17.07.2015

Free astrology reading based on date and time of birth video

Vatican's chief exorcist has claimed that practicing yoga and reading 'Harry Potter' brings evil. The stronger groups tended to settle in the more desirable areas where there was an abundance of water, natural resources (wood, clay, iron ore, coal), and natural protection (hills, sea coast, rivers, lakes).
And by the time the weaker finally arrived at a location to settle down, they were frequently so far removed from other groups that there was little contact, trade, or interaction.
For these reasons while civilizations were forming in Mesopotamia, India, China, and North Africa, groups that had roamed as far as North and South America and islands in the Pacific developed little further in cultural organization than the tribal unit and possessed a technology that was far less developed than in the larger civilizations. About the early civilizations, the Apostle Paul, in Romans 1-3, states that they were created with a clear knowledge of God, but having rejected and twisted what truth they did possess, they worshipped the creature rather than the Creator. Sumer was a collection of over thirty city-states, each possessing its own patron deity, but sharing a common religion featuring the worship of Elil with a central religious center at Nippur. Other innovations of the Sumerians were the wooden wheel, the wooden plow, and the wooden oar for their ships.
The Sumerians developed (or recovered from their spiritual memory derived from Noah) an elaborate belief system that included many gods who possessed human characteristics, a concept of personal sin, that they had been created to serve the gods, a class system of sorts between major and minor gods, and an elaborate flood story.
On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the story of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. The Sumerians were weakened due to the salinization of their wheat fields and were overcome by an invading group of people led by Sargon, the Great. An Akkadian legend says that Sargon was abandoned by his mother in a reed basket which she placed in a river.
Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria. The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire) required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular. Although the Babylonians absorbed much of the Sumerian worldview, they also developed a complex religion based upon astrology.
The Assyrians, located to the north of Babylon, revived and were able to fight off several other invading groups that came into the Fertile Crescent from Indo-Europe and Syria.
The constant flow of invading peoples into the Fertile Crescent resulted in a blending of cultures, religions, and gene pools. After over 400 years as slave in Egypt, Abrahama€™s descendants, under the leadership of Moses, left Egypt miraculously under Goda€™s guidance around the year 1250 B.C. During this period of time God delivered to the Hebrews the religious system known as Judaism. After the 40 years of wilderness living, which resulted from their disobedience evidenced in worshipping the golden calf fashioned by Aaron, the brother of Moses, the Hebrews entered Canaan. The northern section, Israel, was invaded, captured, and sent into exile by Assyria in 732 B.
During their centuries of development, God raised up among the Hebrews the ancient prophets, who were raised up by God to give warnings to both Israel as well as to their pagan neighbors.
They were chosen by God to be his covenant people, from among whom the Messiah was born of the virgin Mary.
The Philistines were descendants of a sea people who originated from around the Aegean Sea area to the east of Greece.
The Philistines were a literate people who originally spoke the language of people living in Crete, Cyprus, and the Aegean area. This civilization eventually concluded that their ruler, the Pharaoh, was actually divinity in the flesh. Perhaps the most famous of its rulers was Cleopatra who was the lover of both Julius Caesar and of Marc Anthony of the Roman Empire. He restored Egyptian religious worship and traditions back to their state prior to the radical revisions introduced by Tutakamena€™s father, Pharaoh Akhanaten.
Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries. The early Minoan settlers of Crete and southern Greece were descendants of Egyptians who first migrated to the island of Crete.
They were the first to develop the skills necessary to build large stone columns for their many massive palaces, monuments, and temples.
They were major importers and exporters of gold, silver, ivory, bronze, pottery, and animals from the continent of Africa to the south and developed extensive trade with Middle Asia, North Africa., and even East Asia. They were master canal builders and specialists in highly developed agriculture and irrigation systems. It is speculated that they were extensive travelers, and that skills needed to build the pyramids constructed by the Mayans in South America may have been brought by Egyptians traveling in their reed boats.
They hosted the descendants of Abraham for over 450 years, first as guests and family members of the house of Moses, and later as slaves. Together with the Hittites after the Battle of Kadesh, the Egyptians pioneered a format for developing a long-lasting treaty between two powerful nations that numerous other subsequent civilizations followed. The Gospel of Christ was brought to the Egyptians by the Apostle Mark who was martyred during his ministry in Egypt.
The civilization that developed in the Indus River Valley rivals Egypt and Mesopotamia as the oldest known civilization. At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™s population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia. The Harappa civilization developed when a large number of Aryan people descended into the Indus Valley from the northeast.
A large, extensive sewage system to which all of the buildings in the cities were connected.
Agriculture was made possible by the annual flooding in the spring when the ice melted and in July and August during the rainy season. The Longshan Culture built large fortified towns along the Yellow River, fortified by large earthen walls and ramparts. There are indications that the early Chinese who settled along the Yellow River believed in the same God as the Hebrews, the God who was revealed to them in creation and in the stories received from Noah and his sons.
The Sumerians, Amorites, Egyptians, Longshan, and Harappa were some of the earliest groups that formed civilizations. The Indo-European language group spread from the Black Sea area into the Indus River Valley and into Euro-Asia.
Civilizations emerged early and quickly after the Flood throughout the four major population areas of Europe, Euro-Asia, and Asia. The Nile River Valley was home to the great Egyptian civilization that reached its zenith during the reign of Ramses II, the probable pharaoh reigning during the time of Moses and the Exodus.
An advanced Harappa civilization existed in the Indus Valley of India that conducted trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Respond correctly to at least 80% of the questions based upon the nine big ideas found in the first section above, Whata€™s Worth Knowing? Be able to list several chief characteristics and features of each of the four major river civilizations. Create with your group ten test questions you believe all student should be able to answer after your groups presentation. Identify on a blank map the four major areas of civilization along the four river valleys and the items below. On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the storyA  of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria.A  He also developed a library of several thousand clay tablets, built a vast network of roads, and established the first known postal system.
The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire)A  required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular.
From Moses was received the Pentateuch, or the Five Books of Moses.A  He also established the first representative government, a system of government, Peoplea€™s Law, that was carried across Europe into England by the Anglo-Saxons, and became foundational for the United States of America. After the death of Solomon, the nation of the Hebrews experienced civil war and separated into Israel in the north occupied by ten of the tribes, and Judah (from which the name a€?Jewa€? was derived) in the south occupied by two of the tribes. Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries.A  He was so revered by the nation (for three generations of Egyptians knew no other Pharaoh) that for generations after his death he was referred to as the Great Ancestor of the nation.
At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™sA  population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia.
The major power in the Harappa society was the priestly caste that presided over a polytheistic religious system.
DESCRIPTION:This seminal work was initially compiled in manuscript form on vellum, with drawings in red and black. The author, a seventh century Bishop of Seville (Spain), leaned heavily himself on classical writers, as well as the teachings of the Church Fathers.
In view of the extraordinary influence of this treatise, the following excepts (the translation is taken from G. Concerning the earth we are told that it is named from its roundness (orbis) which is like a wheel; whence the small wheel is called a€?orbiculusa€?. As to size, Isidore accepts Eratosthenesa€™ estimate (via Macrobius) of 252,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth. The Ancients did not divide these three parts of the world equally, for Asia stretches right from the south, through the east to the north, but Europe stretches from the north to the west and thence Africa from the west to the south. Interestingly, Isidore was the first writer to clearly define the Mediterranean by that proper name.
