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The principal types of regional and local maps in the Middle Ages were itinerary maps, maps of regions like England or Palestine, city plans, and, especially from the very late Middle Ages, maps of disputed lands or boundaries of properties.
Written itineraries were well known in the Middle Ages and were apparently used both as travelersa€™ aids and for armchair travel, often for the purpose of either actual or mental pilgrimage. The other significant extant example of an itinerary map is the one that appears in various redactions in manuscripts of Parisa€™s Chronica majora. In addition to these surviving examples of itinerary maps, the significance of the itinerary a€” especially the written or narrated itinerarya€”is demonstrated by the frequency with which itineraries served as at least one source for other types of maps.
Paris created a number of regional maps of England and Palestine, as well as two historical maps representing features of early Britain. Matthewa€™s so-called Itinerary from London to the Holy Land, which has been reckoned with his map of Palestine, is not really a connected whole; it is the result of combining two different works, a pictorial representation of the route between London and Apulia (in southern Italy), and a sketch of the Holy Land. Matthew Parisa€™s maps of Palestine are best described as maps not so much of the Holy Land as of the Crusader kingdom, especially since a plan of the city of Acre, the principal port of the kingdom, dominates the coastline. The Itinerary to Apulia is not, therefore, part of a pilgrima€™s guide to the Holy Land; but rather appears to be a political sketch, with the following history (from Beazley). The text of this map of Palestine is, in fact, closely related to various Intineraries of the period of Latin domination in Syria, such as Les pelerinages pour aller en Jerusalem, Les chemins et les pelerinages de la Terre Sainte, or La deuice des chemins de Babiloine (viz. Itinerary Map from London to Bouveis, Cambridge, Corpus Christi College Library, MS 26, f.ir. Matthewa€™s little red lines become roads, inches become miles, vignettes become cities to be traversed by the viewers of his manuscripts. With the actual city lost to travelers, labyrinths created a space for virtual travel, much in the same way as Matthewa€™s maps do. The maps Matthewa€™s manuscripts contain, even the a€?lineara€? itinerary pages like the one that opens CCCC 26, are not as straightforward as they at first appear. These labyrinthine maps of Matthew Paris are quite different from those of his contemporaries in important respects. On the Psalter Map, beginning at the top and proceeding clockwise, we encounter the Garden of Eden, the Red Sea, a band of monstrous peoples, Britain, and the gates in the Caucus Mountains, retaining the hordes of Gog and Magog. Matthew was not immune to the common medieval interest a€“ monastic and secular a€“ in marvels like the monstrous peoples of Africa and Asia, reflected not only by their presence on the Psalter, Hereford and Ebstorf maps, but also by their near ubiquity in texts and images of all types. Just as audiences flocked to see Henry IIIa€™s elephant, they may also flocked to see some of the world maps, such as the Hereford Map, likely displayed in Hereford Cathedral as part of a pilgrimage route dedicated to Bishop Thomas Cantilupe, who died in 1283.
Matthew also chooses not to dwell in his maps on the horrifying hordes of Gog and Magog, lurking behind the Caspian Mountains, which is surprising, given his millennialism.
Matthewa€™s maps a€“ from the first legs of the itinerary, branching out from London along two paths, to the (nearly) pathless tracts of the Holy Land a€“ present a range of spatial options to the ocular traveler moving through them.
But again, this invites a question: If these maps, which were likely made just after 1250, are millennial, why not populate them with prodigies, with monstrous births heralding doom, with monsters of the sorts found on the Psalter Map, or with images of the people of Gog and Magog, who appear three times on the Hereford Map, once behind their wall and twice already outside of it, released into and upon the world?
Not only is the Holy Land to be inexorably lost, despite the valiant efforts of these last Crusaders, but the invasion of Europe itself is threatened by the apocalyptic Mongol hordes, believed to be Gog and Magog unleashed beyond the frontiers of civilization as harbingers of the end of the world.
