11.10.2014

Book called the secret history

After providing the piece below to Julie and Mitch, I acquired from a used books dealer in Sydney the biography of Richard Hughes that had been published there in 1982, two years before his death in 1984 at the age of 78. First notice of a Far Eastern scion society of the BSI appeared in Vincent Starretta€™s Chicago Tribune column of September 14, 1947.
One of the cultural highlights of the Japanese Occupation, indeed, was the foundation, in 1948, of a still-flourishing Tokyo Chapter of the Baker Street Irregulars by Japanese, British, American, Australian and New Zealand students of Sherlock Holmes. The historic founding meeting of The Baritsu Chapter of the Baker Street Irregulars was held at the Shibuya residence of Walter Simmons, Far Eastern representative of the Chicago Tribune, on 12 October 1948. It was unanimously agreed the society should be named The Baritsu Chapter, in reverent reference to the use a€” rather misuse, as later established by the Chapter a€” of that word by Holmes in The Adventure of the Empty House when, explaining his return from the dead, he credited his escape from Professor Moriarty to his knowledge of a€?baritsu, or the Japanese system of wrestling,a€? which enabled him to hurl the master criminal to destruction in the Reichenbach Fall. In addition to Count Makino, another notable absence from this initial meeting was Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida, who pleaded urgent cabinet business and an appointment with General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander, as reasons for a last minute cancellation of his attendance.
The Chief Banto elected that night was Richard Hughes, who continued to rollick in the role until his death in 1984. But in truth, the expansive Hughes became The Baritsu Chapter, during those first years in Tokyo, and later, for the remainder of his life, in Hong Kong. Hughes swaggered across the landscape of the Far East, and his London Sunday Times editor, the novelist Ian Fleming, gave a vivid account in his 1964 book Thrilling Cities of what it was like to have Dick Hughes for a guide on a a€?businessa€? trip to Hong Kong, Macao, and Tokyo. So it came as a surprise to many people when they learned, some years after his death, that from the 1950s on, Richard Hughes had been an agent of the Soviet KGB.
And it came as a great surprise to the KGB, no doubt, to learn that in fact Hughes had been not theirs, but a British double-agent actually working for MI6, and feeding the KGB disinformation all those years.
Richard Hughes, Chief Banto of The Baritsu Chapter, Far Eastern scion society of the BSI, did so for years. As a schoolboy, a€?On the long walk back home, Hughes would make up stories for the other boys and tell them of the latest adventures of Sherlock Holmes.
In November 1920, when Hughes was sixteen, a€?Conan Doyle came to Australia to lecture on spiritualism and Hughesa€™ father was involved in the arrangements for the visit. In his first newspaper job, in 1936, a€?One of his chores was to review mystery stories and he assumed the by-line a€?Dr Watson, Jnra€™.
In 1939, with a mysterious disappearance in New Zealand in the news, his editor, a€?in a frivolous mood, said to Hughes: a€?Dr Watson, Junior, youa€™re a great authority on crime. In early 1944, while a war correspondent, a€?Hughes brought out his first book, a modest little volume called Dr Watsona€™s Casebook: [Studies in Australian Crime], which dealt with some of the great mysteries of the world. After the war ended, Hughes was assigned to Tokyo, where his a€?lifelong love of Sherlock Holmes reached some sort of fulfillment in 1948 when he and other aficionados formed a Tokyo chapter of the Baker Street Irregulars. And there is more in the book, including Hughesa€™ anger at Communist Chinese attacks upon the Sherlock Holmes stories, some back-and-forth with Adrian Conan Doyle over whether Sir Arthur was Sherlock Holmes himself or not, Sir Arthura€™s spiritualism, Sherlock Holmes as one of Hughesa€™ favorite a€?cultural disputationa€? topics over the several decades he was stationed in Hong Kong (hea€™d have loudly approved of Robert G. Hughes delightedly quoted the final few words, spoken after Sherlock Holmes had revealed himself to surprised readers as the counter-spy Altamont who had outwitted the German Von Bork a€” a€?the most astute secret service man in Europe.a€? It was one of Hughesa€™ favourite Holmes stories. But, the biography continues, this was not an unusual accomplishment for Hughes: a€?His friends tried him on other Sherlock Holmes stories. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can roduce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. 2 - 5 Guest ,65 Euro ,6 - more ,45 Euro ,1 Guest ,80 Euro ,Lesson Includes.,These are private events and runs upon request. Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”.
CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .hakan hacibekiroglu,Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can roduce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name.
This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics . Marbled paper, called ebru in Turkish, was used extensively in the binding of books and within the calligraphic panels in Turkey.
Ebru technique consists of sprinkling colours containing a few drops of ox-gall on to the surface of the bath sized with kitre (gum tragacanth) in a trough. After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’.
Some of the contents of this seventh volume of BSI Archival History, taking the form here of occasional papers, were prepared originally as talks for annual dinners of The Five Orange Pips, who provided a suitable audience for historical discoveries for which the world was not prepared, or at any rate not yet complete to my satisfaction. This was particularly true of chapter four of this volume a€” for my money, the most interesting discovery about the BSIa€™s beginnings in some time. That meant doing it in a scant two months, over the holiday season, if it were to appear upon the January weekend.
This volumea€™s title, a quotation from the chapter of The Valley of Fear entitled a€?Lodge 341, Vermissa,a€? seems appropriate to me for many reasons.
I hope readers will enjoy these papers, and perhaps find them useful to research of their own as I continue with mine. As always, I owe thanks to many people and institutions for assistance and support in researching the contents of this collection, and helping me to prepare them for publication in two hurried months.
