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He is a renowned astrologer in the field of Astrology.He tells you the solutions which are very easy to follow and if you follow the solutions with faith, you will see the change in your life. He learned the basics of Astrology from his Guru Shri Yogendra Shastri and started his career in 1995. I wish to genuinely congratulate you for your excellent predictions on various areas, most of which were almost 90% accurate.
Even though I had a stable and well paying job, I had a dream to have my own company and be my own boss.
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In tarot astrology, the tarot horoscope card most closely aligned with Sagittarius is the Knight of Wands. If the King of Wands finds something that he enjoys, he will put all of his energy towards it. Read more 2015 horoscopes and more Thank you for stopping by our post on New Year Horoscopes All Signs. Instead of a conventional linear power supply, Holt built one like those used in oscilloscopes. I found it amazing to think that computers now use power supplies based on the Apple II's design, so I did some investigation.
Modern computer power supplies are totally different and do not rip off anything from Rod Holt's design.
In a standard desktop computer, the power supply converts AC line voltage into DC, providing several carefully regulated low voltages at high currents. A typical linear power supply uses a bulky power transformer to convert the 120V AC into a low AC voltage, converts this to low voltage DC with a diode bridge, and then uses a linear regulator to drop the voltage to the desired level. A switching power supply works on a very different principle: rapidly turning the power on and off, rather than turning excess power into heat. The main disadvantage of a switching power supply is it is considerably more complex than a linear power supply and much harder to design.[8] In addition, it is much more demanding on the components, requiring transistors that can efficiently switch on and off at high speed under high power. The computer industry started using switching power supplies in the late 1960s and they steadily grew in popularity. By 1976, Data General was using switching supplies for half their systems, Hitachi and Ferranti were using them,[29] Hewlett-Packard's 9825A Desktop Computer[31] and 9815A Calculator[32] used them, and the decsystem 20[33] used a large switching power supply. Switching power supplies also became popular products for power supply manufacturers starting in the late 1960s.
Switching power supplies were featured in electronics magazines of this era, both in advertisements and articles. The October 1971 cover of Electronics World featured a 500W switching power supply and an article "The Switching Regulator Power Supply". People often think of the present as a unique time for technology startups, but Boschert illustrates that kitchen-table startups were happening even 40 years ago. Once power transistors could handle hundreds of volts, power supplies could eliminate the heavy 60 Hz power transformer and run "off-line" directly from line voltage.
Steve Jobs said that every computer now rips off Rod Holt's revolutionary design.[1] But is this design revolutionary?
As illustrated above, switching power supplies were in use by many computers by the time the Apple II was released. The power supply that Rod Holt designed for Apple was innovative enough to get a patent,[63] so I examined the patent in detail to see if there were any less-obvious revolutionary features. This is the AA11040-B power supply for the Apple II Plus.[59] AC power enters, on the left, is filtered, goes through the large switching transistor to the flyback transformer in the middle, is rectified by the diodes to the right (on heatsinks), and then is filtered by the capacitors on the right. The AC start mechanism was not used by the Apple II,[59] but was used by the Apple II Plus,[64] Apple III,[65] Lisa,[66] Macintosh,[67] and Mac 128K through Classic.[68] I could not find any non-Apple power supplies that use this mechanism,[69] except for a 1978 TV power supply,[70] and it became obsoleted by IC controllers, so this mechanism seems to have had no impact on computer power supply design. The second mechanism in Holt's patent, the clamp winding and diode to return power in a flyback converter, was used in a variety of power supplies until the mid-1980s and then disappeared.
One puzzling aspect of power supply discussion in the book Steve Jobs[1] is the statement that the Apple II's power supply is "like those used in oscilloscopes", since oscilloscopes are just one small use for switching power supplies. The biggest impact of the Apple II on the power supply industry was on Astec - the Hong Kong company that manufactured the power supply. A little-known fact about the Apple II power supply is that it was originally assembled by middle-class California housewives as piecework.[83] As demand grew, however, power supply construction was transferred to Astec, even though it cost $7 a unit more. In 1981, the IBM PC was launched, which would have lasting impact on computer power supply designs. I will compare the IBM 5150 PC power supply with the Apple II power supply in detail to show their commonalities and differences.
Computer power systems became more complicated with the introduction of the voltage regulator module (VRM) in 1995 for the Pentium Pro, which required lower voltage at higher current than the power supply could provide directly.
