18.06.2014

Books on south indian astrology

Today, African cinema is dominated by the works of African filmmakers who have transformed the media into their own platform to elevate social, political and cultural issues to a national and international level. This change has sparked a great deal of discussion and literature and created many wonderful discourses. Black African Cnema by Nwachukwu Frank Ukadike (University of California Press, 1994) (Zed Books, UK, 1991) 264 pp. Nigerian cinema is Africa's largest movie industry in terms of both value and the number of movies produced per year.
Sankofa - Mypheduh Films Site for Haile Gerimaa€™s films-Sankofa, Bush Mama, Harvest 3,000 Years, merchandise. Afro-Vision encourages use of its Web material by students and scholars for nonprofit educational and research purposes.
Black African Cnema by Nwachukwu Frank UkadikeA  (University of California Press, 1994) (Zed Books, UK, 1991) 264 pp.
A A A  Nigerian cinema is Africa's largest movie industry in terms of both value and the number of movies produced per year.
The map is rendered entirely in silver and gold colors, achieving a splendid decorative effect. Like many other maps of al-Qazwini, this too shows the seven climatic zones and indeed the emphasis of the map is on the climatic observations and related detailed descriptions.
Al-Qazwini world map from his Monuments of Places, copy dated 1580, a€?Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, USA, Ref. The above indicate the extent of Islamic cartographersa€™ knowledge regarding the solar day cycles at extreme latitudes, though there is the possibility that these legends may have been added to the 13th century original map by latter-date copiers.
Most of the map is occupied by Africa and the unknown southern lands, while Europe and Asia occupy most of the lower half at the map.
The sea to the left of the map (east) is the Pacific Ocean and the one in the top middle is the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea. Most of the manuscripts of al-Qazwinia€™s a€?Ajaa€™ib al-makhluqat have a completely different map of the world. Hamd Allah Mustawfia€™s world map, described by Hyunhee Park, also uses a grid, although it does not display longitude and latitude. Hamd Allah Mustawfi sets himself apart from his predecessors by dividing foreign countries into two categories: Those that have close relation with the Il-khanate and those that were situated far from the Islamic world and were not built by Mongol governors. That said, Hamd Allah Mustawfia€™s plausible longitudinal and latitudinal figures distinguish his geography from previous generations of Islamic geographers.
His description of Khitaya€™s capital Khan Baligh, built by Khubilai Khan, certainly utilizes updated information, most likely from Rashid al-Dina€™s work. Hamd Allah Mustawfia€™s image of Machin as a great and extensive kingdom and its Mongol name Nankiyas match the account of Rashid al-Din. These sources show that Muslims living in the Il-khanate in Iran made quite significant advancements in the development of geography and cartography of the world during the Mongol period.
Al-Qazwinia€™s sketch of the distribution of land and sea from his Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things - Re-oriented with North at the top with place-names.
The earliest example of scholars who wrote geographic accounts under Mongol patronage, the famous Iranian geographer and cosmographer Zakariyaa€™ b.
A map sketch of the world found in al-Qazwinia€™s famous 'Ajdib al-makhlriqat wa-ghardib al-mawji-idat [Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing] also reveals the continued influence of the earlier Arabic geographic tradition in the lands of the Islamic world under Mongol rule. This sketch map by al-Qazwini was obviously influenced by that of al-Biruni from the 11th century (#214.3). What new sources did al-Qazwini use to write his geographic studies including the sketch map?
The accumulation of knowledge among Muslim scholars culminated in a work that was written at the apogee of Mongol dominion over Eurasia and deeply influenced Muslim thinking about the world. The seven parallel climatic zone lines dominate the map, with the gulfs represented by wedge-like shapes, cutting into the climatic zones.
The countries shown on the map are predominantly Islamic ones, but some non-Islamic countries such as Rum [Byzantium], Bulgaria, Saqaliba [the Slavs] and Rus [Russia] are also featured. Al-Qazwini zonal world map from his Athar-al Bilad wa Akhbar al Ibad, 1329, a€?British Library, London, MS. Al-Qazwini world map from his Monuments of Places, copy dated 1580, Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, USA, Ref. Al-Qazwini zonal world map from his Athar-al Bilad wa Akhbar al Ibad, 1329, British Library, London, MS. A recent publication listed films produced between 1997-8 into thematic categories that could support classroom studies. According to Hala Gorani and Jeff Koinange formerly of CNN, Nigeria has a US$250 million movie industry, churning out some 200 videos for the home video market every month.
Although Nigerian films have been produced since the 1960s, the rise of affordable digital filming and editing technologies has stimulated the country's video film industry.
The present map is highly ornate, detailed and covered with silver and gold leaf, gold for the mountains and silver for the seas.