It contains many provinces and districts whose names and geographical situations I will briefly describe, beginning from Paradise . This obvious Biblical note coming so early in the topographical section of the treatise might lead the reader to expect its continuance in subsequent chapters; but apart from one or two entirely understandable references to Biblical lore - Scythia and Gothia also are said to have been named by Magog, son of Japhet and the River Ganges which sacred scripture calls Phison, flows down from Paradise to the realms of India - only the most sparing use of this source is made.
In the extreme east of Asia the country of Seres is rich in fine leaves, from which are cut fleeces which the natives who decline the merchandise of other peoples sell for use as garments . Europe, in the true classical fashion, is divided from Asia by the river Tanais [todaya€™s Don] and is bordered on the north by the Northern Ocean.
Moreover beyond [these] three parts of the world, on the other side of the ocean, is a fourth inland part in the south, which is unknown to us because of the heat of the sun, within the bounds of which the Antipodes are fabulously said to dwell. This concession by Isidore as expressed in the brief quote above indicated that he more than half believed in the sphericity of the earth and quite fully in the doctrine of the Antipodes.
As far as his own graphic expression of the worlda€™s geography, one of the map designs frequently associated with Isidore of Seville is actually a survival of the ancient Greek tripartite division of the world into Asia, Africa and Europe, surrounded by the Ocean Sea.
The T within the O produced a world image divided into half (by the cross of the T) and two quarters. Regardless of experience and all knowledge to the contrary, the most important city regionally was located in the center of the habitable world. In addition to the usual tripartite circular map of the world, some manuscripts of the Etymologiarum feature other map designs as well.
Caius Crispus Sallustius, generally known as Sallust (86-34 BCE) was a Roman senator and historian, who subsequent to his falling out with the Caesar, was sent to Africa as a governor of Numidia (In the north-west of Africa}. He produced his most important works on the conspiracy of Catiline and the war of Rome with Jugurtha.
The Medes and Armenians connected them selves with the Libyans who dwelled near the African sea, while the Getulians lay more to the sun, not far from the torrid heats; and these soon built themselves towns, as, being separated from Spain only by a strait, they proceeded to open an intercourse with its inhabitants.
Some copies of Sallusts manuscripts, which have reached us, do also include a simple T-O map, which relates to his narrative of the Jugurthine War.
As mentioned above, Sallusta€™s works were copied and re-copied and were in use until the late medieval period and many of the later copies of his manuscripts have reached us. Sallust mappamundi, ninth century, a€?University of Leipzig Library, Leipzig, Germany, MS 1607, f. Since Sallust was the governor of Numidia, he has naturally paid more attention to the details of this continent. In the bodies of water dividing the world into the three continents, the Mediterranean bears no legend. Another variation of the basic Isidorean design was called the Byzantine-Oxford, or B-O T-O maps. More prominently than in any other example of the biblical school, the Holy Land dominates the center of the map. The map was brought back to England or Ireland after the First Crusade, which conquered Jerusalem in 1099.
Christian scholars adopted the T-O map for its simplicity, as had the classical writers who first employed it. These T-O maps, whether actually contained in the Etymologiarum of Isidore, in later editions of the same, as modified derivatives thereof (Sallusts, B-O T-O), or as maps that were merely influenced by the basic design format (Hereford, Ebstorf, et. At the Benedictine monastery of Thorney in East Anglia, a large and elegant computus book was finished in 1110, designed to be an ornament of the newly completed church.
The continents are arranged with Asia at the top, Europe apparently in the center and Africa in the southwest corner. Like the map within the rota of sunrises and sunsets, this is a T-O map with Asia in the top half, and Europe and Africa in the lower half. In form, content and function, MS 17a€™s map represents a recent development in medieval cartography. On the other hand, this mappamundi is also closely connected in content and context to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram on fol.
But there is also a particularly insular connection between computus and universal geography, one that is connected to the debates over the correct system of calculating Easter that marked the early years of Christianity in England.
Schematic maps of the oikumene of the T-O type are often embedded in computus diagrams as a shorthand representation of the earth; zone maps illustrating the climates of the earth, derived from Macrobiusa€™ Commentum in Somnium Scipionis (#201), appear in anthologies of cosmographic materials as illustrations of passages from Isidore (cf. In about 1446-1451 Jean Mansel composed a universal history titled La fleur des histoires, and then in the 1460s wrote a longer version of the same work. The map is placed at the start of the prologue to Book IV, in which a description of the regions of the world is given in alphabetical order.
The name gorgato recalls the medieval Latin gargata and Old French gargate, meaning a€?throat,a€? perhaps alluding to the creaturea€™s voracious nature, but these monsters seem to have been invented by the cartographer. The T-O map tradition did not die out as a cartographic form of expression until as late as the 17th century, as may be seen from a book such as the Variae Orbis Universi, by Petrus Bertius, 1628.
The Matenadaran archive collection in Yerevan, capital of Armenia, contains some 14,000 manuscripts from the golden age of Armenian literature, beginning in the 5th century, and from later periods.
One exception to the general lack of maps in the Yerevan archives is MS 1242, a collection of eighteen unrelated essays on religious, moral, mathematical and astronomical subjects dating mainly from the 13th to the 15th centuries.
The map on folio 132r can be described as of the T - O type, but its construction has been modified. Also as in many maps of the T-O genre, the centre is occupied by the Holy City of Jerusalem, which is shown with its six gates, each inscribed with its name in Armenian. In both shape and arrangement, the city sign is akin to that on the Hereford mapparnundi, c.1290 (#226), although it lacks the enclosing crenulated walls of the Hereford map sign.
As shown in the following Table, in addition to Jerusalem, twenty-seven place- names are found on the map.
The inscription to the left of the stem of the T, below the triangle formed by three dots, reads, Ays koghms Eropa [This side is Europe].
The Red Sea [Karmir] dzov; only the word sea is legible on the map) is shown as a bold open circle on the borders of Africa and Asia. The division between Europe and Asia, normally marked with the horizontal crossbar of the T, here is demarcated with a single red line and is more complex. In keeping with T-O maps in general, the greater part of the Armenian map is allocated to Asia, inscribed Ays koghms Asia [This side is Asia]. In the east, in the upper part of the map close to the Ocean are the names Khaytai [China] and Zaytun [Zaytun], another Chinese trading port city. The presence of these toponyms in the area between Europe and China bears witness to the importance of these towns and provinces in trade and commerce between East and West and is perhaps indicative of the period of the mapa€™s creation.
There is nothing, then, untoward in the inclusion on the Armenian map of Sara (Sarai), a city founded only in the 1240s by Batu Khan, the grandson of Mongol leader Gangiz Khan, who took over the territory of southern Russia and its Turkic speaking peoples during the early 13th century. Khachaturian also proposed that based on palaeographic evidence, the map was made in the Cilician Kingdom of Armenia during the Crusades, unfortunately not specifying which Crusade. Caffa, the first town listed in the row of toponyms along the northeastern periphery of the map, was only a small Crimean seaside town until the 13th century. The presence of the name Caffa on the map is a strong indication that the map was made during the citya€™s heyday, namely in the 14th century.
Since, in my view, the map has to postdate both the establishment of Sarai-Batu and Sarai-Berke (New Sarai, established 1257-1266) and the time when Caffa became an important conurbation, it cannot be dated to earlier than the third quarter of the 13th century.