The amazing growth of the computer industry has caused the power consumption of computers to be a cause for environmental concern, resulting in initiatives and regulations to make power supplies more efficient.[92] In the US, Energy Star and 80 PLUS certification[93] pushes manufacturers to manufacture more efficient "green" power supplies. Power supplies can use the AC line power more efficiently through the technique of power factor correction (PFC).[95] Active power factor correction adds another switching circuit in front of the main power supply circuit. The push for higher efficiency has made double forward converters more popular,[101] and power factor correction (PFC) has made the CM6800 controller very popular,[102] since the one chip controls both circuits.
Modern computers contain a surprising collection of switching power supplies and regulators. To summarize, the original IBM 5150 PC power supply was different in almost every way from the Apple II power supply, except both were flyback power supplies. The irony in Steve Jobs' comment that Rod Holt doesn't get a lot of credit is that Rod Holt's work is described in dozens of books and articles about Apple, from Revenge of the Nerds in 1982[109] to 2011's best-selling Steve Jobs biography, which makes Rod Holt easily the most famous power supply designer ever. Power supplies aren't the boring metal boxes that most people think; they have a lot of interesting history, driven largely by the improvements in transistors that made switching power supplies practical for computers in the early 1970s.
If you're interested in power supplies, you might also like my article Tiny, cheap, and dangerous: Inside a (fake) iPhone charger.
I spent way too much time researching power supplies, analyzing schematics and digging through old electronics journals. PWM: From a Single Chip To a Giant Industry, Gene Heftman, Power Electronics Technology, pp48-53, Oct 2005. Photographs of the Cray power components are in Cray-1 S Series Hardware Reference Manual (1981).
It concludes that "Availability of high voltage, high power, switching transistors at moderate prices is providing extra impetus to the use of high efficiency switching regular [sic] supplies. The article also says, "One of the more controversial topics is the continuing debate on the value of switching type supplies for computer applications, as contrasted with conventional series transistor regulators." This is echoed by some of the vendor comments. Hewlett Packard "specifies that a major influence today is the ready availability of high speed, high current, low cost transistors accelerated by the current trend toward switching type regulators. Lambda Electronics "makes extensive use of switching regulators for outputs above about 100 W" which are designed to avoid fan cooling. Analog Devices offered precision supplies that use switching techniques for high efficiency. RO Associates "considers growth of switching power supplies to be a major change in the power supply design area".
Page 5 discusses the relative development time for different power supply technologies, with a linear regulator taking 1 week of total development time, while a PWM switching regulator takes 8 person-months. Lifetime Achievement Award Recipient Robert Mammano, Power Electronics Technology, Sep 2005, pp 48-51.
IBM Customer Engineering Reference Manual: 736 Power Supply, 741 Power Supply, 746 Power Distribution Unit (1958), page 60-17. In their ads, Pioneer Magnetics claims to have designed their first switching power supply in 1958. This long article on switching power supplies was featured on the cover of Electronics World. The HP2100A was introduced in 1971 with a switching power supply (see HP2100A Main Specifications).
A Computer Power System for Severe Operating Conditions, p21, Hewlett-Packard Journal, Oct 1974. The 21MX minicomputer used a 300 W, off-line, switching preregulator to generate regulated 160V DC which was fed into switching dc-to-dc converters. Another point of interest is its case molded of structural foam (p23) which is very similar to the Apple II's foam-molded plastic case (see page 73 of Steve Jobs), and a couple years earlier. The HP 9825A Desktop Computer from 1976 used a switching regulator for the 5V power supply. Mid-Range Calculator Delivers More Power at Lower Cost, Hewlett-Packard Journal, June 1976 discusses the 5V switching power supply used by the 9815A calculator.

DEC's H7420 power supply is described in decsystem 20 Power Supply System Description (1976). The decsystem 20 minicomputer was a large system, consisting of three refrigerator-sized cabinets.
Switching power supplies for television receivers seemed to gain momentum around 1975-1976. Chapter V "Switching Mode Power Supplies" describes the construction of a 5V 800W switching power supply based on an off-line switching shunt regulator followed by a DC-DC converter.
In 1967 RO Associates introduced the first successful switching power supply product, the 20-kHz, 50-W switching power supply, the Model 210. Nippon Electronic Memory Industry Co (NEMIC, which ended up part of TDK-Lambda) started developing standardized switching power supplies in 1970. Power supply manufacturer Coutant built a power supply called the Minic using "a relatively new switching regulator technique".