This is, indeed, the moment of production for the maps, but this is not the moment (or moments) depicted on the maps, themselves. Connolly translates jurnee, the repeated inscription on the paths throughout the itineraries, as a€?one day,a€? rather than the customary a€?daya€™s journey,a€? perhaps unintentionally conjuring a sense of longing for travel by a cloistered monk a€“ one day, one day a€“ but also for the reclamation of the Holy Land a€“ one day, one day a€“ and, of course, ultimately, the return of Jesus, the end of time, the Last Judgment, and the creation of the Heavenly Jerusalem a€“ one day, one day. Connolly characterizes the performative experience of walking a labyrinth as a€?a prolonged, sometimes frustrating process,a€? but, after all its disorienting divagations, a€?[a]t the very end of the labyrinth, a straight line appears to lead you directly to the center, to arrive, metaphorically, at the holy city of Jerusalem.a€? Returning to Matthewa€™s map of the Holy Land, (CCCC 16) we find that there is a pathway charted on its largely pathless surface, a road marked out like those of the itinerary pages that precede it. Matthewa€™s maps seem to present a maze of pathways, but like the labyrinths, present a unitary destination. Itinerary from London to Jerusalem with a description in French, similar to one in the Royal MS. Matthew Parisa€™ Itinerary from Pontremoli to Rome with images of towns, their names, and descriptions of places, with attached pieces, including the city of Rome to the right; from Matthew Parisa€™ a€?Historia Anglorum, Chronica majoraa€?, Royal 14 C. Mascun to the Alps in Matthew Parisa€™ a€?Chronica Maioraa€?, a€?Corpus Christi College, MS 26, fol.
A A A  The principal types of regional and local maps in the Middle Ages were itinerary maps, maps of regions like England or Palestine, city plans, and, especially from the very late Middle Ages, maps of disputed lands or boundaries of properties. While monsters and marvels played an important role on mappaemundi like the Psalter, Hereford and Ebstorf, their role on Matthewa€™s maps is strongly curtailed. Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me. Each autumn, salmon return to the rivers of their birth a€“ there to spawn and once again trigger a renewal of the eternal passion play.
Salmon that do eventually arrive at their destinations must once again compete a€“ this time for mates and to fight for access to the precious and very limited gravels.
The profligate expenditure of life and extravagant wealth of biology is there everywhere to behold, as Death dances lightly among the gathering throngs of fish, picking and choosing from among them; who from their number shall successfully spawn and who shall just be food for the gathering predators and scavengers.
Spend a day in silence, walking among the spawning salmon, as they dig spawning redds, jockey for position and slash at competitors with those gaping, snaggletoothed, hooked jaws. Jan Bohuslav Sobota has died, while half a world away; I was preparing these etchings of Spawned Salmon and dedicating them to Jan, the lover of fish.
The book you hold in your hands has evolved from my simply giving these etchings a second life in book form, to my using them as a vehicle for honoring a friendship of three decades. In 1985, Jan and I had been corresponding for some months without ever meeting a€“ all quite distant and correct.
A short bit of background on Jan Sobota to begin, but fear not; Ia€™ll soon be spinning anecdotes and thoughts on books as art a€“ celebrating Jana€™s life of course, telling a few stories out of school, but also straying into the personal and speculative in search of the meaning to be derived from the life and death of a friend. Jana€™s father was a serious bibliophile and collector of fine books, who nurtured that same love of books in his son a€“ an appreciation that steadily grew, until he was apprenticed to master bookbinder Karel A ilinger in PlzeA?. The pivotal event in Jana€™s early life as a book artist was the posthumous retrospective exhibition of fellow Pilsener, Josef VA?chal in 1969. Jan supported a family, sponsored workshops, exhibited widely, did conservation work on rare historic books, ran a gallery a€“ and on it went. What Jan did for contemporary bookbinding, was to act as a bridge between the traditionally trained masters of the past and innovators of the present. America was a great place to be a book artist in the early 1980a€™s precisely because it was an active zone of hybridization and hotbed of creativity.
An instructive contrast to the anything-goes US scene was the icy reception I got when I showed a wooden box containing loose sheets of poetry and etchings to a Prague publisher. Neither Jan nor I had much interest in the book-like objects that often sneak into the museums as book arts a€“ the carved and glued together things that sorta, kinda have a bookish aspect to them a€“ rough-looking a€“ perhaps chain-sawed Oaken boards or granite slabs, slathered in tar and lashed together with jute; but lacking text. When Jana€™s books went beyond function, conservation or decoration, they were subtle statements about binding and the place of books, knowledge and art, as well as statements about the dignity inhering in the handcrafted - with a good dose humor. There are others who know their conservation and those, whose scientific contributions are far greater, but few of them are also artists at heart. It can sound so pedestrian, these eternal compromises between art and craft, yet what Jan represented was not at all common. There is an inflection point at which exceptional craft begins to make the transition to art and it is closely associated with surmounting the limitations inhering to the discipline.