While the majority of T-O maps produced in the Christian West depict Armenia, Mount Ararat and Noaha€™s Ark, this Armenian mapmaker has chosen not to mention any of these Armenian features. In the end, the absence of reference on the Armenian map to Armenia itself or to any of its immediate neighbors, such as Persia and Assyria, is more puzzling. The existence of this Armenian language T-O map, though, may be owed simply to the curiosity of an individual whose interest in Western maps and literature would have been a sufficient reason for him to create a map of his own in line with those of the Western mapmakers of the time, leaving us an Armenian map as remarkable for its uniqueness as for the hints it gives of the interconnections underlying the T-O maps and the mappaemundi of the West. This is a very late example of a T-O world map, probably made in Bruges in 1482 for King Edward IV, the founder of the old Royal Library. 205CT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm dia, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut.
205CCDiagram map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 9th century, 24 cm square, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 210, f.
205DD Isidore mappamundi, unknown, 11th century, 26 cm dia, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 10058, f.
205ET-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, Santarem s Atlas compose de mappemondes . 205GG Circular Plan of Jerusalem, unknown, 13th century, 26 cm diameter, British Library, Additional MS.
205HT-O Sallust map from Bellum Jugurthinum, unknown, 14th century, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, Fond. 205HH Reverse T-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 12th century, 19 cm diameter, Cathedral Curch of Exeter, MS. 205JJT-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 9th century, 12.5 cm diameter, Burgerbibliothek, Bern, Codex 417, fol. 205LLSallust T-O map from De bello Jugurthino, West oriented, unknown, 6.8 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS. 205MT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 8th century, 22 X 29 cm, Vatican Library, MS Vat.
205MM Sallust T-O map with symmetrical rivers, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, MS. 205NSallust T-O map, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge MS. 205OT-O Sallust map, unknown, 13th century, 4.3 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS Lat.
205QT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm diameter, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut. 205TT-O and -V maps from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 12th century, 7.2 cm diameter, BnF, Manuscrits (Latin 10293 fol. 205TTT-O world map by Chatillon, Gautier de Chatillon, 13th century, 7 cm diameter, Bodleian Library, MS Bod. 205V1Gauthier de Chatillon mappimundi, Alexandreis, Gauthier de Chatillon, 13th century, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Francais 11334, fol.
205WY-O map from Macrobiusa€™ Commentarium in somnium Scipionis, unknown, 12th century, 8.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205YT-O map from MS of Commentary on the Apocalypse of Saint John (Beatus), unknown, 11th century, 4.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS.
205ZT-O map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 12th century, 8.1 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS.
Privacy and PolicyDisclaimer* "Astrological results depend on a lot of factors & the results may vary from person to person". November 27, 2011 - London Vatican's chief exorcist has claimed that practicing yoga and reading 'Harry Potter' brings evil. He went to graduate school at Boston College, became a social worker, got married, raised four children, got elected to the Clinton Board of Selectmen and over the past years, has watched three wars unfold on his television screen.
Initially they were propelled to distance themselves from each other by major language differences. Because they settled in these areas and because they settled first, they had more time and resources to develop civilizations.
One thing that is usually required for a culture to develop is interaction with other culture groups.
Hence, the imperialistic armies of Europe with canons, ships, and guns met tribesmen in parts of Africa armed with spear and bows and arrow. The Sumerians were a people who perhaps migrated from the Caspian Sea area into the Fertile Crescent, the fertile area lying between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Sumerian priests would climb these tall towers thinking that at the top they might encounter the gods who would descend from the sky to meet with them.
Little is known about this period or people, but there are written records that indicate that there were kings who ruled Sumer during the antedeluvian period (period of time between Creation and the Flood). They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area. Sargon established the powerful and vast empire of Akkad that ruled over most of the Fertile Crescent. Therefore, Hammurabi developed an extensive set of laws to govern the culture and the economy. They observed the movement of the stars through astronomy in an attempt to understand the behavior and will of the gods.


People in the area became known as a€?Mesopotamiansa€? rather than Amorites, Sumerian, Assyrians, or Babylonians. The growth of population created problems with sewage, garbage, overcrowding in urban centers, decreasing drinking water supplies, disease, and the constant threat of a new people group arriving to take advantage of the fertile soil -- even though salinization continued to be a constant problem. In a revelation from Elohim, Abraham was promised an inherited land that would remain the possession of his descendants. During a period of 40 years in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan Moses received from God the Ten Commandments while communing with God on the top of Mount Sinai. Under the leadership of Joshua, the Hebrews systematically defeated all the people groups living in the land of Canaan and possessed the land promised to them by God.
They gradually adopted the language of the Canaanites and blended their religion with that of the Canaanites and featured the worship of the god Baal.
Therefore they could not corrupt the divine blood line through marriage with common people. The i??entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. For one brief period, however, one of the Pharaohs, Akhenaten, promoted a form of monotheism.
Cleopatra was a descendant of General Ptolemy who was given governance over Egypt by Alexander the Great of Greece.
When Ashkenaten became Pharaoh he banished the gods of Egypt, banished their priests, emptied their temples, and forbade their worship or sacrifices made to them. He (1) ended the worship of Aten, contrary to his fathera€™s policy, and (2) restored the worship of Amun.
His wife petitioned the king of the Hittites, asking to be given as a wife to one of his sons. He was known as a war pharaoh, leading campaigns against the Hittites, Syrians, Libyans, Nubians, and other neighboring nations. They founded the Minoan civilization and their capitol city of Knossos on the island of Crete. They fell victim to the plagues brought by God against the Pharaoha€™s (likely Rameses II) stubbornness to refuse to allow over one million Hebrew slaves to leave Egypt peacefully.
The Indus River civilization, known as the Harappa civilization, was located in present-day Pakistan, appearing about 1500 B.C. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean i??area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. The priests were both religious and military leaders and ruled from walled citadels in the major cities. The Chinese today consider this river basin to be the cradle of Chinese civilization and refer to the river as a€?the mother river.a€? It has an east-i??west extension of about 3,000 miles from the Kulun Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and a north-south extension of 684 miles. It is probable that they moved into the Yellow River area after the Tower of Babel event and retained the knowledge of God received from Noah and his offspring.
It had elaborate drainage and sewage systems superior to those in many parts of modern India today. They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area.A  Cuneiform (from the Latin cuneus, three-sided wedge) used wedge-shaped markings made with bamboo pens on soft clay. The entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages.
From this it is quite evident that the two parts, Europe and Africa, occupy half of the world and that Asia alone occupies the other half. Proceeding to a systematic description of the countries of the world, of Asia Isidore says that it is bounded in the east by Lake Maeotis [Sea of Azov] and the river Tanais [the river Don].
Other maps give definite localities for the Twelve Tribes of Israel and the abiding places of the Twelve Apostles.
The most closely related or influenced maps of the T-Oa€™s are those that accompany manuscripts of Sallusta€™s works and may have originally been drawn to illustrate a passage from Sallusta€™s De bello Jugurthino which, like Isidorea€™s treatise, also attempted to briefly describe the countries of the world. Both accounts appear bound in one manuscript that was copied and used as a textbook of history for almost a millennium. The sea is boisterous, and deficient in harbors; the soil is fertile in corn, and good for pasturage, but unproductive of trees. The name of Medes the Libyans gradually corrupted changing It in their barbarous tongue, into Moors. Many copies of this map mention the name of Armenians in North Africa, along with the names of the Medes and the Persians These were probably the forbearers of the first T-O maps, as we know them today. Some of these include basic T-O maps, which show the continents, including the names of some countries and peoples. The copy dates from the ninth or tenth century and is drawn on vellum and taken from a Sallust manuscript now in the University of Leipzig in Germany. In the area of Europe there are no legends, only the city of Roma is represented with a vignette of a castle and its name, attesting to the importance of the power of Rome in the Empire. Affrica contains 24 legends, which include cities of Harran, Cartage [Cartage] plus four other cities.