The first "transformerless" switching power supply reached the UK market in 1972, APT's SSU1050, which was an adjustable 500W switching power supply using a half-bridge topology. This article explains switching power supplies in depth, describing the advantages of off-line power supplies. The article says, "The widespread application of microelectronic devices accentuated the sheer bulk of conventional power supplies. High-Efficiency Modular Power Supplies Using Switching Regulators, Hewlett-Packard Journal, December 1973, p 15-20. A High-Current Power Supply for Systems That Use 5 Volt IC Logic Extensively, Hewlett-Packard Journal, April 1975, p 14-19. Seymour Levine, "Switching Power Supply Regulators For Greater Efficiency." Electronic Design, June 22. In 1976, Powertec was running two-page ads describing the advantages of switching power supplies, titled "The big switch is to switchers". They suggested switching power supplies for add-on memory systems, computer mainframes, telephone systems, display consoles, desktop instruments, and data acquisition systems.
Byte magazine, p100 June 1976 announced the new Boschert OL80 switching power supply providing 80 watts in a two-pound power supply, compared to 16 pounds for a less-powerful linear power supply. Boschert's F-14 and satellite experience was touted in ads in Electronic Design, V25, 1977, which also mentioned volume production for Diablo and Qume. An unusual switching power supply was used by the HP 1000 A600 computer (see Engineering and Reference Documentation) (1983). Multiple 450v switching transistor product lines were introduced in 1971 to support off-line switching power supplies, such as the SVT450 series, the 40850 to 4085 from RCA, and the 700V SVT7000 series. Multiple Apple power supplies are documented in Apple Products Information Pkg: Astec Power Supplies (1982). The Apple II Astec AA11040 power supply is a simple discrete-component flyback power supply with multiple outputs.
The Apple III Astec AA11190 uses the flyback diode clamp winding, but not Holt AC startup circuit.
Interestingly in this document Apple reprints ten pages of HP's "DC Power Supply Handbook" (1978 version used by Apple) to provide background on switching power supplies.
Flyback converters: solid-state solution to low-cost switching power supply, Electronics, Dec 1978.
The Macintosh Performa 6320 used the AS3842 SMPS controller IC, as can be seen in this picture. He writes in popular media print and online and to his credit has more than 70% success in the form of satisfied and accurate predictions. I have consulted them often, and the results have been good, and their analysis straightforward. But, due to the risk involved and lack of proper guidance, I never really gave it a serious thought.
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It is a creative suit and often reflects the imaginative and resourceful components to our natures. However, if the Knight of Wands loses his interest, he will quickly drop what he is doing and venture into a new direction. Taurus Monthly Horoscope- Legal matters marriage or even marital issues are in focus but so also are travel tips bonds Horoscope Born June 24 Leo Career Week Next ties Be sure to check out our Online horoscope 2012 and My horoscope 2012 as well as our horoscope 2012 and free daily astrology for the complete astrological picture. Dear Lia the first thing you need to know about this year is that Mars will be in Virgo and your 12th house of secret You are entering a whole new way of thinking and being and your time has come to be noticed.
According to the Chinese Zodiac, people born in the year of the goat are february will be great month for you with so much progress and plenty of time for fun, too!. It switched the power on and off not sixty times per second, but thousands of times; this allowed it to store the power for far less time, and thus throw off less heat. It turns out that Apple's power supply was not revolutionary, either in the concept of using a switching power supply for computers or in the specific design of the power supply.
It turns out that Steve Jobs was making his customary claim that everyone is stealing Apple's revolutionary technology, entirely contrary to the facts.
While most people view the power supply as a boring metal box, there's actually a lot of technological development behind it. The linear regulator is an inexpensive easy-to-use transistor-based component that turns the excess voltage into waste heat to produce a stable output. In a switching power supply, the AC line input is converted to high-voltage DC, and then the power supply switches the DC on and off thousands of times a second, carefully controlling the time of the switching so the output voltage averages out to the desired value. One of its features was a compact, fanless switching power supply, which provided 38W of power at 5, 12, -5, and -12 volts. The design is not particularly revolutionary, as similar simple off-line flyback converters were being sold by Boschert[50][60] and other companies. I thought so, until I found a 1976 power supply book that described this winding in detail,[35] which ruined my narrative.
Before the Apple II came out, Astec was a little-known manufacturer, selling switching DC-DC inverters. They are both off-line flyback power supplies with multiple outputs, but that's about all they have in common. A special PFC controller IC switches this at a frequency of up to 250kHZ, carefully extracting a smooth amount of power from the power supply to produce high-voltage DC, which is then fed into a regular switching power supply circuit.[13][96] PFC also illustrates how power supplies have turned into a commodity with razor-thin margins, where a dollar is a lot of money. A modern power supply can contain a switching PFC circuit, a switching flyback power supply for standby power, a switching forward converter to generate 12 volts, a switching DC-DC converter to generate 5 volts, and a switching DC-DC converter to generate 3.3 volts,[94] so the ATX power supply can be considered five different switching power supplies in one box. Other major innovators in the field get even less attention.[108] I repeatedly came across the work of Elliot Josephson, who designed satellite power systems in the early 1960s[18], has a bunch of power supply patents including the Tandy 6000[75], and even has his patent number printed on the Apple II Plus and Osborne 1 power supply circuit boards[59], but he appears to be entirely unrecognized.
