15.10.2015

Day number 5 life number 9

Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas, and their importation of Africans as slaves, has led to centuries of conflict and adjustment between Old and New World societies. The differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations of each culture through the centuries, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence and social disruption.
After the colonies revolted against Great Britain and established the United States of America, President George Washington and Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preparation for assimilation as U.S. The first European Americans to encounter the western interior tribes were generally fur traders and trappers. Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands with sovereignty and treaty rights. Map showing the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory). Other than Neolithic Revolution, "Neolithic" is used to describe advanced stone age cultures in Eurasia, Africa, and other regions and is not usually used to describe Native American cultures.
According to the most generally accepted theory of the settlement of the Americas, migrations of humans from Eurasia to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The Clovis culture, a megafauna hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Numerous Paleoindian cultures occupied North America, with some arrayed around the Great Plains and Great Lakes of the modern United States of America and Canada, as well as adjacent areas to the West and Southwest.
The Folsom Tradition was characterized by use of Folsom points as projectile tips, and activities known from kill sites, where slaughter and butchering of bison took place.
Na-Dene-speaking peoples entered North America starting around 8000 BCE, reaching the Pacific Northwest by 5000 BCE,[26] and from there migrating along the Pacific Coast and into the interior.
Since the 1990s, archeologists have explored and dated eleven Middle Archaic sites in present-day Louisiana and Florida at which early cultures built complexes with multiple earthwork mounds; they were societies of hunter-gatherers rather than the settled agriculturalists believed necessary according to the theory of Neolithic Revolution to sustain such large villages over long periods. Poverty Point culture is a Late Archaic archaeological culture that inhabited the area of the lower Mississippi Valley and surrounding Gulf Coast. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations, who were connected by a common network of trade routes,[31] known as the Hopewell Exchange System.
Coles Creek culture is an archaeological culture from the Lower Mississippi valley in the southern present-day United States.
Hohokam is one of the four major prehistoric archaeological traditions of the present-day American Southwest.[32] Living as simple farmers, they raised corn and beans.
The Mississippian culture, which extended throughout the Ohio and Mississippi valleys and built sites throughout the Southeast, created the largest earthworks in North America north of Mexico, most notably at Cahokia, on a tributary of the Mississippi River in present-day Illinois. It included a Woodhenge, whose sacred cedar poles were placed to mark the summer and winter solstices and fall and spring equinoxes. While Eastern Woodlands tribes developed their own agriculture, the introduction of maize from Mesoamerica allowed the accumulation of crop surpluses to support a higher density of population.
The Haudenosaunee (Iroquois League of Nations or "People of the Long House"), then based in present-day upstate and western New York, had a confederacy model from the mid-15th century. Elizabeth Tooker, an anthropologist, has said that it was unlikely the US founding fathers were inspired by the confederacy, as it bears little resemblance to the system of governance adopted in the United States.
Long-distance trading did not prevent warfare and displacement among the indigenous peoples, and their oral histories tell of numerous migrations to the historic territories where Europeans encountered them. Through warfare, the Iroquois drove several tribes to migrate west to what became known as their historically traditional lands west of the Mississippi River. They are composed of numerous, distinct Native American tribes and ethnic groups, many of which survive as intact political communities.


Europeans created most of the early written historical record about Native Americans after the colonists' immigration to the Americas.[3] Many Native Americans lived as hunter-gatherer societies and told their histories by oral traditions.
The Native Americans suffered high fatalities from the contact with infectious Eurasian diseases, to which they had no acquired immunity. The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living on this continent since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories. Linguists, anthropologists and archeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians. The prime example is Watson Brake in northern Louisiana, whose 11-mound complex is dated to 3500 BCE, making it the oldest, dated site in the Americas for such complex construction. Artifacts show the people traded with other Native Americans located from Georgia to the Great Lakes region. The term "Woodland" was coined in the 1930s and refers to prehistoric sites dated between the Archaic period and the Mississippian cultures. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Southeastern United States into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Its ten-story Monks Mound has a larger circumference than the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan or the Great Pyramid of Egypt. The Mississippian culture developed the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, the name which archeologists have given to the regional stylistic similarity of artifacts, iconography, ceremonies and mythology. Some historians have suggested that it contributed to the political thinking during the development of the later United States government. Representation was not based on population numbers, as the Seneca tribe greatly outnumbered the others. The Iroquois invaded and attacked tribes in the Ohio River area of present-day Kentucky and claimed the hunting grounds. Tribes originating in the Ohio Valley who moved west included the Osage, Kaw, Ponca and Omaha people.
In many groups, women carried out sophisticated cultivation of numerous varieties of staple crops: maize, beans and squash. Epidemics after European contact caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations.
During the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
As United States expansion reached into the American West, settler and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains, and other Western tribes. Native American and Alaskan Native authors have been increasingly published; they work as academics, policymakers, doctors, and in a wide variety of occupations.
They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases.,[14] see Archaeology of the Americas.
Other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi.[24] Genetic and linguistic data connect the indigenous people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians. They migrated into Alaska and northern Canada, south along the Pacific Coast, into the interior of Canada, and south to the Great Plains and the American Southwest. This is one among numerous mound sites of complex indigenous cultures throughout the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange; most activity was conducted along the waterways that served as their major transportation routes. Cahokia was a major regional chiefdom, with trade and tributary chiefdoms located in a range of areas from bordering the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.


When a sachem chief died, his successor was chosen by the senior woman of his tribe in consultation with other female members of the clan; property and hereditary leadership were passed matrilineally. By the mid-17th century, they had resettled in their historical lands in present-day Kansas, Nebraska, Arkansas and Oklahoma. The indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the agrarian, proto-industrial, mostly Christian immigrants from western Eurasia. Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands, warfare between the groups, and rising tensions. Cultural activism has led to an expansion of efforts to teach and preserve indigenous languages for younger generations. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft. Archeological and linguistic data has enabled scholars to discover some of the migrations within the Americas. They were the earliest ancestors of the Athabascan- speaking peoples, including the present-day and historical Navajo and Apache. There is strong evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity, especially by the end of the Coles Creek sequence. In the sixteenth century, the earliest Spanish explorers encountered Mississippian peoples in the interior of present-day North Carolina and the Southeast. Decisions were not made through voting but through consensus decision making, with each sachem chief holding theoretical veto power. Many Native cultures were matrilineal; the people occupied lands for use of the entire community, for hunting or agriculture. They carried out strong resistance to United States incursions in the decades after the American Civil War, in a series of Indian Wars, which were frequent up until the 1890s, but continued into the 20th century. Their societies and cultures flourish within a larger population of descendants of immigrants (both voluntary and involuntary): African, Asian, Middle Eastern, European, and other peoples. Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. They constructed large multi-family dwellings in their villages, which were used seasonally.
Although many of the classic traits of chiefdom societies were not yet manifested, by 1000 CE the formation of simple elite polities had begun. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, authorizing the government to relocate Native Americans from their homelands within established states to lands west of the Mississippi River, accommodating European-American expansion. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B.P.
People did not live there year round, but for the summer to hunt and fish, and to gather food supplies for the winter.[27] The Oshara Tradition people lived from 5500 BCE to 600 CE. They were part of the Southwestern Archaic Tradition centered in north-central New Mexico, the San Juan Basin, the Rio Grande Valley, southern Colorado, and southeastern Utah.



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