The left arm of the T is inscribed Tanais, but the right arm, which should have borne the name Nilus, is only connected to the Nile at the right extremity, where the Nilus is shown as a vertical line. There are 15 toponyms and the countries of Phoenicea, Carthago, Ethiopia, Numidia and mountains of Catabatmon are shown. This area is divided first into the lands of Judea, Galilee, and Palestine, and further by the names of seven of the Twelve Tribes. One of the most interesting features of this map is its highly abstract form: it is mostly comprised of straight lines with only a few concessions to irregular geographical forms. Most puzzling is that the label for Europe crosses what would normally be the Mediterranean. The division of the earth among the sons of Noah, Noaha€™s ark, seven of the twelve tribal territories of the land of Israel, Jericho and the city of refuge (Joshua 20) for those guilty of involuntary manslaughter under Hebrew law, all come from Jewish history. These divisions are treated rather casually, however, for the label EVROPA straddles the boundary between Europe and Africa; locations in the Holy Land are indifferently assigned to Asia and Africa, and Athens and Achaia are placed in Asia. Running horizontally across the middle of the map, and dividing Asia from Africa and Europe, is a band labeled HIERVSALEM. Europe in principle occupies the left hand side of the lower half of the map, but the label EVROPA actually straddles the vertical divider. Great Britain, Ireland and Thule are represented at or over the edge of the orbis and in the northern rather than western quadrant.
The prominence given to Jerusalem, together with the double representation of the Cross (once on its own, and once on Mount Zion), is a case in point. Evelyn Edson, on the other hand, argues that MS 17a€™s mappamundi is one of a small group of complex maps directly inspired by computus themes. A famous and often reproduced world map in a manuscript of the short version of Mansela€™s book, which was probably made by Simom Marmion in about 1460, illustrates the division of the world among the three sons of Noah.
Mansela€™s description includes ancient places such as Carthage and Delos, biblical places such as Babylon and Judaea, and lands of contemporary importance such as Westphalia and Gascony. Of course that is the easy conclusion, but it is rendered very plausible if we look at the names of some of the islands in the circumfluent oceana€”golgavatas terra, lapides presiosa (for lapides pretiosi, a€?precious stonesa€?), habundans terra, illa deserta, tamaria, alphaua terra, and illa arcana, for examplea€”which are quite clearly invented.
It immediately precedes the prologue to Book IV, which includes a regional description of the world in alphabetical order. Among these manuscripts are many illustrated works on astrology and astronomy as well as some on geography, but virtually nothing contains a map. The circular legend around the city reads The city of Jerusalem populated in ancient and recent times by the Israelites [the Armenian phrase reads Bnakui hin yev nor avrinatz qaghaq I[sra] letzotz vor e Yerusaghem]. It also resembles the plan of Jerusalem in another Armenian manuscript in the Matenadaran, the much later MS 1770 which dates from 1589.
This is shown by the pair of vertical red lines that descend from Jerusalem in the center to the outer Ocean and represent the Mediterranean, which is identified only by the word Sea.
Between the inscription and the Mediterranean, that is in western Africa, is a small circle which, being inland, can only denote a lake. It is outlined in black, colored solidly in red and interrupted as if to indicate the traditional crossing of the Israelites as they fled from Egypt. Two black lines, drawn at right angles to each other and to the red lines of the continental division and the Mediterranean, indicate the Aegean and Black Seas.
In the north, following the curve of the encircling Ocean, and on the borders of Europe and Asia, is written Rusq [Russia]. Zaytun was the Arabic name given to the port of Quanzhou or Tseu-Tung in the province of Fujian, China. It may also be that this is the earliest Christian map on which the toponyms Caffa, Azov, Sarai, Zaytun and Khansai are found. The geographer Mkrdich Khachaturiana€™s suggestion that the map dates from 1206 is unlikely to be correct.
The Flemish Franciscan William de Rubruck (1220-1293), who in 1253 travelled to the region, stated that [Sarah] Batu was one of the most important cities of the region. It is hardly possible to date a manuscript precisely based on palaeography alone, and, furthermore, the script used on the map is similar to that in a manuscript produced in Caffa in 1445 (Matenadaran, MS 8963), which is another collection of astrological and scientific subjects, with diagrams and calendars. Only after Genoese merchants had leased it from the Mongols, was it transformed into a flourishing commercial centre, trading with the East and rivaling the Venetian- controlled city of Tanais on the Sea of Azov.
Such a date would fit the suggestion that the Armenian mapmaker, who was most likely to have been a monk, either saw or was told about contemporary Italian T-O maps in Caffa, a city not only administered by the Genoese, but also to all intents and purposes functioning as an Italian city, and one of the most suitably located Armenian communities for intellectual as well as commercial contact with the West. Hovhannes Hovhannisian, the other Armenian geographer who has studied the map, argues that the presence of the commercial centers of Khorazm [Oxiana] and Sarai are indicative of the period when the Mongols had close connections with Khorazm (that is, from the 1240s to the 1360s), and this explains the rationale behind his dating the map to as late as 1360. Other biblical events and places are shown on the map, however: Jerusalem, the giving of the Tablets of the Law to Moses, Mount Sinai and the Red Sea. While the Hereford mappamundi, c.1290 (#226) and the Sawley map, 1180 (#215) each show a monastic establishment, the references to these have been placed on the banks of the Nile. It can plausibly be deduced, that the author was familiar with Central Asia since current trends in commercial and political relations are well represented by the depiction of the Silk Road cities and major trading centers such as Baghdad, Damascus, Constantinople and Venice. A sumptuous example of Flemish illumination illustrating an encyclopedic work, it embodies the spirit of medieval civilization.
Father Gabriel Amorth, who has carried out more than 70,000 exorcisms in the past 25 years after being appointed by the late Pope John Paul II, surprised delegates at a conference by revealing his dislike for yoga and 'Harry Potter'.
Dziokonski, who was a Navy corpsman assigned to a Marine Corps rifle company in Vietnam and a recipient of two Purple Hearts and a Bronze Star with a Combat "V," considers himself a strong man, a self-described curmudgeon. There is nothing so uncomfortable as being around people who dona€™t speak your language, and nothing more comfortable than finding others who do! Those who were constantly on the move and being chased from place to place by the stronger had less opportunity to develop a civilization or to benefit from natural resources.
The Spanish conquistadors, while few in number, were able to subjugate an entire Latin American continent due to their superior technology. They cultivated fields of wheat, groves of date palms, developed herds of cattle, manufactured pottery and woven baskets, and developed a wide-ranging trade system using their sea-worthy boats. He ruled by means of a powerful military nobility that lived off of a vast taxation network extracted by those whom they subjugated. As with the Vikings much later in history, the sea people were ruthless, relentless in their attacks, and arrived at unexpected times.
The history of the Hebrews after the Exodus from Egypt is a story of constant conflict with the Philistines, including the story of Samson and Delilah, and the numerous battles between the Hebrews and Philistines under the Hebrew king, David.