Ray Betzner, Peter Blau, Steve Doyle, George Fletcher, Andy Fusco, Tim Johnson, Jerry Margolin, George McCormack, Julie McKuras, David Musto, Steve Rothman, Philip Shreffler, Paul Singleton, Dan Stashower, Bill Vande Water, and David Weiss helped provide information and materials for this book, and I appreciate their time, knowledge, efforts and generosity. Many libraries were also sources of information and primary source materials: The Library of Congress, the Free Library of Philadelphia, the New York Public Library, the Pentagon Library, the library of the Century Assoc-iation of New York, the University of Minnesota Librarya€™s Sherlock Holmes Collections, and the libraries of Georgetown and Yale Universities.
The public records office of Bethel, Conn., and the registrara€™s office of New York University provided valuable, if confounding, data about Edgar W.
Finally, my thanks to Sigerson and The Pips for their attention, encourage-ment, and discretion over the ten years that some chapters in this volume have been in making their public appearance. Toasts were important from the very start of Baker Street Irregularity, even before there was a BSI. Elmer Davisa€™s Constitution & Buy Laws for the BSI, as noted, were published in Christopher Morleya€™s a€?Bowling Greena€? column in the Saturday Review of Literature of February 17, 1934.
First, in Buy Law 1, after the words a€?an annual meeting shall be held on January 6th,a€? the words or thereabouts had been inserted. As for the term a€?Conanical,a€? this change was actually introduced at the 1940 BSI dinner, the one annual dinner in history attended by a Conan Doyle, to wit Denis.
A few other changes in the 1944 Profile by Gaslight version of the Constitution & Buy-Laws were editorial, such as adding the words a€?of Literaturea€? to a€?Saturday Reviewa€? in Qualification B of Buy Law 3. More striking yet, the possibility of women in the BSI was quietly struck from this new appearance of the Buy Laws. Seventeen thousand copies of Profile by Gaslight had been sold between 1944 and 1948, bringing public attention like never before to Sherlockiana and the BSI. The Constitution & Buy-Laws have been reprinted here and there at other times since then, usually muddling the matter further. In 1998 newly installed BSI management produced a fourth official version of the Constitution & Buy Laws, in a leaflet prepared by Ray Betzner (a€?The Agony Column,a€? 1987) for members of the public requesting information about the BSI. Restoration of a€?published in the Saturday Review of January 27th, 1934a€? (Betzner said a€?Saturday Review of Literature,a€? which is not as Elmer Davis wrote it, but oh well) still leaves us in violation of our Constitution & Buy Laws, for the toasts drunk at the official annual dinner are NOT those published in the Saturday Review on that date. The toasts missing from BSI annual dinners have, as much as the others, a€?their own overtones for all genuine Sherlockians,a€? as Christopher Morley put it in the Book of Genesis. The query about his identify was a€” as Bill Hall will tell you a€” the original, first, quickie, abbreviated examination for eligibility to membership in the pre-natal Baker Street club.
1 See Steven Rothmana€™s compendium of Sherlockian Morleyana, The Standard Doyle Company (Fordham University Press, 1990), pp. 4 See the dinner photograph in a€?Entertainment and Fantasya€?: The 1940 BSI Dinner, 1998a€™s BSJ Christmas Annual, pp.
5 More than a few correct solutions to the Sherlock Holmes Crossword, appearing in Morleya€™s column in the Saturday Review of Literature on May 19, 1934, as a membership exam for the BSI, had come from women. 6 Since that remark calls for explanation: the sole deficiency of Shrefflera€™s book was the absence of chronology as a vital Irregular discipline. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions]. According to these documents Hiuen-tchoang, while on his travels in the Indies, found the original of the map, and, after having marked on it in vermilion ink the route he had followed, he placed it in the Ta€™sing-loung-tseu [Blue Dragon Temple] at Tcha€™ang-ngan, then the capital of China. These editors made history by quoting many Chinese books on the title of the map, which was originally Go Tenjuku Zu [Map of the Five Indiesa€?] and which, in their opinion, was not correct, since it dealt not only with the Indies but with the western regions also. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85). This map is a great example for Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology with real world cartography. On the other hand, this map is much more than a world map and the main concept by the author was to celebrate a historically very important event. This all was based on the Japanese version of Hsuan-Tsanga€™s Chinese narrative, the Si-yu-ki, printed as late as 1653. In the preface, in the upper margin of the sheet, are listed the titles of no less than 102 works, Buddhist writings, Chinese annals, etc., both religious and profane, which the author consulted when making his map. In the Buddhist world maps or Shumi world, the space for the regions called Nan-sen-bu and Nan-en-budai, etc. This map can be described as a characteristic specimen of the type of early East Asiatic maps whose main distinctive feature is their completely unscientific character.
From every point of view, however, the map preserved among the precious objects in the North Pavilion of the Horyuzi Temple at Nara is the most interesting. The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki. There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries.
From Nakamuraa€™s examination of a many manuscript and printed Korean mappaemundi he has come to the conclusion that they cannot in themselves be dated earlier than the 16th century. A hybrid map, forming a link between the Korean mappamundi and Hiuent-choanga€™s itinerary, which dates from the eighth century, causes one to seek further the connection between these two groups of maps to establish the parentage of the Korean mappamundi. The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology. We do not know if Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary map was known from the commencement as The Map of the Five Indies, although it may commonly have been so called. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.
Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, a€?woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Contains a list of Buddhist sutras, Chinese histories and other literary classics on the left side of the map title. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps.
Therefore, so far from the area described in Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels being the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the Thang period, the world they actually did know was very much greater. The map covers almost the whole of Asia, from the extreme east to Persia and the Byzantine Empire in the west, from the countries of the Uigours, the Kirghis and the Turks in the north to the Indies in the south, an area incomparably wider than that covered by Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels.
