04.11.2013

Divided life line palmistry

Australia was once a more tropical place, and was covered with forests, including extensive rainforest. We considered the backgrounds of Charles Darwin (who set out on the voyage of the Beagle with creationist beliefs) and Alfred Russel Wallace (who went to what is now Indonesia looking for evidence for his belief in evolution). We also considered the social and political circumstances in which Darwin lived - a largely Anglican society undergoing change as a result of the industrialisation of England.
Palaeontology: The fossil history of the horse is well known, from Hyracotherium to the modern form (Equus). Biogeography: The distribution of animals (especially mammals) and plants has long been a problem for biologists. Comparative embryology: The embryos of closely related families of animals have very similar embryos. Comparative anatomy: Animals (and plants) with one or two features in common, tend to have many other features in common.
Biochemistry: All organisms have a very similar chemistry but as a general rule, the more similar they are in other ways, the more their biochemistry is similar. There were two significant observations that affected Charles Darwin on his world voyage on a€?The Beaglea€? although he did not realise until later.
In the Galapagos Islands he saw all kinds of birds - seed-eating, insect-eating, Prickly Pear fruit-eating birds with very different beaks.
In Australia, Darwin saw animals that in many ways were very similar to the animals he was familiar with in the northern hemisphere - but they were all marsupials or monotremes, all unknown outside Australia. In the Galapagos he had observed divergent evolution: a number of species (of finch) had evolved from one original finch species. In Australia, he had observed convergent evolution: species had evolved to resemble other animals to which they were only very distantly related (like the Australian platypuses the European Water Rat). Alfred Wallace had come to similar conclusions while studying animals and plants in South-East Asia. The discovery of the structure of DNA enabled evolutionary scientists to use biochemistry to study relationships.
It would be wrong to assume that because we have worked out DNA sequences of different animals or plants we know how they are related to each other.
Mitochondria also contain DNA (mtDNA) and it can also be used to determine evolutionary relationships. Molecular phylogenetics have changed scientific thinking about evolutionary relationships between and within many groups.
Three rosellas - one species, two or three?A  However many species there are, they have a common ancestor. Some fossil horses compared to Equus.A  Notice the change in height, arrangement of toes in the foreleg and the structure of the teeth. 2.In Australia, Darwin saw animals that in many ways were very similar to the animals he was familiar with in the northern hemisphere - but they were all marsupials or monotremes, all unknown outside Australia.
Darwin was a very thorough, careful naturalist.A  He came to the conclusion that all the finches types he saw in the Galapagos had come from one kind of finch that had managed to get there from continental South America. In the Galapagos he had observed divergent evolution:A  a number of species (of finch) had evolved from one original finch species.
Alfred Wallace had come to similar conclusions while studying animals and plants in South-East Asia.A A  Thousands of biologists have looked for similar examples of these two kinds of evolution and we now have even more striking examples of convergent and divergent evolution. The study of evolutionary relationships is called phylogenetics.A A  In the past (until about 1950), phylogenetics relied on studies such as morphology (body form), palaeontology and embryology.
Mitochondria also contain DNA (mtDNA) and it can also be used to determine evolutionary relationships.A  mtDNA is only inherited through the maternal line. At different periods, depending on the centre of calligraphy at the time, the Arabic script was known variously as anbari, hiri and mekki in pre-Islamic times, and after the Hegira these were qualified by the term medeni. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect. The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.
The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace.
The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect. Islamic Mosque calligraphy is calligraphy that can be found in and out of a mosque, typically in combination with Arabesque motifs. Above, a fascinating 1867 map by William Hughes featuring the world according to ancient Greek astronomers, poets, historians and geographers. So far, maps were mainly based on an aggregation of facts, without any scientific treatment of geography.
Ptolemy, the Greek mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer, gathered new information and corrected old errors and gave ancient geography its final shape, until the explorations of Columbus and Vasco De Gama.
The city of Cattigara, located here in the bottom right corner of the map, is cited by Ptolemy as the southernmost known point.
