoms when compared to the buprenorphine group and a greater reduction in withdrawal symptoms over time. Results of the study stated that tramadol shows some promise as an opioid withdrawal management medication. If you’ve decided you want to use tramadol for opiate withdrawal symptoms, make sure to use it responsibly. Never use tramadol for longer than absolutely needed (3-7 days maximum should get you past the most severe part of withdrawal).
Depending on addiction severity, some people will benefit from taking 50-100 mg 3-4 times per day, others will need much more than this. Example: Someone who is coming off a 60 mg daily oxycodone habit might get decent benefits from using tramadol for opiate withdrawal.
Kratom is a plant (member of the coffee family) that is not regulated by the DEA in the United States (making it’s use legal), that binds to the same opioid receptors that tramadol binds to (so it eases opiate withdrawal symptoms).
Click here now to view my best home detox program. If you have any questions on using Tramadol for opiate withdrawal, please feel free to leave them in the comment box below.
Matt FinchMatt helps men and women that are dependent on opiates learn how to get off these drugs without getting sick. I tried to get it from my doctor and she said, we would discuss on my next visit in a month.
Hell, some of my paid materials are 10’s of thousands of words in length, so 750-1000 words barely gets me warmed up, let alone allows me to prove a point. Originally I had hoped to cover the entire conditioning assessment we use here at IFAST, but quickly realized I had to whittle this down to make it manageable (and fit the editorial guidelines). The term Joel Jamieson uses in his Ultimate MMA Conditioning manual for this type of training is cardiac ouptut, or CO for short. This system boasts a lot of the cool stuff like fast energy production (ala the ATP-PCr system), but it doesn’t have the capacity to do so for an extended period of time. What most people don’t realize is that a robust aerobic energy system can help you recover more quickly from both intense bouts of exercise, as well as between training sessions.
If you can move more blood with each heartbeat, your heart doesn’t have to beat as fast.
If you go onto Pubmed and do some poking around with regards to time-motion analysis, you’ll come to the same conclusion. Just remember that if you have a poorly developed aerobic base, CO training is a great tool to help re-build your foundation. With an untrained individual, I can throw everything at them all at once and they will improve. As a client or athlete develops, you have to become more and more specific with your programming, and focus on one or two non-competing foci for each program. In this case, the Tabata group did 30-minutes of steady state cycling at 70% of VO2 max every week.
This will not only impact their recovery between exercises and sets, but also between workouts as well. However, I could make the argument that some of these clients are so far out of shape that if we truly care about their livelihood, it makes more sense from a physiological perspective to get them an aerobic foundation and base first. Just remember that if you have a big aerobic base, you can build a bigger glycolytic engine on top of it AND recover faster from those intense bouts of exercise. Plus, it seems that it would allow a unique opportunity for the body to repair itself (CNS, etc.) and for the brain to take a bit of a break from the intensity of HIIT. Even for fat loss clients it can be incredibly helpful to get them out of the mindset of always needing high-intensity work. I was wondering how long you space out the 1 minute go test from the 6 minute modified coopers when assessing? However if I only have a day with someone, I may only give them a 20 or 30 minute break in between. They are somewhat time consuming, so it’s rewarding to know people are getting something out of them.
After reading a bunch of Joel’s work, I took the plunge and invested in a heart rate monitor to keep track of my aerobic work. If you have or are recovering from a major illness (heart disease, any operation or hospital stay, etc.) or are on any regular medication, subtract an additional 10.
If you are injured, have regressed in training or competition, get more than two colds or bouts of flu per year, have allergies or asthma, or if you have been inconsistent or are just getting back into training, subtract an additional 5. If you have been training consistently (at least four times weekly) for up to two years without any of the problems just mentioned, keep the number (180a€“age) the same. If you have been training for more than two years without any of the problems listed above, and have made progress in competition without injury, add 5. Would love to hear your thoughts on incorporating long duration cardio with these athletes.


I think LSD cardio gets a bad rap because it doesn’t maximize calorie burn during the workout.
At 265 powerlifting, I could still dunk pretty assertively, but maybe lost 3 inches of vert. It’s when it is taken to the extreme, and the only thing someone does on a consistent bases that it becomes questionable and generally negative effects come into play.
Those who make that statement are looking at those athletes who only perform that type of conditioning (and training in general). Just wish such forward thinking peopls such as yourself didn’t have to waste time defending yourselves to people that really tarnish the industry.
Might even throw some static stretching in there at the end just to piss off the training gods.
I’m doing my best to help people see the big picture, and hopefully posts like this help. Send a copy to Jason Ferruggia, Craig Ballantyne and all the other cardio haters out there! Whenever something is hot or trendy, make sure to remember it probably has limitations, too. Tramadol is by no means one of my top choices for easing opiate withdrawal symptoms, however, tramadol is still a good option for some, though not all people. First, I believe it’s important to explain how tramadol works in the body, that way you will gain a better understanding of how it can help ease opiate withdrawal symptoms.
Based on severity of addiction and biochemical uniqueness, using tramadol for opiate withdrawal symptoms can work very well for some, and offer minimal benefit for others. Serotonin is an inhibitory (relaxing) neurotransmitter that makes you feel emotionally chilled-out and happy. I had been using a half gram to a gram of heroin daily for a few months, and less than 24 hours after my last hit I couldn’t bare the cold-turkey withdrawal symptoms.