This alone is sufficient to prove that the Chinese at this period well knew that the Map of the Five Indies was not of the whole world, but that it extended into the west and north beyond the areas indicated by the Si-yA?-ki. The fact that the Chinese represented the geographical content of the Si-yA?-ki in world form, without taking the slightest trouble to show the true shape of countries they knew well, not even China itself shows that, at the period of the Thang Dynasty, seventh to eighth century, they had a mappamundi of the Tchien-ha-tchong-do type in common use that they adopted it just as it was, without modifying it at all, and entered on it the Si-yA?-ki nomenclature. Therefore it may be said that the Korean mappamundi had its beginnings at a period rather earlier that than of the Thang Dynasty; that a map very like it in form was introduced into Korea from China at a certain period and, thanks to the development of printing in the 16th century. There is no doubt that the map by JA?n-cha€™ao, which also represented Jambu-dvipa as India-centric continent, utilized the Map of the Five Indies for reference, as we can see from the method of drawing both the boundary lines of the Five Indies and the courses of the four big rivers. The map, however, has a distinctive feature of its own, namely, the outline of the continent in the center and a number of islands lying scattered around it. Professor Nakamura treats this map in detail in his paper and states that the Ta€™u- chu-pien map is a hybrid between the Korean mappamundi of Tchien-ha-tchong-do type and the map of Jambu-dvipa. But neither JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map nor this Ta€™u-shu-pien map could not go beyond Asia in their representation. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.
Among the maps made by Japanese we find none which regard China as the center of the world.
There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].A  It is accompanied by two documents, also reproduced in the book. This information is not easy to accept, since it often confuses the copy and the original.A  Moreover it is impossible that the map should have been of Indian origin, and it is doubtful that it was constructed by Hiuen-tchoang, seeing that it shows an area greater even than the Indies. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older.A  An example of Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology can be seen in the earliest map of this type, the Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu [Outline Map of All the Countries of the Jambu-dvipa]. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85).A  It is not a faithful copy of the preceding, but has many corrections and additions.
The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki.A  They are just the itineraries of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels. There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries.A  This very precious geographical relic, though it may have undergone some slight alteration, remains nevertheless to shed much light on the development of the Korean mappamundi. The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.A A  That is what is proposed for this final portion. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.A  Moreover, its central continent being always entirely surrounded by an immense ocean, it would seem that for its draughtsman this continent represented the whole of the then known world. Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps.A  Nevertheless certain scholars are doubtful about the positive knowledge of scientific cartography possessed by the Chinese of that period.
A  We cannot suppose, however, that JA?n-cha€™ao was the first to produce a map of this type. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.A  But so long as it remains a Buddhist map, dogmatism stands in the way of reality. Falstaff reborn, a man-mountain of wit and magnanimity, of Shakespearean eloquence and Rabelaisian humour, at home in the company of the kingly and the very common. When the KGB had approached to recruit him as a spy, he had contacted Ian Fleming, who had been in MI6 during the war. The codename he chose for himself in this double-agent work on behalf of Her Majestya€™s Government was ALTAMONT. His father had started him on Conan Doylea€™s hero and his love for the sardonic Holmes was to grow stronger over the years.
To his intense delight, Hughes was entrusted to pick up Conan Doyle from his hotel and take him in the family Oakland to the theatre where the great man was to lecture.
When there was a dearth of mystery stories he would make them up and review imaginary books, much to the bewilderment of Sydney booksellers. Why dona€™t you go over to New Zealand and solve this mystery for us?a€™ Hughes replied: a€?Certainly. The pseudonym was Dr Watson Jnr and he dedicated it a€?in reverent and humble tribute to the master, Sherlock Holmes, the greatest and the wisest man I have ever known.a€™a€? (p. Betul is our professional Artist that is graduated from Mimar Sinan University department of fine Arts in Istanbul. The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric).


The sap coming out of scratches made on the branches dries up later and solidifies in bone white colored pieces .
The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric).
It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print.
Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums. As the foreword below states, a breakthrough in regard to the chapter entitled a€?The Friendly Sons of St. It was broached to the Pips in 2001, but the smoking gun did not come to light until the final days of last October. It has been a rush; and for any betraying signs of that which escaped notice to survive in this volume, my apologies. Conan Doyle, the founder of our feast, shed new light upon the schemes of the BSIa€™s hated rival on the Surrey shore, his badly-sprung offspring Adrian Conan Doyle. I have left more or less untouched a personal aspect that was part of papers composed originally for the edification of The Pips, regarding the tribulations, triumphs, and stalemates of historical re-search. I benefited es-pecially from knowing the late Miriam a€?Deea€? Alexander and the late Ronald Mansbridge, to whom this volume is dedicated. They were reprinted unofficially in Anthony Bouchera€™s novel The Case of the Baker Street Irregulars in 1940, and then in January 1944 as one of Vincent Starretta€™s extremely rare a€?Sherlockianaa€? leaflets from the hand-press of his friend Edwin B.
At the Pentagon where I spent many years, public statements are subjected to security review before release, and changes may be made for reasons of accuracy or of policy.
A glance at Smitha€™s minutes for the 1944 BSI annual dinner, a few months before publication of this version of the Buy Laws, shows that these were the toasts drunk on that occasion.2 And no doubt it was also to spare readers the need to look up the old reference.
It arises, you will recall, in Qualification A of Buy Law 3, about special meetings of the BSI. Whata€™s more, the one to Colonel Sebastian Moran a€” decorated soldier, intrepid big-game hunter, superlative exec to the Napoleon of Crime, and high-tech assassin, in short the sort of man whose abilities are appreciated where I used to work a€” did reflect a very special role in the making of Baker Street Irregularity. When, in the course of luncheon at Christ Cellaa€™s or elsewhere, some acquaintance would hear about the Sherlock Holmes society and ask how to get in, he would be asked a€?Who was the Second Most Dangerous Man in London?a€? If he could answer that one, he might get asked others if anybody present wanted to ask them.