The Nile provided a fertile valley carved out of hot, sandy desert that was able to sustain a large civilization extending along the narrow river valley from the Mediterranean in the north to Ethiopia in the south. A variety of causes have been suggested for his early death, and for many years it was suspected that he was murdered. He abandoned the new royal city built by his father at Akhanaten and moved the capitol back to the traditional capitol at Thebes.The royal celebrations and sacrifices to Amun were restored, winning him great favor with many of the people.
He was also the most prolific builder of monuments honoring his rule, as well as pyramids for the burial of his many children. The priests were intermediaries between the people and the numerous gods and goddesses discovered on clay seals and figurines.
This period is also credited with the development of the Chinese five-tone music scale, the five-stringed zither, and pan-pipes. Persia is supplying rockets to Hezbollah, American troops are in Babylonia, and Assyria questions whether it wants to be part of the new Iraq.
The former were made into two parts because the Great Sea (called the Mediterranean) enters from the Ocean between them and cuts them apart .
His treatment of the habitable earth enables one to arrive fairly easily at the scope of his knowledge. During his mission there he was involved in various rebellions and conflicts with neighboring powers and has left accounts of his activities. In his Jugurthine War Sallust writes about Africa, describing its geographic location and climatic conditions, as well as its demography where he narrates how the Armenian mercenaries settled in North Africa and intermingling with the Libyan tribes, gave rise to the peoples that inhabit the region today.
Since they are about the history of northern Africa, this particular area is shown in more detail.
In Europe only the name of the continent and two countries of Italia and Hyspania are shown.
Near the Nile the land is described as Exusta [parched], a reference to the southern parched areas.
Jerusalem was the focus of that Conquest for more than two centuries of Crusaders, and it would remain the center of attention on maps until the invention of printing and the publication of Ptolemy in the 1470s.
The whole is illustrated by instructive diagrams, including five world maps: two T-O centers of rotae, two zonal maps, and one larger, more detailed map.
Another oddity is that Achaia, where St Andrew [preached] is in Southeast Asia, far from Athens, the preaching site of Paul. These are the usual numbers for the descendants of Shem and Ham, but the source of the numbers for Armenia and why this country is singled out are not clear. There is no attempt at cartographic realism: this is a diagram containing a list of places.
ASIA MAIOR: glossed QVOD SVNT SEPTVAGINTA DVE GENTES ORTE, and beneath this De Sem gentes XXVI. In the Europe zone, reading from top to bottom and left to right are: Terra macedonum, Campania, Italia, ROMA, tiberis flumen, Tuscia, mons Ethna, sicilia, KARTAGO MAGNA.
These independent maps tend to occupy the full width of the page, or the page in its entirety. Anna-Dorothea von den Brincken claims that this map is the first to position Jerusalem in the centre of the world, and not at its eastern extremity. A mappamundi with identical arrangement and legends appears in the Peterborough Computus (Harley 3667 fol. The British Isles and Ireland were little corners of the outer margins of the orbis terrarum, which further served to marginalize the deviant computus of the island churches. But the ADAM device, to say nothing of its proximity to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram both in MS 17 and in the Peterborough computus, argue forcefully for its derivation from Byrhtferth or his milieu.
In this category she includes oikumene maps, often quite large, such as the one in Vatican City BAV 6018 fols. Another world map in a manuscript of the long version of the book, this one created c.1480, for this map contains large and prominent sea monsters in the circumfluent ocean. His aim was to show how Rome developed from a small town to a global empire, almost every corner of which had been penetrated by Christianity before the empire passed to the Franks. In fact none of the islands in the circumfluent ocean which are discussed by Mansela€”Grande-Bretagne, iles Fortunees, Gales, Irlande, Orcades, Escosse, Thanatos, Taprobane, Thule, and Islandea€”appears on this map. The oldest geographical work originates from as early as the fifth century and is titled in Armenian Ashkharhatzuytz or Mirror of the World.
The horizontal arms of the letter T (stretching north and south from Jerusalem at the centre) are not represented by the rivers Tanais (Don) and Nile, as in conventional T-O maps, but by single red lines ruled, it would seem, to demarcate Asia from Europe and from Africa. The considerable prominence given to Jerusalem can be explained by the fact that the Armenian Church had, and still has, close ties with the Holy City and is one of the four custodians of the Holy Places, with a church, seminary and religious order active since the 5th century.
Outside the double-circle frame of the map are the names of the four cardinal directions Hyusis, Harav, Arevelq and Arevmutq, and the word Dzov [Sea] is written seven times.
Further in from the Ocean two cities are named, Kostandnupolis [Constantinople] and Venejia [Venice]. Indeed, that is how it is identified, with the phrase Ays dzovis anunn Tuman [This Sea is named Tuman]. The legend that appears to refer to the Crossing of the Red Sea is worn and partly illegible. A gap in the horizontal line for the Aegean, filled with the name Kostandnupolis [Constantinople], seems to imply that the line also represents the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus. Zaytun and Khansai appear on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#246) as Ciutat de Zaytun and Ciutat de Cansay, respectively; Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1459 (#249) contains these toponyms as Cayton and Chansay.
His conjecture was based on the assumption that all the toponyms on the map are contemporary with the time of its creation.
This posed a problem for Khachaturian, however, and he therefore had to insist that the toponym Sara related not to Sarai-Batu but to some other location, perhaps a putative island in the Caspian Sea, even though the Caspian is neither mentioned on the map nor has it ever had an inhabited island named Sara. Looking at the toponyms shown on the map, the question arises why a Cilician-Armenian mapmaker would have included the names of cities along the distant northern Silk Road, instead of the toponyms in his locality. The earliest mention of Caffa in Armenian literature dates from the middle of the 13th century.
In Rouben Galichiana€™s view, the most creditable hypothesis is that the map was created between the late-13th and mid-14th centuries, or even slightly later, which is in line with Hovhannisiana€™s proposal.
The legend to the southeast of Palestine, between Mount Sinai and the Nile reads Takhtak orinatz zor yet[ur] a[stua]tz Movs[es]i, which translates Tablets of law that God gave Moses. The Armenian language has several different words that mean monastery, among them liana, menastan and ananpat. It may also be suggested that the mapmaker was a native of the region, very likely from 14th century Caffa, then one of the most important Armenian cultural centers and the source of a large number of manuscripts of that date. So when he found himself at the top of a mountain crying over a dead butterfly, he knew he needed help.
And Christian missionaries from Europe and the United States armed with computers, flashlights, and modern medicines, encountered stone age tribesmen in the islands of the Pacific as late at the end of the 20th century. They developed a system that divided a circle into units of sixty, from which we today get our minute composed of sixty seconds and a system of counting based upon the unit of ten.
Two of the consequences were (1) a confusion of languages, and (2) a huge flood that lasted for seven days and seven nights. But they were described as being primarily a nomadic people who were never conquered, refused to live in houses, and moved frequently from place to place. One of their number who had gained prominence in Egypt, Joseph, was able through his position to ensure their safe move into Egypt. Eventually they were controlled by the Egyptians who at times extended their control northward to Syria.
This was not a monotheism that resulted from special revelation granted by the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but developed from his angry response to all those who belittled him when he was a boy.
But more recent examination of his mummified remains indicate that he had severe scoliosis, a broken leg that had become infected, and probably died from several genetic diseases, caused by the fact that his mother was one of his fathera€™s sisters.
He fathered at least 80 sons and 60 daughters, all with the purpose of leaving behind a royal line and a successor to the throne.
Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas. Knowledge of the Aryans comes primarily from a series of stories called vedas passed down orally in India. Fertility was seemingly a major emphasis of the Harappa religion and was the cause of the veneration of sacred animals, especially bulls.