More recently, efficiency standards such as 80 PLUS have forced power supplies to become more efficient, resulting in new designs. For instance, the power supply for the IBM 1401 computer used a 1250W ferroresonant regulator, see Reference Manual, 1401 Data Processing System (1961), p13. This article describes the Silicon General SG1524 (1975) as the IC that ushered in the age of switching regulators and switch-mode power supplies. The power supply for the 704 computer consists of three refrigerator-sized cabinets full of vacuum tubes, fuses, relays, mechanical timers, and transformers, using 90.8KVA of power. This survey of transistorized DC-DC converters shows about 20 different switching designs known in the early 1960s. This article by Elliot Josephson of Lockheed describes a constant-frequency PWM DC-DC converter for satellites.
The Telstar satellite obtained power from solar cells, storing the power in NiCad batteries. This power supply is described in detail in H720 Power Supply and Mounting Box Manual (1970). The switching regulator consists of two parallel buck converters running at 60kHz, and using 2N5302 NPN switching transistors (introduced in 1969). These off-line half-bridge power supplies provided 120W or 250W and were used by the Interdata minicomputers. The IBM 5100 was a 50-pound portable computer that used BASIC and APL, and included a monitor and tape drive. It also used a foam-molded case, predating the Apple II's; see 98925A Product Design, Hewlett-Packard Journal, June 1976, p5. It took a hefty 21.6 KW of three-phase input power, which is regulated by a combination of switching and linear regulators.
Of note, this circuit uses an additional primary winding with diode to return unused energy to the source. It also describes a fairly simple multiple-output flyback power supply controlled by a SN76549, designed for a large screen color television.
It describes the half-bridge MG5-20 miniature switching power supply built by Advance Electronics.

The 62600 series provides 300W using an off-line, half-bridge topology switching power supply. Switching power supplies can be designed with 20 to 50 fewer discrete components than before. The heading claims "Robert Boschert invented the switching power supply", which must be an error by the editor. This article describes the history of the power supply control IC, from the SG1524 in 1975 to a multi-billion dollar industry. This article by Robert Boschert describes the Boschert OL25 power supply, which is a very simple discrete-component 25W flyback power supply providing 4 outputs. The AS3842 is Astec's version of the UC3842 current-mode controller, which was very popular for forward converters. This time when I was confused about my marriage and it turning into a boring story, I took this report. Things changed dramatically when I came across GaneshaSpeaks website and discovered their varied services. Plus, as a policy, we do not disclose any of our client details or questions to anyone, at any cost. However, we suggest that you urge these people to use their own email ids to get their report, as it will enable them to get their personalised daily horoscope too. If there is a Love Question, that’s causing you pain, get Love Ask A Question service – a personalised answer that will be based on your Personal Horoscope.
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There was, in fact, a revolution in power supplies in the late 1960s through the mid 1970s as switching power supplies took over from simple but inefficient linear power supplies, but this was a few years before the Apple II came out in 1977.
Even though the PC power supply uses an IC controller and the Apple II uses discrete components, the PC power supply uses approximately twice as many components as the Apple II power supply.
In addition, the motherboard has a switching VRM regulator to power the processor, and the graphics card has another VRM, for a total of seven switching supplies in a typical desktop computer.
The Apple II sold a huge number of switching power supplies, but its power supply design was a technological dead end that was not "ripped off" by other computers. It used multiple regulation techniques including saturable-reactor transformers and thermistor-based reference voltage. Efficiency was critical for the satellite, so a DC-to-DC switching voltage regulator was used, with a buck converter converting the variable battery voltage into stable -16 V DC at up to 32 watts at up to 92% efficiency. The 25 pound power supply uses a power transformer to generate 25V DC, and then switching switching regulators (buck converter) to generate 230W of regulated +5 and -15 volts. Because the transistors have a 60V maximum rating, the power supply uses a transformer to drop the voltage to 35V that is fed into the regulator.