I move the restoration of the original and true text to all future official appearances of the BSIa€™s Constitution & Buy Laws, and also restoration of the missing Constitutional Toasts to the official annual dinners in January. They were named as solvers in subsequent issues, and one or two were even cozened by Morley, but none of them were admitted to the BSI. He omitted same because he was unaware, he told me, of any treatment of suitable length demonstrating the art and science of canonical chronologinalysis. The entries in the boxes in the sea part of the manuscript are extracts from the Da Tang xiyu ji. This traditional Buddhist depiction of the civilized world (mainly India and the Himalayan regions, with a token nod to China) divides India into five regions: north, east, south, west and central India. Huei-kuo (746- 805), chief priest of the temple, presented it to Kukai (774-835), his best Japanese disciple, when he returned to his own country.
Here numerous details are given, including the interesting feature of the so-called a€?iron-gatea€?, shown as a strongly over-sized square, and the path taken by the monk whilst crossing the forbidden mountain systems after leaving Samarkand.
Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least i??from a cartographic perspective. They are based not on objective geographical knowledge or surveys but only on the more or less legendary statements in the Buddhist literature and Chinese works of the most diverse types, which are moreover represented in an anachronistic mixture. Prior to this map America had rarely if ever been depicted on Japanese maps, so Rokashi Hotan turned to the Chinese map Daimin Kyuhen Zu [Map of China under the Ming Dynasty and its surrounding Countries], from which he copied both the small island-like form of South America (just south of Japan), and the curious land bridge (the Aelutian Islands?) connecting Asia to what the Japanese historians Nobuo Muroga and Kazutaka Unno conclude a€?must undoubtedly be a reflection of North Americaa€?. The map has been reproduced in Mototsugu Kuritaa€™s atlas Nihon Kohan Chizu Shusei, Tokyo and Osaka, 1932 and in color in Hugh Cortazzia€™s Isle of Gold, 1992. Their content however, their nomenclature, being for the most part that of the Han period, and taking into consideration the periods at which the few additions to that nomenclature have been made, is of a date not latter than the 11th century.
The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions. A land bridge connects China to an unnamed continent in the upper right corner, and the island of Ezo [Japan] with its fief of Matsumae is located slightly to the south of the mystery continent. Kia Tana€™s map is perhaps not a proof of this, since it no longer exists, and was always, in any case, kept secret at the Imperial Court, and so was not easily consulted even by those of the generation in which it was produced.
It proves finally, therefore, that Hiuen-tchoanga€™s map does not represent the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the time of the Thang Dynasty.
Why, then, should the area described by Hiuen-tchoang have been represented in the form of a shield surrounded by an immense ocean? But the distinctive feature of the map is that China, which had till then occupied a purely notional situation, was represented as a vast country in the eastern part of the continent with place-names of the period of the Ming Dynasty. When we note that his map is not free from errors and omissions due to repeated transcription, and that almost contemporaneously there were maps of closely analogous type, such as the Ta€™u-shu-pien map mentioned below, there is little doubt that maps of this kind had already been produced before by somebody. This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613. The continent as a whole is wide in the north and pointed in the south, and still shows the traditional shape of Jambu-dvipa. He rests this statement on the ground that a map closely resembling the Ta€™u-shu-pien map is to be found among the maps of the Tchien-ha-tchong- do type that were widely circulated in Korea.
Chan, Old Maps of Korea, The Korean Library Science Research Institute, Seoul, Korea, 1977, 249 pp. According to Nakamura, it was drawn by someone else, after his return, to illustrate the story of his travels, and that the map given to Kukai by his master was a copy, and not the original. Nansen Bushu is a Buddhist word derived from the Sanskrit, Jambu-dvipa, or the southern continent. The most striking innovation is an indication of Europe to the northwest of the central continent, and of the New World in an island to the southeast. Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least from a cartographic perspective. Among several maps of this kind that of Horyuzi is certainly the oldest and the most authentic in existence, though even it is not quite free from alterations.A  The others are very far from being in their original condition. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.A  Which is, in Nakamuraa€™s opinion, still not correct, for it contains not only the Western Regions but India and China also, so that Terazima is right in calling it The Map of the Western Regions and of the Indies, the title he gives to his small reproduction of part of Hiuen-thoanga€™s map.
This idea does not arise simply from the imagination, for the Hindus and the Chinese, like the Greeks, believed that an immense, unnavigable ocean entirely surrounded the habitable world. Yet in face of the number of early references to maps it cannot be doubted that they had, under the Tsa€™in Dynasty, maps sufficiently exact for their own purposes. This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.A  With the exception of many quaint islands lying scattered in the surrounding seas, this map has much in common with JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s, the central continent consisting of India, with the place-names from the Si-yA?-ki, and of China under the Ming Dynasty. In the Ta€™u-shu-pien map the eastern coastline of the continent is represented with approximate accuracy, yet Fu-lin is drawn on the western side, is a fictitious peninsula similar to Korea on the east, so as to keep the symmetrical figure of the continent of Jambu-dvipa.
He was an Australian whoa€™d become virtually the dean of the foreign correspondent corps in East Asia, based in Hong Kong and before that in Tokyo. But The Baritsu Chapter continued to grow, and lives on today at least in the hearts of some, for Hughes over the years made many deserving individuals (even some undeserving, such as this seriesa€™s editor) members of the society. Watson, Jnr.a€? to sign mystery book reviews for the Australian press, and a 1944 collection of Australian true-crime accounts, Dr.
In Macao, Hughes introduced Fleming to the syndicate that ran the vice there, took him to the a€?very besta€? brothel in town, and there taught him how to lose at fan-tan, while telling the girlsa€™ fortunes.