The vast area of fertile soil and extensive forests was fueled by tremendous amounts of soil that annually washed down from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean.
Recent studies now propose that it was a change in the path and frequency of typhoons that brought the decline of the Harappa civilization. It merges with the Yangtze River as it nears the Pacific Ocean to form a vast and fertile plain. Oracle bones were simply that: bones on which cracks in the bones were deciphered by oracles who added written pictographs for interpretation.
He also developed vast wheat and barley fields, groves of date palms, and under his leadership Babylon became a central power in Mesopotamia. Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.A  Large granaries were built to hold surplus wheat and barley. These maps are taken from various manuscript copies of Sallusts works some of them dating from as late as the 13th and the 14th centuries, when they were still in use as textbooks by historians and scholars. The fourth line from the center bottom, near mount Athlas reads Medi - Armeni, a reference to the Armenians and Medes having settled in the area. In Asia beside the name of the continent, river Nilus, Egypt and Mare Rubrum [Red Sea] are mentioned, while the tall rising tower bears the legend Jrslm [Jerusalem]. These are the people, that according to Sallust settled in North Africa, giving rise to the North African tribes of today.
Its heavily biblical content is also unusual: note Hierusalem on the central axis with the cross and Mt. Of the sons of Noah, Shem is found in Asia and Ham in Africa, as usual, but Japheth stands next to Shem in Asia, instead of Europe. In the centre, at the juncture of the horizontal and vertical dividing bands, is an omega-shape with a cross in the centre, labeled beneath Mons syon. The only place names in the Africa zone are at the very top, and two of them, TERRA IVDA, and PALESTINA, may have been intended as part of the central band (B above).


They absorbed significant amounts of text into the schematic frame, such as lists of the provinces of the inhabited world.
She associates this with the piety of the First Crusade, and the attention given to the Cross would support this claim.
8v), a manuscript very closely related to MS 17 in space and time; and the Peterborough computus also contains the only other extant copy of Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram (#205Z13). Moreover, in Book 5 of the Historia ecclesiastica, Bede follows up his account of Adomnan of Ionaa€™s reception of the Roman Easter with a paraphrase of his De locis sanctis: now it is Jerusalem, not Rome, which is the center of the world, but the link between computistical orthodoxy and the universality of the Church in space is still the underlying message. The map (shown below) is in a chapter on the a€?Provinces du monde,a€? but there is almost no connection between the map and the list of provinces in the chapter.
The legend hic sunt dragones, a€?Here there are dragonsa€?, sounds like a legend that would appear on many medieval mapsa€”such is our tendency to associate monsters with medieval mapsa€”but in fact it appears on only one other cartographic object, namely the Hunt-Lenox globe of c.1510 (Book IV, #314), where on the southeastern coast of Asia there is a legend that reads HC SVNT DRACONES.
The prominent sea monsters on the map are thus invented dangers, rather than being based on the descriptions of sea monsters in a bestiary or encyclopedia, and the labels, like those on the islands, are attempts to convey an authority and accuracy which in fact are absent. Under the letter a€?Aa€™, for example, we read first about Asia and Assyria, then Arabia, Armenia and Albania. One full and almost sixty abridged manuscript copies of this work have survived, thirty-three of which are in the Matenadaran. Only the northern end of the single red line might be considered to represent the river Tanais, the traditional divide between Europe and Asia. It may be worth bearing in mind that for the first four centuries of Christianity it was predominantly an Asiatic and North African religion, and that the Christian world was not divided into a Latin West and a predominantly Byzantine East until after the Council of Ephesus in 431. In Section 11, containing a text related to the Old Testament, there is circular plan of the city of Jerusalem (fol.
Because the encircling Ocean touches two sides of paper, the words Hyusis [North] and Harav [South] have had to be split.
West of this water body, an unnamed river is shown by a pair of parallel red lines bearing the simple inscription Sea.
North of Constantinople, the vertical black line, inscribed only as Sea, represents the Black Sea. According to Ibn-Battuta, this was the largest port [he] had ever seen, which could easily accommodate more than 100 large Chinese junks. Furthermore he claimed that since Mardin appears prominently on the map, it must have been made before the conquest of that city by the Arabs, in the early 13th century.
By the middle of the 14th century, when numerous monastic scriptoria were in operation, the majority of Caffaa€™s population of 70,000 were Armenian.
Arguably, the lack of any references to Armenia itself could be attributed to the fact that he lived far from his homeland and felt no particular affinity with it. The Mediterranean Sea is not shown and only the black African faces convey a hint of reality. They may both seem innocuous but they both deal with magic and that leads to evil," the Daily Mail quoted him as saying. And he found relief and release in a yoga program designed specifically for war veterans called Yoga Warriors International. The weaker tended to move out farther, and the stronger tended to settle down more quickly and claim their space. Ur was a community of moon-worshippers and from among them God called out Abraham and his family to become the father of all who have faith (Romans 4). They practiced taxation, conquest of neighboring peoples, slavery, and developed an early monarchial form of government.
A Sumerian king, Ziusudra, survived the flood in a large boat, in which he preserved the seeds of plants and life. There they were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians, and they remained slave for over 400 years. The southern section, Judah, with its capitol, Jerusalem, was invaded, captured, and exiled by Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B. Eventually, however, the sea people were able to settle along the Mediterranean coastline of the land of Canaan and were known as the Philistines.
They possessed a written language, but deciphering the script used is still in its early stages. Estimates now available from satellite imagery shows a ridge of fertile soil up to 20 feet deep, 10 miles wide and 100 miles long that straddles the Indus River.
The pattern of the annual typhoons gradually moved increasingly eastward and the people followed the rainfall in scattered, smaller groups.
Because only 10% of the Chinese land is productive for food, the Yellow River basin was crucial in the development and survival of the Chinese people. Most of them die by the gradual decay of age, except such as perish by the sword or beasts of prey, for disease finds but few victims. The page is composed with the map above and a week-day table arranged under the arches below. Athens, Ephesus, Achaia, and Caesarea are mentioned specifically as sites where the apostles preached. The only significant difference between the Peterborough version of the map and the one found in MS 17 is that MS 17 alone contains the marginal note on Asia maior. A map of the Macrobian type also appears in the Abbonian computus manuscript Berlin 138 fol. Adam, Eve, and the serpent are in Eden at the top (east) of the map, with the rivers of Paradise flowing downward from it to the west (the river Jordan is labeled). Heads symbolizing the four principal winds surround the habitable world, on which a number of historical or encyclopedic features are portrayed, such as the Tower of Babel, the Trees of the Sun and the Moon, the river Jordan, Jerusalem with Mount Calvary, the Red Sea, Rome, and some of the monstrous races. These monsters, though invented, nonetheless have their effect, and render the circumfluent ocean a place of terrors, in contrast to the apparently peaceful buildings of the inhabited world.
The original Ashkharhatzuytz is attributed by some to the 5th century Armenian historian Movses Khorenatzi, while others believe that it is the work of the 7th century scientist and astronomer Anania Shirakatzi. Two vertical parallel red lines (running from Jerusalem to the western edge of the map) represent the unnamed Mediterranean Sea that separates Africa and Europe. Christianity had reached Armenia through the preaching of the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus. 392r), which is similar to the plan of the same city drawn in the centre of the world map of MS 1242. The significance of the two circles is made clear by the note, also on the outside, The all encompassing ocean, which is in this shape. Venice was an important entrepot for Armenian merchants, and Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the most important religious and political centre outside Jerusalem. These lines, drawn almost at right angles to the Mediterranean, connect with the outer Ocean. Misr is the Arabic name of Egypt, used also in old Armenian, which the mapmaker has chosen to employ in conjunction with the later-day Armenian name of the country.