The credit of being the first scientific cartographer has generally assigned to the Greek Anaximander of Miletus (610-547 B. We are not definitely informed as to just the course of improvement or advancement in early scientific map making among the Greeks, yet not a few names are known to us of those who made it a matter of special endeavor, as they specifically stated, to improve the work of their predecessors.
The Greeks developed another idea: the distinction between civilized people and barbarians.
Until the late sixth century BCE, the Greeks conceptualized the world as a series of concentric circles.
As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge.
It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the eartha€™s landmass with data from ancient texts. Ficus watkinsiana).A  It is not difficult to imagine how this adaptation evolved - seeds of many other species can germinate on rotting logs, sending roots down into the soil where they obtain water and minerals - other essentials for growth.
The Koran, which was the first Islamic text compiled in book form, was first written in mekki-medeni hand in black ink on parchment, without diacritics or vowel signs.
In Persia and further east, meanwhile, kufi was transformed into a script known as mesrik kufisi, which was used until superseded by the aklam-i sitte scripts.


It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent. In essence, Husn-i Hat comprises the beautiful lines inscribed with reed pens on paper using ink made from soot. Arabesque is a form of Islamic art known for its repetitive geometric forms creating beautiful decorations.
This map includes nine maps on a single sheet, each illustrating the geographical views entertained at different periods and as expressed by prominent authorities of the time.
No snow is there, nor heavy storm, nor ever rain, but ever does Ocean send up blasts of the shrill-blowing West Wind that they may give cooling to men. Here we see that the world is divided into three continents, Europe, Asia and Libya [Africa], and that the western countries of the Mediterranean have gained some form and proportion. It is worth noting the superiority of the Ptolemaic system which would come to dominate European cartographic presentation until the discovery of America.
There has been considerable debate about the true location of Cattigara, certainly Magellan and the other great navigators failed to identify it, with some attaching the name to Hanoi or South China and others placing it on the shores of South America. Originally, barbaros simply meant a€?babblera€™ and was used to indicate everybody who did not speak Greek.
Greece was surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea (with large islands like Sicily, Italy, and Cyprus); the Mediterranean was surrounded by the three continents, and behind the continents was the Ocean, which surrounded the world disk.
Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface. In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time.
Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, There is a beautiful harmony between the inscriptions and the functions of the mosque. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.
As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word. In the 13th century, Yakut-ul-Mustasimi,a calligraphist from Amasya, made a breakthrough in calligraphy by using nibs of various widths and sizes in one composition. These geometric shapes often include Arabic calligraphy written on walls and ceilings inside and outside of mosques. Of course, the world of the ancient Greeks centered in the Mediterranean and the Americas were yet to be discovered. Beyond Oceanus in the north, are the Cimmerii, an ancient people of the far north of Europe, described by Homer as the people living in perpetual darkness.
The three important seas, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Black Sea divide the three continents and the Caspian Sea is noted. He determined latitudes and longitudes based on astronomical observations and developed trigonometry. His map of the World in about AD 160, as well as his two maps of Asia and Europe may be somewhat difficult to understand at first glance, but upon closer examination, correspond to many actual locations and yield some of their secrets.
Be as it may, the Ptolemaic model retained a great deal of influence well into the 16th century until Portuguese and Dutch navigators more fully explored the region. While there is not a detailed description extant of the maps he is reputed to have made, we know that he accepted the so-called Homeric idea, that the earth has the form of a circular disc, and is surrounded by the Ocean Stream, an idea generally approved by the Ionic School of Philosophers. After the Greek victory in the Persian wars (492-479), the word became pejorative: a barbarian was not only unable to speak Greek, but was inferior as well. Here, one could encounter strange monsters: Homera€™s Odyssey mentions a great variety of them.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material. In time this style of writing divided into two forms; the sharply angled form being reserved for Korans and important correspondence. The form of mensub hatti known as verraki mentioned above, which was generally reserved for copying books and therefore known as neshi (a derivation of the verb istinsah, "to copy"), was the prototype for the muhakkak, reyhani and nesih scripts which emerged in the early eleventh century. As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace. Specific surahs (chapters) or ayats (verses) from Koran are inscribed in accordance with functions of specific architectural elements. Europe Asia and Africa (Libya) however were known, leading prominent geographers of the ancient world to adopt the three-part world model a€“ a system that would remain in use until the era of Martin WaldseemA?ller in the early 16th century (Book IV, #310). It is not improbable that we have an allusion to the work of Anaximander in the History of Herodotus (484-400?