In a short time, Hughes had received instructions to accept the KGBa€™s offer (but to demand double, so it would take him seriously), and pass along the data that MI6 would provide from time to time. Young Hughes told the author how he used to tell his school mates some of the Sherlock Holmes stories. Ia€™d be delighted.a€™a€? He did so, and came to conclusions contrary to those of the police, and wrote the news story a€?in true Sherlock Holmes stylea€? a€” and was soon proven correct. She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling.Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul. In bru art, you can draw flower figures that are traditional from the Ottoman period BUT the things that you can capable of by using Ebru art is unlimited.
To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water. Vitus,a€? about what Elmer Davis based his BSI Constitution & Buy Laws upon, prompted me to put it together hastily for the BSIa€™s 75th anniversary, in large part out of past papers for Five Orange Pips dinners. Once that item was in hand (appropriately enough, the day of the Pipsa€™ dinner), I decided to put together this volume to mark the 75th anniversary of the Baker Street Irregulars.
As others know, the way is generally long, usually difficult, often frus-trating, and occasionally bitter.
Frank Houdek and Tim Spencer of E Clampus Vitus kindly disclosed some secrets of their Lodge to me, and I hope are not compromised by this grateful acknowledgment. The BSIa€™s Buy Laws have been amended many times over the years, usually unremarked by the membership (seen but not observed, Sherlock Holmes might say), and only one of those times seems to have had even a semblance of procedural legitimacy. Smitha€™s minutes of that night say: a€?The first order of business under the Constitution was the drinking of the canonical toasts. This was his first BSI dinner, and he was some distance down the table from its head.4 As his own minutes say, a€?Mr. The so-called deluxe edition of the book, whose 1500 copies more than sufficed to satisfy the market for it, contained a a€?Note on the Baker Street Irregularsa€? by Edgar W.
Qualification A begins: a€?If said two [members] are of the opposite sexes, they shall use care in selecting the place of the meeting,a€? and so on.
Smith backing up what I am about to suggest, but my surmise is that the BSI heard from many people wishing to join after reading Profile by Gaslight, and that quite a few of them were women.5 And that reference to the opposite sex in the BSI was quietly eliminated from the next public appearance of the Buy Laws as a result. Baring-Gould (a€?The a€?Gloria Scott,a€™a€? 1952) gave a faulty version to the public in an introductory chapter to The Annotated Sherlock Holmes a€” unofficial, but broadcast very widely over the years that followed.
It was an attractive product, that leaflet, and doubtless an improvement on the response to public inquiry under the previous rather testy regime.
See chapter 6, a€?The Sherlock Holmes Crossword,a€? in Irregular Memories of the a€™Thirties. Each of these five regions is again divided into many kingdoms a€“ those current during the career of Buddha. They all represent a large, imaginary India, where Buddha was born, as the heart of the world, but also depictions of Europe and the New World. The largest part of the map is dedicated to Jambudvipa with the sacred Lake of Anavatapta (Lake Manasarovar in the Himalayas, a whirlpool-like quadruple helix lake believed to be the center of the universe and, in Buddhist mythology, to be the legendary site where Queen Maya conceived the Buddha). Also, in the upper left corner there are 102 references from Buddhist holy writings and Chinese annals that are mentioned to increase the credibility of the map. China and Korea appear to the west of Japan and are vaguely identifiable geographically, which itself represents a significant advancement over the Gotenjikuzu map. Thus, on this map we see, in addition to the mythical Anukodatchi-pond which represents the center of the universe and from which flow four rivers in the four cardinal directions, in the left-hand upper corner of the map a region designated as Euroba, around which are grouped, clockwise, the following named countries: Umukari (Hungary?), Oranda, Barantan, Komo (Holland, the country of the redhaired), Aruhaniya (Albania), Itaryia (Italy), Suransa (France) and Inkeresu (England). Whether this represents ancient knowledge from early Chinese navigations in this region, for which there is some literary if not historical evidence, or merely a printing error, we can only speculate. Another, almost analogous edition of the same map, also dated 1710, but published by Chobei Nagata in Kyoto, is reproduced in George H. The names of the countries, written in the rectangles are in Chinese and Tibetan characters. Both maps came from the same temple so that they must have been co-existent there, and moreover, there is reason to believe that both had their origin at almost the same period.
Evidently the composition of this map owed much to the ideas of Chih-pa€™an and JA?n- cha€™aoa€™s book contains another map entitled Tun-chA?n-tan-kuo-ta€™u [Map of the Eastern Region or China], which followed Chih-pa€™ana€™s Topographical Map of the Eastern Region or China. Possibly one such prototype of JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map, introduced into Japan and repeatedly copied, constituted the greatly transfigured SyA»gaisyA? map. But instead of the geometrical figure, its coastline is drawn more realistically and is indented. But with regard to their representation of both the central continent and outlying islands, these two maps have very little in common and there seems to be no need to seek any particular relation between them. Certainly the map is full of inaccurate and even false information, but it gave the Chinese people a fresh conception of the world in contrast to their traditional view of their own country as the center of the world both culturally and geographically. There are not many of these Chinese world maps in Japan, but the remaining Daimin Kyuhen Bankoku Jinseki Rotei Zenzu, of various sizes, are common. The place names are derived from mythical places noted in Chinese classics and from known lands around China, which occupies the centre 'of the map. But whatever the authorship of the map there is no doubt that it was brought from China by a religious student, whether Kukai or another. Jambudvipa is the Indian name for the great continent south of the cosmic Mount Meru, marked on this map by a central spiral.
Even in those remote times, he says, there existed manuscript maps, named Go-Tenziku-Zu [Map of the Five Indies] in the most famous temples, but they were even worse than that of the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. But these maps treat India as the heart of their world, and consequently we can say that they never recognized the European world maps. On the verso is the title, Go Tenjiku-Zu, but neither authora€™s name nor date.A  The inscriptions are only partly completed. Japan and Korea, northeast of the central continent, having no connection with the Si-yA?-ki, must be later additions. Under the Han Dynasty maps played a very important part in political and military affairs, and many of them covered a vast area. As for the contents of the map, more respect was paid to the old classical authority than to the new geographical findings, so that many quaint, legendary place-names were mentioned to advertise the bigoted belief that the world of Buddhist teaching included even the farthest corners.