The northern extremity of the red line dividing Europe and Asia, beyond the eastern end of the Black Sea, must also stand for the Sea of Azov (for which there is no place-name) and the river Tanais. Sarai refers to the capital of the Mongols; it is either Sarai-Batu (Old Sarai), built in 1240s, or Sarai-Berke [New Sarai], dating from around 1260. These are doubtful lines of argument; information took time to be disseminated, and maps were only slowly updated. In addition, two legends in Palestine read Yekin anapatn [Came to the monastery] and Yekin Ye[rusaghe]m sakavq [A few came to Je[rusale]m]. The monastery on the Armenian map is not named but is defined as ananpat, which suggests a conscious choice, since on the Hereford map the whole legend reads Monasteria Sancti Antonii in deserto. It was with Abraham that God made his redeeming covenant that resulted in the coming of Jesus into the world as Savior.
But the Hebrews for the most part lived under a series of male and female Hebrews judges, and then a series of kings. Because they were viewed as gods in the flesh, they strove to keep the royal bloodline pure through marriage between brothers and sisters. In addition to the rich alluvial soil, water was plentiful from typhoons that annually dumped immense amounts of rainfall on the area. In addition, the fact that the Harappaa€™s bronze tools and weapons were inferior in design and quality to those manufactured in Egypt and Mesopotamia may also have resulted in invasions as the cities declined in population. The river gained its name from the color of the mud and silt that flows from the Kulun Mountains. Uniting these two gives us Garden of Delight; for it is planted with every kind of wood and fruit-bearing tree, having also the tree of life.
Several of the districts are rich in gold and precious stones but are rarely approached by man owing to the ferocity of the Griffens .
Animals of a venomous nature they have in great numbers, Africa, then, was originally occupied by the Getulians and Libyans, rude and uncivilized tribes, who subsisted on the flesh of wild animals, or like cattle, on the herbage of the soil.
Place names are almost entirely omitted from Africa and Asia Major, and a note in the upper right adds a€?[Asia] Major has in the east Alexandria and Pamphiliaa€?. The only places without a biblical link of some kind are in Italy (Sicily, Mount Etna, Tuscany, Campania), Constantinople and Britain, Ireland and Thule. However, the Peterborough map does not represent Mount Sion as a round a€?hilla€? with a cross, but as a triangle, and spells IERUSALEM without MS 17a€™s initial H. When these Greek names for the cardinal directions are read as if making the sign of the cross, that is, east-west-north-south, their initial letters spell ADAM. Jerusalem stands out at the center of the world and is labeled, as are Calvary, Babylon, the Red Sea, and Rome; the Trees of the Sun and Moon visited by Alexander the Great are also easy to identify.
As this manuscript is the only one of the long version of the work that contains a world map, it seems likely that the map was the result of a specific request by the patron commissioning the manuscript, namely Philippe II Sans Terre (1438-1497). The text also retains Isidorea€™s distinction between the Fortunate Islands and the earthly paradise and repeats the belief that Enoch and Elijah dwelt in the Garden and that the noise of the waters of Paradise falling to earth from a such a great height caused the local population to be born deaf.
The text is based on the work of Pappus of Alexandria (late third or early 4th century AD), but the chapters relating to Armenia and neighboring countries have been expanded. In accordance with the Western Christian T-O maps, the Armenian map is oriented with East at the top.
It became the state religion in 301, after the conversion of King Tigran III, which makes the Armenian Church one of the oldest Christian entities.
Although made in geographically widely separate locations, a common source or tradition may be suspected, especially were the Armenian map to prove to have been made before the end of the 13th century, which would place all these maps to within one hundred to one hundred fifty years of each other. The term Sea, it should be noted, as used on the Armenian T-O map, refers any substantial body of water, whether it be an ocean, sea, lake or river.
One of these is located at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean Sea, within the parallel lines, whereas the other two lie just to the north of the lines. On the other (eastern) side of the legend indicating Africa a large red circle contains the legend Paravon yev zorqn Yegiptosi [Pharaoh and the army of Egypt]. Directly south of the Red Sea, near the shores of the surrounding Ocean, lies Ethiopia, named Hapash. The 13th century traveler Marco Polo mentions Zai-tun and Kin-sai as being important cities, trading with Japan (Zipangu), as well as with the Arabs and Persians.
Moreover, in the case of the Western mappaemundi the very essence of the map was the inclusion of old (historical as well as biblical) information together with contemporary places and events.
Since the two Western maps and the Armenian map seem to have been made within one hundred and one hundred fifty years of each other, we can see the reference on the respective maps as further confirmation of the possibility of a common source. Cimini, the founding director of Central Mass Yoga and Wellness in West Boylston, designed to alleviate the symptoms of combat stress or post-traumatic stress disorder. Sumer was located near to where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers merge and flow into the Persian Gulf.
Both the veneration of bulls and the use of the lotus position were later developed further in Hinduism and Buddhism in India. They were controlled neither by customs, laws, nor the authority of any ruler, they wandered about, without fixed habitations and slept in the abodes to which night drove them. These islands, the only ones represented, break the frame of the map, perhaps as a burst of patriotism on the part of the scribes. The popularity of this ancient conceit was primarily due to St Augustine, who compared Adama€™s progeny filling the earth and the sons of Noah re-populating the globe. A list map using the T-O form as a symbolic frame for displaying the names of provinces in Asia, Africa and Europe appears in Cotton Vitellius A.XII, fol. But otherwise the mapa€™s geography is vague; it presents much of the earth as a a€?jumblea€? of land and water. Adam and Eve, the tree and the serpent are shown within an ornate architectural frame, as if to emphasize the uniqueness and splendor of the Garden. But once he had been assigned this task, the artist seems to have given his fancy free rein. A later version of the Ashkharhatzuytz by the 13th century historian and geographer Vartan Areveltzi is also extant in multiple copies (MS 3119, 4184 and others).
Armenian Christianity's ties with the Latin churches were severed in 554 over irreconcilable doctrinal differences.
The city plan in the 16th century MS 1770 also would seem to have been derived from the same common source or tradition. Similarly the term Land does not denote a territory as such, but is placed wherever there is a significant gap between neighboring toponyms. The Nile is placed well inside Asia, where a vertical (easta€”west) red line running from close to the eastern Ocean towards the Red Sea bears the legend Ays dzovis anun Nil asen [This Sea is named Nile]. Although the whole representation may be highly schematic, the way that the Aegean Sea is depicted as branching off from the Mediterranean to the west of Jerusalem and the easta€”west alignment of Black Sea, shown at right angles to the northern end of the Aegean near Constantinople, presents a more faithful picture of reality than many other T-O maps.
Then comes Ashkharq Hndkatz [Lands of the Indians], followed well to the southeast by Hndkastan [Hindustan or India]. It was usual for medieval maps, in short, to depict conditions in existence some time before their creation.