The power supply uses a large transformer to reduce the line voltage to 25V DC, which is passed to the individual switching regulators, which use a buck topology to obtain the desired voltage (+5, -5, +15, or +20). It contained seven H7420 power supplies and about 33 individual switching regulator units, as well as a linear regulator for the CPU that used -12V DC at 490A. Their 1969 patent 3564384 "High Efficiency Power Supply Apparatus" describes a half-bridge switching power supply that is surprisingly similar to the ATX power supplies popular in the 1990s, except mag amp circuits controlled the PWM rather than the ubiquitous TL494 controller IC. The article more reasonably claims Boschert invented low-cost, volume-usage switching-mode power supplies. The Boschert-designed off-line push-pull power supply used a custom HP IC, somewhat like a TL494.
The 5V output is compared against a Zener diode and control feedback and isolated through a transformer with two primary windings and one secondary. With this lovely Free Reading, know how compatible you two are – on various vital levels – physical, intellectual and emotional. Your imagination and creativity make you interesting to others and people are drawn to your free spirit.
The exact degrees and aspects of your Natal Birth Chart which is available here for free will determine how you will be affected by the transits! Switching power supplies are much more efficient, give off much less heat, and are much smaller and lighter than linear power supplies. The second mechanism (claim 8) returns excess energy from the transformer to the power source (especially if there is no load) through a clamp winding on the transformer and a diode. While the Apple II power supply uses a variable frequency oscillator built out of transistors, the PC power supply uses a fixed-frequency PWM oscillator provided by the NE5560 controller IC. To the left of this is the larger yellow main transformer, with the secondary diodes and regulator on the heatsinks, and output filtering to the left. Many other NASA reports on power converters from this time period are available from NASA Technical Reports Server. Because the satellite needed a wide range of voltages, up to 1770 volts for the RF amplifier, additional converters were used. Because transistors of the era couldn't handle high voltages, the DC voltage had to be reduced to 25 volts by a large power transformer. The provided improved reliability, worked under brownout conditions, and could handle much longer power interruptions.
The silk screen on the power supply PCB says it is covered by patent 4323961, which turns out to be "Free-running flyback DC power supply" by Elliot Josephson and assigned to Astec.
With the aid of this report, I came to know about the pros and cons of starting a business of my own from an astrological perspective. Since you will get your report via email, you don’t have to worry about anyone else finding out about this. You may browse our Relationships and Sex OR Love and Dating section to choose a service that suits your Love or Relationship issue. The PC uses optoisolators to provide voltage feedback to the controller, while the Apple II uses a small transformer.
This half-bridge power supply design is totally different from the Apple II's flyback design.
Thyratrons are switching vacuum tubes that control the output voltage (much like TRIACs in a common dimmer switch).
The regulated DC was inverted to AC, fed into transformers, and rectified, to produce the required voltages.
One drawback of the increasing use of switched-mode power supplies in TVs was they caused interference with amateur radio, as discussed by Wireless World, v82, p52, 1976. To see if you would rather switch, turn to page 125." Page 125 has an article, "Control a switching power supply with a single LSI circuit" that describes the SG1524 and TL497 switching power supply ICs.
The wands indicate a time to look at your options, evaluate and then move forward with force. You love to share what you have learned and people tend to come to you for support and encouragement. Find Free 2015 Taurus Career Horoscope Zodiac Sign prediction for the Bull Significant 2015 Events Horoscopes over the Career vedic astrology aquarius 2015 for 28 august sphere A funny look at the Chinese Zodiac sign of the Monkey. This can be considered a switching power supply (see Power supplies, switching regulators, inverters, and converters, Irving Gottlieb, pp 186-188).
The feedback isolation transformer has one primary and two secondary windings, the reverse of the AA11040.
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The PC checks all four power outputs against lower and upper voltage limits to make sure the power is good, and shuts down the controller if any voltages are out of spec.
This patent is also printed on the Osborne 1 power supply board (see Osborne 1 teardown), which also uses the 2SC1875. All the credit goes to the accurate and honest analysis of my Horoscope by GaneshaSpeaks, which paved the way for my focussed efforts in starting my own business. Astrology Karma And Transformation: The Inner Dim chinese horoscope dragon metal free wallpapers signs zodiac download Horoscope Leo Yearly . The article says that the switching regulator power supply had come of age because of new advances in high-speed and high-power transistors. I credit GaneshaSpeaks for being the catalyst in kindling my latent desire and giving me the boost of confidence, which made me believe in my business acumen.
You enjoy mental stimulation and can develop alternative solutions to situations that seem unsolvable. While the PC flyback transformer has a single primary winding, the Apple II uses an extra primary clamp winding to return power, as well as an another primary winding for feedback. The cover shows a 500W switching power supply that according to the article could not have been built with the transistors available just a year and a half earlier. It's clear that the IBM 5150 power supply does not "rip off" the Apple II power supply design, as they have almost nothing in common.

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