The peninsula surrounded by six islands is China, and to its right is the Indian Sea [Gulf of Bengal]. It is dated on internal evidence to the early 17th century, although as a writer al-Qazwini (died 1283) is considerably earlier than al-Harrani (fl. This is the third type of world map and represents al-Birunia€™s sketch map of the distribution of land and sea (#214.3).
The map resembles the earlier sketch of land and sea that al-Qazwini drew in the 13th century, including its separation of Africa into two peninsulas.
His description of its capital Khansay as the largest city in the world with a large lake in the middle and a great population echoes the account by Marco Polo, who stated that a€?it is without doubt the finest and most splendid city in the world.a€? He continues describing Khansaya€™s warm climate and abundant sugarcane and rice crop production, the citya€™s great population that extends upwards of 10,000, and its political situation in which a few Muslims hold power over the many non-Muslim Chinese. Muhammad al-Qazwini, exemplifies this innovative trend in geography and cartography in the Islamic world. The scholar dedicated Marvels of Things Created to the governor of Baghdad, Juwayni, who authored History of the World-Conqueror, a chronicle of Chinggis Khan. The Compendium of Chronicles, written first in Persian and immediately translated into Arabic, was compiled in 1308 by Rashid al-Din (1247a€” 1318), the son of a Jewish apothecary family who converted to Islam during his early adolescence.
1553 manuscript of al-Qazwini showing the New World (right side) similar to the 1507 representation by WaldseemA?ller (Book IV, #310). It is oriented with South at the top and is very basic, omitting even the oceans and landmasses. These wedges are named (from the left) the Ahdar Gulf, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of the Berbers.
Many of the earliest were a€?documentarya€? or a€?ethnographica€? in nature and featured images of extraordinarily isolated peoples, often with cultural traditions including body scarification or mutilation. The categories included gender studies, political democracy, urban studies, economic development, folklife and more. Outside the northernmost zone, below the seven habitable zones the inscription reads: There is not enough sun and due to the cold there are no animals here. Interestingly, the treatise also follows the traditional system of grouping the world into seven different climes, locating the broad wide kingdom of Chin stretching over the second, third, and fourth climes. It is of the First and Second Climes, and its capital is the city of Khansay [Hangzhou], which some call Siyahan. Born into a family that settled in Qazvin in Persia, al-Qazwini served politically in several localities throughout the Il-khanate, including Persia, Baghdad, Mesopotamia, and Syria. While it concentrates mainly on supra-terrestrial matters like angels, the second part of al-Qazwinia€™s book describes the division of the earth into seven climates and charts the worlda€™s known seas and rivers. Al-Qazwinia€™s map portrays China as a major subcontinent at the eastern edge of the northern hemisphere; that is, as an important and large region as big as India and the Arabian world.
He rose to prominence in the court of the seventh Il-khanate ruler Ghazan Khan, and eventually served as prime minister where he became well known for his many economic reforms. The map is typical Islamic, with the inhabited world divided into seven climatic zones, from south to north.
The former work deals with the subjects of planets, stars, angels, the elements, minerals, plants, and animals. To the south of the seven inhabited zones the inscriptions read: There is no information about this region and due to the extreme heat there are no animals in this region. At the same time, Hamd Allah Mustawfi portrays the Eurasian and African landmasses more realistically, and not simply as a diagram with fixed geographic shapes.
For example, in his description about Chin [North China formerly under Jurchen rule], he accurately says that the Mongols designated this land as Manzi at that time.
This is a mighty city, and it was called originally Changda; and Qubilay Khan built another city outside the same. They say that in all the habitable world there is no greater city than this, or at any rate that in the regions of the east there is no larger town.
After his retirement, he wrote his two monumental works, one geographical and the other cosmographical. His description of China contains no new information and simply describes the country as a large territory with many people and resources. It continues to depict Africa as a continent in shape but cleaves Africa into two halves divided by the Nile River.
The Baghdad governora€™s History provides important information about the political developments surrounding the Mongol conquest in Persia and elsewhere.
Perhaps in gratitude, Ghazan Khan gave Rashid al-Din a special commission to write this monumental work.
The former work deals with the subjects of planets, stars, angels, the elements, minerals, plants, and animals.A  As in the case of the encyclopedias of medieval Europe, the work is a compilation of the superficial knowledge of the day, without much attempt to interpret or integrate it with contemporary data. They are professional feature length filmsa€“dramas, comedies, historical epics, artistic filmsa€“projecting stories that are grounded inside of African cultures and filmed in African languages (with subtitles). This is reminiscent of Macrobiusa€™ (#201) central a€?Torrida€? or a€?Perustaa€? (parched) zone. The River Nile is shown with eight tributaries, which join together to flow into another lake and thence to the Mediterranean, which is the unevenly shaped sea connected at the right to the surrounding ocean and named Bahr-i-Misr [Sea of Egypt].