At that moment, the two ideas had already been combined: the center of the world was inhabited by civilized Greeks, the periphery by barbarians.
The edges of the continents were inhabited by savage, monstrous barbarians, the opposites of the civilized Greeks in the middle of the earth.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation. Would any two workmen ever hit on so beautiful, so simple & yet so artificial a contrivance?
Since this was most often used in the city of Kufa, it became known as kufi.The other form, which did not have sharp angles and could be written at far greater speeds, was employed in day-to-day uses, and due to its rounded, flexible character was suited to artistic application. For example, on the domes you can find the Nour ayat (the divine stress on light) written, above the main entrance you find verses related to the entrances of the paradise, on the windows the divine names of Allah are inscribed so that reflection of the sun rays through those windows remind the believer that Allah manifests Himself upon the universe in all high qualities.was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment. Later, Sheyh Hamdullah, a famous calligraphist from the period of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror, introduced major changes in the traditional seven writing styles and put the mark of the Turkish national character on Islamic writing.
C.), was the first to attempt a representation of the curved surface of the earth on a plane in accord with geometrical rules. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion.
There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions.
Turkish paintings, calligraphy, photography, music.When we speak of Turkish calligraphy, we refer to writing of aesthetic value in characters based on the Arabic script, which the Turks had adopted as their writing medium after their conversion to Islam.
This mapa€™s most intriguing element is the southward extension of land running along the eastern edge of the map and extending beyond the border. Sherman, for issued as plate 26 in Sheldon and Companya€™s An Atlas of Classical Geography in 1867.


Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made.
Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world.
There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world.
It was this form which began to give rise to new scripts after the development of pens with nibs of different widths in the eighth century. The Arabic characters gradually assumed an aesthetic function after the advent of Islam, and this process gathered momentum from the mid-eighth century onwards, so that calligraphy was already a significant art discipline by the time the Turks joined the Islamic world. Hafiz Osman, Mustafa Rakim, Yesari Mehmet, Sevki Efendi, Sefik Bey, Mahmut Celaleddin, Kadiasker Mustafa Izzet, Sultan Mahmut II, Aziz Efendi, Necmettin Efendi, Sami Efendi and Hamid Aytac are all noted Turkish calligraphists who contributed to the development of this art.
This landmass reflects speculation, inspired by Ptolemy, that the Indian Ocean was landlocked. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars.
Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. Among the earliest of these were the celil reserved for large scale lettering, and tomar or tumar which was the standard large size pen used in official correspondence.
Therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief review of the structure of Arabic characters and their development during the early centuries of Islam. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. Eratosthenes also calculated the circumference of the Earth using simple geometric relationships. It was believed that this landmass extended far southwards before turning westward and connecting with eastern Africa. In a few words I shall declare the size of each division and of what nature it is as regards outline.a€? It is, however, interesting to observe that the father of historical geography and of history nowhere records his idea of a properly constructed map, and further that the circular form, which he condemned, is one that found wide acceptance even to the close of the middle ages. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature.
Pens with a nib width two thirds of that of the tomar pen were known as suluseyn, and those with nibs one third in width were known as sulus. The most succinct definition of calligraphy formulated by Islamic writers is, "Calligraphy is a spiritual geometry produced with material tools." The aesthetic values implied by this definition held true for centuries. Though the exploits of Vasco de Gama and Magellan had proven that the Indian Ocean was not fully land locked, it was believed that a large tract of land, possibly even America, attached to Asia west of Malaya. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Under this writing system most of the letters underwent a change of form according to whether they were positioned at the beginning, middle or end of a word. Thus the Great Promontory or Dragona€™s Tail that appeared on many maps of this region well into the 16th century.