Visiting with Jan in his workshop you quickly realized, that he did what a professional must, but ultimately, he just loved messing about with books. A curiously protean hybrid of artist and craftsman, ancient and modern, one cannot think of Jan without seeing an unabashed Czech patriot in a foreign land. Early on in their stay in Cleveland, the Sobotas experienced the quintessential American disaster. Even after their medical debts were retired, money was still an issue for a family of immigrants with three kids a€“ two with special needs. Later on, when they were living in Texas, the massacre at Waco opened Jana€™s eyes to yet another difficult side of his adopted home. In 1979, I apprenticed with Jindra Schmidt, an engraver of stamps and currency, living in Prague.
Schmidt had engraved stamps for Bulgaria, Iraq, Ethiopia, Albania, Guinea, Vietnam and Libya.
In 1992, Jindra Schmidt was honored for his contributions and depicted on the last stamp of a united Czechoslovakia, before it split into Czech and Slovak republics a€“ a fitting tribute. Unlike most children of immigrants, my destiny remained connected to that of my parentsa€™ homeland. My vocation as artist clarified itself in Prague while learning the increasingly obsolete skills of steel engraving. My first book was indeed, modeled after VA?chal, even to the extent of its diabolical subject matter.
Jan showed me a great deal in the following years about the tradition of books as the meeting place of art, craft and ideas a€“ where printmaking intergrades seamlessly with the worlds of language, typography and illustration. One can like these things just fine and admire them from an uncomprehending distance, or you can become engaged. The book you hold was to have been a simple reprint of the Spawned Salmon a€“ something fun for Jan to work his magic upon.
Nice sentimental reminiscences, but there is still the matter of getting the work accomplished and out before the public, organizing exhibitions, printing catalogs and paying for transatlantic flights.
The Prague show was reconfigured and curated by Jana€?s longtime friend, Ilja A edo, for exhibition at the West Bohemian Museum in PlzeA?.
Quite predictably, I like seeing the kind of work I do honored a€“ the wood engravings and etchings made to shine in the context of crisply printed type and an excellent binding. Ia€™ve heard printmakers lament that the surest way to devalue prints is to add excellent poetry, sensitive typography and a bang-up binding a€“ and then live to see the whole thing sell for half the price of just the unbound prints.
Therea€™s nothing quite like seventeenth century Bohemia, the dead center of Europe, for particularly thorough violence a€“ with the Bubonic Plague stepping in afterwards as mop-up crew.
The chapel at Sedlec was rebuilt after the major blood-letting of the thirty-years war as a memento mori a€“ reminder of death.
What can you say about the mounds of dead, the ruined lives, destroyed nations and misery multiplied by millions that isna€™t trite or self-evident? But then I pan over to other fields a€“ not the kind where the grass is composting my fellow man, but to fields of endeavor where the ferment is of ideas recombining into ever more refined ways of thinking.
I once lived at the Golem house in Prague a€“ at Meislova ulice, number 8, in the old Jewish ghetto. Horoscopes might seem a curious basis on which to select ministers and diplomats, but it is also more common than youa€™d think.
Picture the scene before you: Ita€™s a late night in Prague, before the Marlboro man dominated every street corner, even before the neon of casinos and the vulgarity of Golden Arches assaulted the nightwalkersa€™ eyes at all hours a€“ back when darkness, oh yes, that beautiful comforting velvety, all-enveloping and blessed dark, broken only by the moon, stars and late night taxis, still ruled the streets after the sun went down.
The Golem was a mythic being of Jewish folklore, created from clay and quickened by the Shem, a magical stone engraved with an ancient Hebraic inscription, inserted into Golema€™s forehead. The maternal tongues of these small nations have miraculously survived all the invasions, floods, plagues and foreign occupiers to this day a€“ a gift preserved and delivered to them across the generations. Minority languages, on the other hand, carry an emotional load that can scarcely be exaggerated.
Ishi and his sister were the last of the Yahi tribe to survive the genocidal colonization of California.