I had originally gotten in touch with him when I saw an essay of his in 1974, in the Far Eastern Economic Review, entitled a€?Confucius, Lin Piao a€” and Sherlock Holmes,a€? in order to reprint it in Baker Street Miscellanea.
Watsona€™s Case Book: Studies in Mystery and Crime (dedicated a€?in reverent and humble tribute to The Master, Sherlock Holmesa€?). MARBLING APPLIED TO PAPER PATTERNS,Marbling is similar to cooking; it is impossible to give the exact recipe. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. It was dedicated a€?In memory of Dee Alexander and Ronald Mansbridge, two treasured correspondents who were there.a€? Miriam a€?Deea€? Alexander had been Edgar W. As we proceed, pray ask yourself at strategic intervals whether any of these amendments were for the better or not. The first official publication occurred ten years after the original appearance of the Constitution & Buy Laws, in Edgar W. Revision of this Constitutional requirement was, however, adopted, viva voce, and amendment to the Constitution hereby imposed, in that it is required hereafter that the toast shall not be canonical but Conanical.a€?3 This was intended as a salute to that nighta€™s prickly visitor and his dear dead Daddy, for all the good it did subsequent relations between the BSI and the Conan Doyle Estate.
Watsona€™s Second Wife.a€? In short, half the Constitutionally mandated toasts were ignored at that dinner, the first in four years, and one of the toasts proposed was altered in meaning as well as wording. Qualification B alludes to said members being excused from the strictures of Qualification A if they are clients of the Personal Column of the Saturday Review.
He seems to have taken his version of the Buy Laws from Vincent Starretta€™s new chapter about the BSI in the revised edition (University of Chicago Press, 1960) of The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes.
But by now you should not be surprised to hear that it perpetuated this irregular tradition of tampering with what should be Sacred Writ. Hence the membership of people like Don Marquis, Frank Henry, Bucky Fuller and other friends of Chris Morleya€™s who couldna€™t be annoyed with studying the Sacred Writings. Watsona€™s Secreta€? by none other than Christopher Morley, in his collection of essays Streamlines (Doubleday, Doran, 1936), so we live in hope of a second edition of Shrefflera€™s book, not only containing Morleya€™s essay but correcting the first editiona€™s faulty version of Elmer Davisa€™s Buy Laws.


The Himalayas are shown as snow-capped peaks in the center of the map, and Mount Sumeru, the mythical center of the cosmos, is depicted in the whirlpool-like form. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo. During this time period Japan maintained an isolationist policy which began in 1603 with the Edo period under the military ruler Tokugawa Ieyasu, and lasting for nearly 270 years.
From the quadruple beast headed helix (heads of a horse, a lion, an elephant, and an ox) of Manasarovar or Lake Anavatapta radiate the four sacred rivers of the region: the Indus, the Ganges, the Bramaputra [Oxus], and the Sutlej [Tarim].
Strong impression, printed on several sheets of native paper, joined; colored fully in yellow and ochre, and a few marks in red. Southeast Asia also makes one of its first appearances in a Japanese Buddhist map as an island cluster to the east of India.
Europe, which had no place at all in earlier Buddhist world maps, makes this one of the first Japanese maps to depict Europe.
No one succeeded in deciphering these until Professor Teramoto did so, publishing his findings at the end of 1931 in an article entitled a€?Relations between Japan and Tibet in the history of Japana€? (#208). It is not very probable that the originators of these two maps tried deliberately to represent the world in two different ways. Did the draughtsman of this Buddhist pilgrima€™s itinerary exaggerate, making these travels represent the whole world?
The forerunner of these maps can therefore be traced back far beyond the end of the Ming Dynasty. What attracts particular attention is that Fu-lin [the Byzantine Empire], west of the continent, is represented as a peninsula symmetrical with Korea in the east. It is true that among the Korean mappaemundi may be found one almost exactly like the Ta€™u-shuh-pien map. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.A  The latter, delighted with this wonderful Buddhist geographical treasure, and deeming it too rare and important to keep to himself, caused another copy of it to be made, for what he had received was only a rough sketch.
In spite of this authora€™s boasting his map is, in reality, according to Nakamura nothing but a mutilated copy of the a€?Map of the Five Indies,a€? made up from a confusion of heterogeneous and anachronistic materials, and including topographic names from the time of the Chan-hai-king up to modern times, some betraying European influence.
In their maps the Buddhists connected the Five Continents with the Spiritual World where the spirit of human beings must go after death. In the Horyuzi and Hoyuzi and Hosyoin maps the Japanese Archipelago is shown by a birda€™s eye view, in Hotana€™s map and in its reduced reproduction it is shown in plan, adopted from a modern map, and in the SyA»gaisyA? map Korea has been placed in a rectangle to the northeast of the central continent in place of Japan.
In putting forward the idea that the Chinese of the 7th and 8th centuries believed that the geographical knowledge acquired by Hiuen-tchoang in his travels was concerned with the whole of the then known world we are saying that their world had become smaller than that known in the Han period, which is impossible. The invention of paper at the beginning of the second century, by the eunuch Tsa€™ai Louen, made possible a great step forward in cartography, thanks to its handiness, and its cheapness compared with wooden or bamboo tablets, or the linen or silk stuffs in use up to that time. In the text of the Ta€™u-shu-pien is found a quotation from the prefatory note written by an unknown priest who drew this map.
The problem now was to introduce heterogeneous information without conflict with the Buddhist teachings and to give the dogma some apparent plausibility.