Other new writing styles which emerged (although all later fell into disuse) were riyasi, kalemu'n-nisf, hafifu'n-nisf and hafifu's-sulus.
The idea of cutting the nib of the reed pen at an angle instead of horizontally was his, and an innovation which contributed enormous elegance to writing.
When transformed into an art the characters took on highly elaborate shapes, and the rich visual impact attained when they were joined together, and above all the fact that the same word or phrase could be written in various ways opened the door to the infinite variety and innovation which is a prerequisite of art.
Strabo based his map on the knowledge of the Roman expeditions in many parts of the known world.
As their names indicate, some of the new scripts were based on tomar and written with pens which were specific fractions (half, one third, or two thirds) of the tomar pen. Once "the six hands" had taken their place in the art of calligraphy together with all their rules, many scripts apart from those mentioned above were abandoned, and no trace of them but their names remains today (for example, sicillat, dibac, zenbur, mufattah, harem, lului, muallak and mursel).Following the death of Yakut his conception of "the six hands" was carried by scribes who had trained under him from Baghdad to Anatolia, Egypt, Syria, Persia and Transoxania. Just as the characters could be written singly in several different ways, so there was an astonishing diversity of different scripts or "hands".
In the process of scaling down, the scripts took on new characteristics of their own, while the word kalem, which referred to the writing instrument, also came to be used for the writing itself (for example, kalemu'n-nisf literally means "half pen"). New generations of calligraphers who trained in these lands dedicated themselves to the path taken by Yakut as far as their aptitude permitted.
The Arabic characters were adopted — primarily motivated by religious fervour by virtually all the peoples who converted to Islam, so that just a few centuries after the Hegira they had become the shared property of the entire Muslim world. For scripts such as kisas and muamerat, which were invented for specific uses and did not involve the proportional scaling down of the pen, the term hat was used.Under the Abbasids, learning and the arts flourished, leading to a swelling demand for books in Baghdad and other major cities. The term "Arabic calligraphy", which is appropriate with respect to the early period, broadened in scope over time to become what more accurately might be described as "Islamic calligraphy". To meet this demand the number of copyists known as verrak also rose, and the script which they employed in the copying of manuscripts was known as verraki, muhakkak or iraki. In the hands of the Ottoman Turks, these six scripts were poised to begin the ascent to their zenith.CALLIGRAPHY,calligraphy in istanbul,calligraphy in turkey,istanbul in calligraphy,Turkish - Ottoman Calligraphy Lessons in Istanbul. This writing system, known as nabati because it was used by the Nabat tribe in pre-Islamic times, derives from the Phoenician. From the end of the eighth century, as a result of the search for aesthetic values by calligraphers, writing forms according to specific proportions and symmetries became known as asli hat and mevzun hat.
In its early form, the script gave no clue of its future potential as such a powerfully aesthetic medium, the characters consisting of very simple shapes.
One of the calligraphers who contributed to the development of writing, and the most outstanding among those of this period was Ibn Mukle (? With the emergence of Islam, however, and particularly after the Hegira, the Arabic script became the literary vehicle of the last Semitic religion.
The numbers of those literate in the Arabic script multiplied rapidly, and in time it was perfected into a vehicle equipped to record the Koran, and hence the language as a whole, with precision. Lettering complying with these rules was called mensuh hatti, a term meaning "proportional writing".While these developments were taking place, kufi script was enjoying its heyday, above all for copying korans. Vowel signs known as hareke were invented to express the short phonemes which accompanied the consonants.
The method of determining the sound of letters which resembled one another in form, by means of disparate positioning and diacritical marks was developed. As time passed, the use of diacritics to distinguish the undotted from the dotted forms of the same letters was introduced. Both the diacritics, the vowel signs and the unmarked letter symbols took on decorative forms which played a major role in the development of writing as an art. Meanwhile, the frequently used definite article, consisting of the letters alif and lam, became a balancing element in the aesthetics of calligraphy.



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Comments to «Divided life line palmistry»

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    Thing happening with other 9's, cause.
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    Very critical and have individual with.
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    Quantity 3 : The number three though being an odd number, is imagine to be fortunate.