Those whose language and culture are not threatened can never know the burden under which the carriers of small minority languages labor a€“ nor how those in exile bring up their children to preserve that which is beyond their capacities to save. Jan was all about preserving traditions and the kind of ancestral knowledge that today is mostly enshrined in books. Today, the stories of our tribes are less and less passed on as oral tradition and most often read to us from the childrena€™s books wea€™ve learned to treasure a€“ illustrated by fine artists and produced with care for the highly discriminating purchasers of childrena€™s books a€“ for grandparents. A?epelA?k employed binders and typesetters to present complete suites of his work and in this too, he introduced me to a new world. Later in Prague I missed my flight back, due to the World Trade Center bombing and was delayed by a week. The difficult thing to bear in acknowledging my teachers, models, heroes, suppliers and inspirations, is that these masters of the crafts and industries surrounding and supporting the book arts are mostly deceased. The fruit we seek is not fast food, but laden with full-bodied flavors, attained by slow natural processes. All of us come from grandfathers who once were wheelwrights, cobblers or instrument makers; men with a profound love of wood and leather, who knew the working qualities of every kind of obscure tree growing in their countryside a€“ men who knew when to reach for elm or hickory a€“ as well as for goat, dog or even fish-skins. Jan spoke fondly of his grandmother, who baked bread every week of the year to feed an entire estate a€“ farm hands, livery people, gentry, trainers and hod-carriers alike. Working consciously is the ultimate goal a€“ and that is the legacy youa€™ll find evidently contained within and upon the boards of every book bound by Jan Bohuslav Sobota.
The etchings you see here first came to life as illustrations for the wedding anniversary announcements of MA­la and Jaroslav KynA?l.
Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me.A  He was an exceptional bookbinder, teacher and promoter of the book arts, but also an exile who successfully returned home after years abroad. To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today. To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands.
I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful. It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book. 8 Newcomba€? Cpt.
Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe. Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position. Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded.
Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people.
When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin. They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them.
The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well. There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century. We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America. As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them. Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity.
In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement. In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value.
Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter. Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship. When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City.
The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location. On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome! The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow.
Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts.
In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods. When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area.
Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath. Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed. Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth. Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death. Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him. Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth. According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense.
In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for.
In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation.
Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe. Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem. Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem. Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time.
Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard. When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe.
The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position. In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen.
In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English. After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away. As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies.
Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip. The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English.
Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth.
Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war.
One of his friends was Fernan Martinez de Roriz, a Portuguese canon who later became King Alfonsoa€™s confessor at the Court in Lisbon. The upright lines on this chart show the distance from east to west, whereas the cross lines show the distance from north to south. That you may know as much about these places as possible, you should know that the only people living on any of these islands are merchants who trade there. There are said to be as many ships, mariners and goods there as in the rest of the world put together. From the city of Lisbon to the west, the chart shows twenty-six sections, of two hundred and fifty miles each - altogether, nearly one-third of the eartha€™s circumference before reaching the very large and magnificent city of Kinsai. I could still tell of a€?many other things, but as I have already told you of them in person, and as you are a man of good judgment, I will dilate no further on the subject.
It is clear that Toscanelli obtained most of his information about a€?Furthest Indiaa€? from Marco Poloa€™s book, but he also mentions that an a€?ambassadora€™a€™ visited Pope Eugenius. Whether Columbus ever saw any printed or manuscript account of Poloa€™s narrative before 1485 or 1487, at the latest, is uncertain, but it can be readily ascertained from his log of the first voyage that he had seen a letter written by Paolo Toscanelli to a friend of his in Lisbon named Fernando Martinez. The original of Toscanellia€™s letter is no longer in existence so far as known, and the only contemporary evidence that it existed is found in a volume in the Colombina in Seville that had belonged to Columbus.
To Toscanelli the goal was Marco Poloa€™s Cathay, and within the intervening ocean he was aware of no considerable land other than the two large islands of Antillia and Cipangu [Japan]. Taking his departure from a port of the Iberian Peninsula and sailing down into the zone of the northeasterly trade winds, according to Toscanelli a navigator could then lay a course west or southwest on which he would find Antillia lying across his bows. The different designs are differentiated by being a different "model" or "series." Confusing the issue even more, some manufacturers "private label" their machines for large department stores.
Albans in England possessed what may be called an historical school, or institute, which was then the chief center of English narrative history or chronicle, and with a different environment might have become the nucleus of a great university.