Countries like Korea, Japan and Ryuku are only described in the text and are not represented on the map. He readily gave permission for that, and in the correspondence that followed, made me a member of The Baritsu Chapter, the BSI scion society (really a society of its own) that he had co-founded in Tokyo in 1948. This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. Turkish is a very rich country in respect of such natural dyes.Any kind of earth may be first translated into mud then filtered and crushed to from a dye.
Smitha€™s second Irregular Secretary at GM Overseas Operations during 1949-49, and in her old age had a memory for detail about her boss, his family, and his Irregular friends that was remarkable. Rich, editors emeritus extraordinaire, proofread it for me, but under the same pressure of time, and any errors that survive in this volume were made by me. Nicholas Utechin commissioned a€?The BSI at Seventya€? for the Sherlock Holmes Journal in 2003, and Roger Johnson, his successor as editor, urged its inclusion here. Morley always had a casual, not to say cavalier attitude toward these things, since he considered the BSI his personal property and plaything, to do with, or to do nothing with, as he pleased. This appearance referred to canonical toasts which shall be drunk, without identifying them in either Buy Law 1 or a footnote.
As a matter of fact, by God, I doubt like hell if Bill Hall could ever have passed a really probing quiz in those early days.
A much reduced China (Changa€™an is visible on the plain at the upper right) is labeled a€?Great Tanga€?.
Although knowing the world map by Matteo Ricci, published in Peking in 1602, Japanese maps mainly showed a purely Sino-centric view, or, with acknowledge-ment of Buddhist traditional teaching, the Buddhist habitable world with an identifiable Indian sub-continent. In essence this is a traditional Buddhist world-view in the Gotenjikuzu mold centered on the world-spanning continent of Jambudvipa. Africa appears as a small island in the western sea identified as the a€?Land of Western Women.a€? Hiroshi Nakamura regarded this map, therefore, simply a mutilated copy of the Map of the Five Indies which is said to have come to Japan about 835, and a copy of which, dating from the 14th century, is preserved in the Horyuji Temple of Nara, Japan. Moreover, the geometrical form of the Sino-Tibetan map was foreign to China, so that it must owe something to western influence. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference. Perhaps this indicates that people were no longer content with geographical representations in an unrealistic form, as the pilgrimage map of Holy India had been transformed into the map of the world, in which the intellectual interest requires a more objective and concrete image. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map. Ninkai, Ryoseki and Dyogetu drew the map, while Ryogetu, Keigi and Zyunsin added the place-names, collating and correcting them according to the Si-yA?-ki and other works. Drawn by a Japanese Buddhist monk of the Kegon sect and published in Kyoto in 1710, this map is based on earlier Japanese Buddhist world maps that illustrate the pilgrimage to India of the Chinese monk Xuanzang (602a€“664).
This map became the prototype of Buddhist world maps, the Nan-en-budai Shokoku Shuran no Zu (a world map), the date of which is still uncertain, and the Sekai Daiso Zu (a world map), En-bu-dai-Zu (a world map), Tenjuku Yochi Zu (a map of India), a trilogy by Sonto, a Buddhist, are derived from Hotana€™s world map. We shall presently see what really was the extent of geographical and cartographical knowledge in the Thang period. At the same time the expansion of geographical knowledge under the Han Dynasty brought out the importance of the invention of paper. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.A A  In this map the Han-hai [Large Sea] is represented as a desert and the River Huang rises in Lake Oden-tala. According to it, the map was newly compiled on the basis three maps in the Fo-tsu-ta€™ung-ki, as well as many other materials. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.A  Any close relationship, beyond this, can hardly be imagined between the Chinese Buddhist World Map and the Korean Tchien-ha-tchong-do.
So it was of course quite inconceivable that the compiler of this map should utilize the newly acquired information for the purpose of altering the dogmatic notion of the world.
The fact that such dogmatic world maps were widely favored in old Japan shows that some Japanese in the Age of National Isolation believed China to be the center of the world and all the other countries to be in subordination to her.A  The sheet under discussion is a reprint by the book dealer Yahaku Umemura in Kyoto, which is tentatively dated 1700 by Professor Kurita.
Decades of covering war and peace in the Far East made him acquainted with the great men and villains of many nations. It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. I hope its revelations about the BSIa€™s beginnings and early years will compensate for its faults. First, the four toasts previously provided by footnote in Profile by Gaslight were now moved, with undue and illegitimate formality, into the body of Buy Law 1. Then Baring-Goulda€™s version of Buy Law 3 split the difference between the 1944 and 1948 official appearances by retaining Qualification A but omitting Qualification B. His defense, when threatened with inquiry, was to roar (and I use the word deliberately a€” ROAR), a€?Dona€™t put me to the question!a€? Ask him and dare him, for me, to deny it. Directly across from China, over the stormy seas, the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku and the form of Honshu can be detected.
The map was drawn by the scholar-priest Zuda Rokashi, founder of Kegonji Temple in Kyoto, and illustrates the fusion of existing Buddhist and poorly known European cartography.
For it is a historical fact that, under the Thangs, the Chinese, having conquered the eastern Turks, annexed an immense territory, stretching from Tarbagatai in the north to the Indus in the south, and their national prestige was then at its zenith. This could not have been so, for Hiuena€™s travels were not always mapped in the form of a shield. And this growth of geographical consciousness led to a fresh demand for maps to comprise the whole of the known world. Hotan has not drawn the route of this famous pilgrim here, but the toponymy of India and Central Asia accords with Xuanzanga€™s account. The special features of these maps are the representation of an imaginary India, where Buddha was born, and the illustration of the religious world as expounded by Buddhists. All these heterogeneous elements, so different from the other parts of the map are clearly the result of retouching at a later date, so that, in its most authentic form, the map of Hiuen-tchonga€™s itinerary had doubtless the shape of a shield, with a few small, rocky islands near the south and southeast coasts of the central continent, but without showing either Japan or Korea. But it was not until the middle of the third century that the correct scientific principles for the production of a good map were enunciated. Therein lies the character and limitation of the Buddhist maps.A  The Ta€™u-shu-pien map was rough and small, but as it appeared in a popular encyclopedia, it attracted wide attention, which in time came to affect even the maps produced in Japan.