She was the daughter of Akhenaten and his favorite wife, Nefertiti The result was two daughters who both died in infancy. From the middle of the Garden a spring gushes forth to water the whole grove and, dividing up, it provides the source of four rivers [see #205C and Q]. The northern (left) half of the cross bar represented the river Tanais [Don], and the southern (right) half of the cross bar represented the river Nile. But after Hercules, as the Africans think, perished in Spain, his army, which was composed of various nations, having lost its leader, and many candidates severalty claiming the command of it, was speedily dispersed. Around the circle of the map the cardinal directions are ostentatiously given in Greek and glossed in Latin: for example, Anathole vel oriens vel eoi, in the east. Like MS 17a€™s image, it gives considerable prominence to the circumambient ocean, as well as to the islands of Britain, Ireland and Thule: its creator seems to have been especially concerned to situate his own region with respect to the extremes of the world, both to the east and to the west.
It should also be noted that a second, incomplete copy of this map is found in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 265, p.
It appears in Bedea€™s commentary on Genesis, and is prominently featured in Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram. 29r) in which only the northern temperate zone -- the oikumene or inhabited world -- is treated like a map, while the remainder of the disk is occupied solely by text.
From Paradise the four rivers flow out to give life to the earth and to establish a mysterious yet material connection between paradise and the human realm. Both the earlier and the later versions display the influence of Ptolemy, and as in the case of Ptolemy, no maps accompany these manuscripts. By adding the word Land between the toponyms, the mapmaker has tried to show that although these towns are widely separated and distant from each other, they constitute a chain of cities along a route that can only be the Silk Road.
In the Middle Ages, the designation India was used loosely to refer to the lands east of Persia, Media and the Middle East.
Speaking on the subject of People And Religion at a fringe event at the Umbria Film Festival in Terni, Father Amorth spoke of his distaste for JK Rowling's young wizard. Approach to this place was barred to man after his sin, for now it is hedged about on all sides by a sword-like flame [romphaea flamma], that is to say that it is surrounded by a wall of fire that reaches almost to the sky. Of its constituent troops the Medes, Persians and Armenians having sailed over Into Africa, occupied the parts nearest to our sea.
A note to one side says, Maior habet in oriente alexandriam pamphiliam, a reference to Asia Major at the top of the map.
Kartago Magna, which could be Cartagena in Spain as Cartago appears elsewhere on the map, is another non-biblical site. It is very close to such contemporary elaborations of the Sallust map as Vatican City, BAV Reg. Insular writers were particularly attracted to this theme, because they associated the conversion of their lands, at the very edge of the known world, with the fulfillment of Christa€™s command to take to Gospel to the ends of the earth.
64, underscores the magnetic attraction of these two ways of listing the inhabitants of the world, and how innovative MS 17 was in fusing them.
In his book, Mansel described Paradise as a wonderful region surpassing all other earthly lands, fit for mana€™s initial perfection, surrounded by a wall of fire and situated on an exceptionally high mountain that reached the sphere of the moon.
So here Lands of the Indians most probably refer to the northern and western neighbors of India, such as Persia and its neighboring countries, while Hndkastan denotes India proper. Englanda€™s geographic position may have made it especially sensitive to this apocalyptic dimension: the second of two notes on chronology in Oxford Bodleian Library Auct. The manuscript is dated to the last quarter of the 11th century, and this addition to the second half of the 12th century but the hand of the map bears an extraordinarily close resemblance to that of Scribe A of MS 17, and the palaeographical indicators point to a date closer to 1100. This fulfillment would be the climax of history, and would usher in the last days; hence the world-maps included in the Apocalypse commentary of Beatus of Liebana were essentially maps illustrating the preaching of the apostles to the gentes descended from Noaha€™s three sons, but expanded to encompass the whole world and the entirety of the world-age (#207).
Its presence in the manuscript raises questions about how such an essentially non-Armenian-style map came to be made by an Armenian, and when, considering that this is the only T-O type map bearing Armenian inscriptions known to exist. In Harry Potter the Devil is at work in a cunning and crafty way, he is using his extraordinary powers of magic and evil," he said. In every part of their body they are lions, and in wings and head are like eagles, and they are fierce enemies of horses. The frame of the map, a double circle, was drawn in drypoint, and at the right and left upper corners of the page are two smaller drypoint circles. Indeed, mappaemundi have a pronounced historical dimension: they are found in association with chronicles more frequently than in scientific works, and as illustrations of sacred history, they were infused with an allegorical vision of time.
82v, a manuscript contemporary with MS 17, adopts a four-ages scheme somewhat like that found in the dating clause on fol.
Hence this world map is a logical addition to a manuscript devoted to the reckoning of time. Edson tentatively suggests a comparison to the maps of the Holy Land created by the Talmudic scholar Rashi to expound the sacred text; however, MS 17a€™s map does not illustrate a text. He studies each and everyone of us and our tendencies towards good and evil and then he tempts us. With PTSD, your emotions are ruled by what happened 20 or 30 years ago." Dziokonski originally took yoga to gain more flexibility.
3v, but the fourth age, instead of ending in the annus praesens, runs from the Incarnation ad iter ierusalem, as if this event closed the series of years and ushered in the end times. As he practiced yoga, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq were unfolding a world away, but were hitting close to home for Dziokonski.
In fact, the only bodies of water to be named on this map are the rivers Jordan, Euphrates and Tiber. In this respect, MS 17a€™s map is an integral part of a monastic encyclopedia, in which the study of the world and time is itself a serious discipline. This is not the first time that the 85-year-old has raised eyebrows with his forthright views, as last year he had said that the ongoing child sex scandals rocking the Catholic Church were evidence that "the Devil was at work in the Vatican". The land of Hyrcania, bordering Scythia to the west, has many tribes wandering far afield on account of the unfruitfulness of their lands.
XII): the latter is of exceptional interest in that the map shares the page with a schema of the divisions of philosophy not dissimilar to the one on fol. The war was in our living room," Dziokonski said, recalling the firefights that were being broadcast on the nightly news.
The interpolated Biblical references include the ark of Noah in Armenia, and cities such as Athens and Caesarea that are explicitly connected with the missionary activity of the apostles. In fact, Dziokonski had asked her to teach a class at the Worcester Veterans Center, which fellow veterans later decided to continue. In addition, she is the co-author of a study that will appear in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy, "The Effects of Sensory Enhanced Hatha Yoga on Symptoms of Combat Stress in Deployed Military Personnel." The study was done by Maj.
Jon Greuel, an Air Force instructor pilot, in Kirkuk, Iraq, from November 2008 to November 2009 in collaboration with Cimini. She is also working with Worcester State University to study the effect of the Yoga Warrior program on military students at the university.
Zest Yoga and Fitness in Auburn is one of the local studios offering the Yoga Warriors class with a certified instructor. Zest Yoga and Fitness in Auburn began offering a Yoga Warriors class in September, and is open to all veterans and active-duty military personnel.
Dziokonski, who regularly attends a Thursday morning Yoga Warriors session, said yoga has returned to him a sense of calm, and has improved his sleep. Many Vietnam veterans are enrolled in Yoga Warriors, and also some World War II veterans, and now Iraq War veterans. Dziokonski and Cimini said the emotional impact the war has on returning veterans may not become evident until months or years later.



Indian express daily horoscope by peter vidal
Leo horoscope lucky lottery numbers
Girl baby names numerology hindu
Registration services officer


Comments to «Free astrology reading based on date and time of birth video»

  1. SUPER_PUPER writes:
    In short: Have the Rothschild reliability, tenacity, conservative, conscientiousness, and activity thought-about by the.
  2. Ledi_Kovboya writes:
    Share their experiences with psychic reading or astrology instinct could also be very accurate and insightful.