I can’t remember how many there were in the bottle, but I ended up taking ALL OF THEM within 24 hours. However, if you’ve been shooting up three grams of heroin per day for the past five years, tramadol might be like putting a band aid on a broken leg. He is a former opiate addict and a former Substance Abuse Counselor at an Opiate Treatment Program (OTP). Ultram(Tramadol) has been the WORST withdrawals ive ever experienced when it comes to getting off of something. My wife Knows about my addiction, but I often lie a out the amount I take out of our checking account to get these pills.
Short-term pain gets you to the other side, which can become long-term happiness and freedom from addiction. It worked a treat but I would rather have been able to reduce as today I only have 2 left, however I did calculate my days well knowing that I am on day 4 and going into day 5 which means the pains in my legs will hopfully begin to ease. Please be aware when I say this you need to be strict in your mind set about the amount of trams as addiction is now in your head so it’s very easy to switch. I constantly battle the misconception from even my co workers that low intensity cardio is bad for you… I will be sharing!
After being beat over the head with the upsides of HIIT, I not only thought that HIIT would most certainly cure cancer, but that low intensity cardio would certainly give you cancer.
What was even more concerning to me, though, is that the description of their statistical analysis was awful to that point that it leads the reader to believe they used inappropriate statistical tests to look for differences between ET and IT. I can personally vouch that it has directly helped me in the weight room in terms of recovery and in addition, has helped me feel better overall.
They spent their first few years with a coach that built them up with long slow distance training to allow for a strong base. And being that I work with your everyday fitness enthusiasts, they’re all about how many calories they’re burning! Speed play, basically alternating between LSC, and nudging against glycolytic energy usage.
Basketball to Powerlifting, then racing bicycles, then Olympic lifting, now getting back into a mix (sport climbing, back packing and bodyweight training). We know the effects this has on the body, so going out for a long walk, light jog – bike ride, or combo on a daily or semi daily basis is probably good for the masses.
I don’t think their statement means, LSD makes fast people slow, but rather, LSD keeps slow people slow.
I believe that some trainers are down on CO and similar training simply beacuse they don’t personally like it or it doesn’t fit within their marketing model!
I was even prescribed tramadol for opiate withdrawal several years ago after I went to the ER for acute heroin withdrawal. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is an excitatory (stimulating) neurotransmitter that can give you more energy and lift mood. If you want my expert opinion, you’d probably be better off using kratom as a natural alternative. Matt has since become a Strategic Intervention Coach, Speaker, Author, and Opiate Recovery Specialist. I just kicked a 4 year MMP(Methadone Maintence Program) not too much of s program when all they want is money). I have every faith that I will not take tramadol in place of codine as I have not had enough to effect or feel ephoria, yet enough to take away the pain and the edge.
I’ll spare you the details, but I would have liked to see them present a graph of individual change for each participant. However, as you stated, there are numerous benefits when you simply go for a walk in today’s hectic society. Train for an Ultramarathon year round for multiple years with no recovery period, or no cycling of the intensity, probably not so good. I am not concerned about the fastest, most explosive athlete (who most likely got to this point by running fast, jumping high, and lifting heavy things). If I only get 4 hours a week to program a fat loss client, LISS training takes a small role (even though I try and coax them to a more active lifestyle). The medications helped get rid of the most severe symptoms, though I still had no energy and some depression and anxiety. To get back to my point, I’ dropped all the way down to 5mg from, at one point 50mg, all in 4 years. I am concerned about the slow, non-explosive athlete whose training has only ever consisted of long distance slow intensity training, no jumping, and lifting light weights.
In an effort to get high, I decided to take much more tramadol for opiate withdrawal than I was prescribed.
I know 6 months might seem nothing compared to other people abusing for years but thats enough for me. With that said, it was published in 1996 and software to model individual differences was just beginning to be implemented commercially.
Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic agent with opiate activity due to a low affinity binding to the parent compound and higher affinity binding of the O-demethylated metabolite M1 to mu opioid receptors. Keep in mind I can only take 25 mg a day of Tramadol in order for it to last the next 8 days. Keep in mind I can only take 25 mg a day of the Tramadol in order for it to last the next 8 days. Do I have enough for this trip, when will my supplier have more, how will I explain this withdrawal from checking to my wife (whom has been very supportive, but her patience is waring thin, and I can’t blame her)??? Somewhat steep but only using for the RLS (restless leg syndrome) which hit me for the first time last night, mind you this is two weeks in. I send as much positive energy as I can to all battling with this addiction the world over. People say it doesn’t break the blood brain barrier but the loperamide must hit the opiate receptors in the stomach. Well i have a question, im afraid i might switch my addiction to tram if i take it for too long. I have at one point taken about 20-30 at once which was stupid but desperate because I was on a trip and ran out of my methadone a few years back, plus it will constipated you for a week or two with that many, so don’t do that. If you’re truly truly trying to get better take the least amount of whatever you need to get comfortable.
I would like to know how many more days i can risk taking it without creating another addiction. Even just walking a couple miles when you can will help way more than you think, especially with the RLS (restless leg syndrome) which is why I’m commenting on this in the first place and to give some insight from my own personal experiences. And honestly I was snorting up to 120mg daily of OxyContin which when i finally came to my senses and quit, I was on suboxone for about 4 years then moved and didn’t know anyone so I tried kicking subs on my own before switching to methadone for another 4 years so all in all I feel pretty comfortable considering my past and can only hope, pray and find the love I needed in my higher power to get me through this one day at a time.
I pray for all going through addiction and the ones we’ve lost from it and even with all this evil we experience and ask why me?



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