He had sparred with all of them without ever giving an inch, while living life to the fullest. Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.hakan hacibekiroglu,Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul? It is often employed as a writing surface fo calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . Interestingly, several variations developed in time, giving us types such as gelgit, tarakli, hatip, bulbul yuvasi, cicekli (respectively come-and-go, combed, preacher, nightingale's nest, flowered, etc.) An attempt has been made here to show some of its principal patterns, with samples by the master marblers of this century chosen from our collection.
Ronald Mansbridge (a€?A Case of Identity,a€? BSI) when he died in September 2004 was closing in on his 101th birthday which would have occurred on November 11th that year. Central Intelligence Agency, in my experience the one unfailingly reliable part of that peculiar institution. And even if so, it is the only change to the Buy Laws we shall consider of which that could possibly be said. Seventeen years after Baring-Gould, Philip Shreffler (a€?Jefferson Hope,a€? 1974), in his otherwise near-perfect anthology The Baker Street Reader (Greenwood Press, 1984),6 unwittingly passed along this faulty Starrett version of the Buy Laws to another generation of readers. The language is Chinese, except for a few Japanese characters on the illustrations of European countries. They were constantly in touch diplomatically and commercially with Tibet, Persia, Arabia, India and other countries both by land and sea. There is one map of his journeys, drawn as an itinerary, preserved in the Tongdosa Temple in the province of Kei-shodo (south) in Korea.
The shape of the central continent is just the same as in the Korean mappamundi, as was demonstrated also by the hybrid map.
It was Pa€™ei Hsiu, 234-271, who formulated them so that he may rightly be called the father of Chinese cartography. To sum up, taking over Chih-pa€™ana€™s view of China as equal with India, and on the basis of the theory of four divisions of the world implicit in the Map of the Five Indies, JA?n-cha€™ao tried to reunify the world which had been disintegrated into three regional maps in the Fo-tsu- ta€™ung-ki, and he thus succeeded in offering an image of the whole of Jambu-dvipa anew. Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Betul !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . The density of the gummed water and the relationships between the water and the dye, the dye and the tensioning agent (gall), the quantity of gall in the dye are all very important. Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul? EXPERIENCE the sensuous flow of Ottoman Calligraphy,CONTEMPORARY create designs with Turkish patternts on tiles,Our teacher that is shown in the pictures are Mrs.
Starrett remarked in 1960 that a€?our constitution and buy laws, written by Elmer Davis, is a unique document that readers may care to see in full,a€? but that has long been a damn sight harder than it ought to be.
Europe is shown at upper left as a group of islands, which can be identified from Iceland to England, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary and Turkey, but deliberately deleting the Iberian Peninsula.
Under the Thangs China had attained to a high degree of civilization, perhaps the highest it has ever reached, and cartography then made remarkable progress.
At the lower right South America is featured as an island south of Japan with a small peninsula as part of Central America, carrying just a few place-names including four Chinese characters whose phonetic Japanese reading is a€?A-ME-RI-KAa€?. The scroll begins on the extreme right with the Touen-houang region and finishes with Ceylon. Walter Simmons, the Far Eastern representative of the Chicago Tribune, and one of Hughesa€™ greatest friends, hosted the first historic lunch,a€? and so on about The Baritsu Chaptera€™s adventures, drawn from the chapter about it in Hughesa€™ 1972 book Foreign Devil: Thirty Years of Reporting from the Far East.
Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking.
North of Japan, a land bridge joins Asia with an unnamed landmass, presumably North America.
It is dated April 1652, lunar calendar, is roughly drawn and has no special interest from the geographical point of view, but it serves to prove that the map of the travels of Hiuen-tchoang was not always drawn in shield form. It may be because the Buddhist Holy Writings referred to some islands belonging to Jambu-dvipa that the compiler of this map arranged islands around the central continent so as to represent the various data obtained from sources other than the Si-yA?-ki or the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. To our great regret is has disappeared without any trace, but the author of the stela map at Si-gna-fou, engraved in 1137 (#217), of which the original drawing was made before the middle of the 11th century, said that he had consulted it, and that it contained many hundreds of kingdoms. At the time of his death Ronald was the sole living survivor of the last BSI annual dinner at Christ Cellaa€™s old speakeasy in 1936, and the first Murray Hill Hotel dinner in 1940. In older times rainwater was favorite but because of acide rain in our times it is no longer advisable.
Paper: The ideal paper is the one handmade and having a high absorbtion capacity and acid-free. Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain “the back-and-forth”.
Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Bahar !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . In order to increasethe absorbtion capaticy and to fix the dye on it(more durable) and alumina solution may be applied on the paper surface. When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a “nightingale nest”. In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the “sprinkled marbling”. If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the “prophyry marble” which resemble most to marble.,Nonetheless above patterns may be divesified by selecting one of the above as a basis and making concentric drops of different colors. Mehmet Efendi (the orator of Saint Sophia, deceased in 1973) first formed flower and other patterns, wich were subsequenly called the “Orator pattern” (Hatip ebrusu). For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out. The paper is then careflly lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface. This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator (if any). Hikmet BARUTCUGIL,Mimar Sinan University paper marbling, fabric marbling, faux marbling, parrys graining and marbling, marbling paint, contemporary create design fabric marbling paper technique traditional, Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul.Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms.



Numerology in tarot
Business as per numerology


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