Clearly, Hamd Allah Mustawfi attempted to represent the world in a new way, rather than simply borrow earlier ideas. The claims in this passage a€” that the majority of the population worshiped idols, that all arts and crafts had reached perfection, and that numerous great cities flourished throughout the land a€” mostly constitute the recycling of earlier accounts of China and present the same stereotypes of China and the Chinese that appear in earlier Muslim accounts. Of other great towns and well-known districts are the following: Nanking [Nanjing], where a great river runs through the city, Tabaksik [?], Qala€™ah Shikat [?], and Almaska [?]. His geographical dictionary, entitled Athar al-bilad [Monuments of the Lands], drew heavily on Yaquta€™s Geographical Dictionary, written earlier in the century.
Yet the attached sketch showing the distribution of land and water in the world is noteworthy because of its unique portrayal of China and Africa.
In fact, al-Biruni was the first geographer who argued that the Indian Ocean must be connected to the Atlantic through waters that ran south of the Mountains of the Moon, the legendary sources of the Nile.
Al-Qazwini probably received some information or ideas about China from his patron, who had access to up-to-date information about eastern Asia.
This work initiated a new genre of writing in Muslim scholarship, one that covers the historical developments of the worlda€™s diverse societies in unified fashion and chronological order. The first zone is near the equator and the region near the North Pole above the seventh zone is the Northern uninhabited zone.
However, its influence was still far-reaching, and it was quoted, paraphrased and translated for centuries.A  The illustrations, likewise, were handed down in traditional form. The north polar area bears the inscription: In this region from Aries to Libra is one day from Libra to Aries is one night.
The Black Sea branches from the middle of the Mediterranean and extends northwards to join the ocean at the north of the landmass. Hamd Allah Mustawfia€™s map also differs significantly from the sketch maps of al-Qazwini and the Treasury of Tabriz map in its depiction of China.
On many other maps, this designation has been used for South Africa, however not on Mustawfi al-Qazwini.
Al-Qazwini innovatively rearranged Yaquta€™s rubrics from seven climates to the letters of the alphabet: Nonetheless, the work borrows heavily from Yaqui.
It is likely that al-Qazwini, who was influenced by al-Biruni when drawing this sketch, applied al-Birunia€™s theory faithfully.
Juwayni learned about the Mongols in the course of serving them, in addition to gaining knowledge about the Qara-Khitai in Central Asia and the Uighurs further east. Rashid al-Din originally sought to write a history of the Il-khanate in order to commemorate the origins, history and achievements of the Mongols.
Many of al-Qazwinia€™s manuscript copies also contain a map of his native city of Qazwin, one of the ancient cities of Iran.
The inscription in the South Pole reads: From the beginning of Libra to the end of Pisces is one day and from Aries to the end of Virgo - one night.
The rivers Dejle [Tigris) and Forat [Euphrates] are shown connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Thompson showed this map to Professor Fazi Khoury of the Far Eastern Studies Department at the University of Washington in Seattle, and he said: a€?This is conclusive proof that the Muslims discovered America. Most importantly, however, al-Qazwinia€™s Geographical Dictionary provides clear evidence that Arabic geographic traditions continued to influence academic circles in the Islamic world under Mongol-rule profoundly. The scholarly governor probably continued to amass more information about the wider world and this influenced other scholars in the Il-khanate like al-Qazwini.
However, Ghazan died just before the booka€™s completion and his successor OljeitA? (reigned 1304-1316) took over sponsorship of the project and broadened its scope to embrace a history of the entire world.
It must however be mentioned that the maps in different manuscripts of the same work do differ from each other significantly. Transliterations of al-Qazwinia€™s version can also be found in Konrad Millera€™s Mappae arabicae, Band 5,129-30 (Bild 6 and 7) (note 7). The rivers Arax and Kura we also depicted joining and flowing into the Caspian, the former being connected to the River Tigris and toe latter to the Black Sea.
Despite the fuzzy representation of China on this map, his written survey of foreign countries provides a fuller and more complex description of Chinaa€™s geographic features.
Between the Tigris and Arax rivers the inscription Arminiya [Armenia] can faintly be made out. Hamd Allah Mustawfi consulted earlier Arabic geographers like Ibn Khurdadhbih in researching his treatise; however, he also adds unprecedented information about countries based on Persian sources. For example, he divides China politically into Chin, Khitay, and Machin a€” the same divisions that Rashid al-Din used in his Compendium of Chronicles. The small rectangular lake at the left (east) of the fold is the Sea of Aral, with the rivers Jeihun [Oxus, or Amu-Darya] and Seihun [Jaxartes or Sir-Darya) rising from Central Asia and flowing into it.



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