Most of these maps appear to have belonged to separate traditions, although the extensive corpus of maps in Matthew Parisa€™s chronicles, combining as it does multiple map types, suggests the degree to which a graphically inclined author might be familiar with and able to deploy images from all the known categories of maps, in addition to other types of drawings and diagrams. Only two maps structured as itineraries survive, the more elaborate of which is the Peutinger map (Book I, #120).
The map shows the route from England to Apulia, marking each daya€™s journey and prominent topographic features like mountains and rivers.
For example, some of the information on the Hereford world map (#226) was based on an itinerary that may show a route familiar to English traders in France.
In many ways they continue the itinerary from England to Sicily (Otranto in Apulia was a common point of embarkation for Acre). CCCC 26 contains the annals from creation to 1188, CCCC 16 from 1189 to 1253, and Royal 14 C.viii from 1254 to 1259, when Matthew died. These contain images of cities, connected by clearly marked roads inscribed journee [a daya€™s journey]. This mode of associating travela€™s a€?microa€? with its a€?macro,a€? as it were, was of increasing significance in the 13th century, when pavement labyrinths were either first used in European churches or were newly popular. And by presenting its audiences with a richly meaningful image of the city of Jerusalem a€“ one whose centrality in the nave mimicked that citya€™s centrality in the world and whose fundamental geometry signaled a cosmic architecture a€“ this pavement triggered associations with the city, both in its earthly and historic instance and with its future, heavenly instantiation, and it did so as it invited its audiences to perform an imagined pilgrimage to this sacred center.
Labyrinths allowed church visitors to travel short distances in the densely confined knots of their paths, while simultaneously travelling to the very a€?centera€? of the world, emphatically emphasized by their symmetrical forms. Perhaps unsurprisingly, they are filled with problems, and become a€?very muddled and confusing,a€? with cities that are a€?misplaceda€? or appear twice. The well-known Psalter Map, for example, is a typical mappamundi, displaying the entire ecumene, that is, the inhabitable world, as known to 13th century English cartographers (#223). Wonders of this sort are not incidental to the function of medieval maps like the Psalter; rather, they are essential components thereof, supplying a necessary antipode to a central Jerusalem, rooted in biblical and patristic texts. Matthew represented marvels known from monster cycles like the Marvels of the East and the Liber monstrorum, and from contemporary narratives about cultural others like the a€?Tartarsa€? a€“ a medieval Christian term for the Mongols a€“ but also from personal observation, such as the elephant given by Louis IX to Henry III, which appears as one of the prefatory images appended to CCCC 16. As Dan Terkla writes in a€?The Original Placement of the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Imago Mundi, vol. They are wholly absent from the itinerary maps, and appear in a limited scope on the Holy Land maps a€“ CCCC 16).
Roughly centered, on either side of the gutter and just above the wall of Acre, are two large blocks of text. These are not, to my observation, a common feature of the maps, and of course I cannot speculate on the date of this erasure. In contrast, the Ebstorf map, for example, gives us a gory presentation of these cannibal hordes.
For Matthew and his contemporaries, there existed only one future, and its expected arrival was nearly coincident with his creation of the maps. One response might be that the sorts of monsters found on the Psalter Map and other mappaemundi were seen as normal elements of creation, rather than as portents of the apocalypse. Returning to Matthewa€™s off-center image of Jerusalem, we find that the three structures it contains are not as they were at the time of the mapa€™s creation. The journey may be long a€“ at least 46 days in Lewisa€™s reckoning a€“ and the path may not be singular or even, further out on the journey, marked at all, but one day, one day, one day, for Matthew anda€?his monastic audience, one day the reader would at last arrive.
Their path from town to town has the appearance of being perpetually straight and direct, but in fact would twist and turn. Just beneath Jerusalem, inscribed in red and oriented ninety degrees counter-clockwise to the rest of the map, again following our orientation from our bodies, forward, we read le chemin de Iafes a Ierusalem [a€?the road from Jaffa to Jerusalema€?]. Here we seem to see movements in space as we traverse the paths a€“ initially forking for Matthew, but ultimately as singular on his maps as on the labyrinths. This is surely the case, more often than not, but medieval maps are frequently anagogic, pointed a spiritual meaning only to be realized in a heavenly future.
The extension of its city walls to the left show the fortifications constructed by St Louis during his crusade in 1252-4. Babylon of Egypt).A  The first of these is of 1231, the second of 1265, the third of 1289-1291, but it is probable that earlier redactions of the last two already existed in Matthewa€™s time, and were used by him. The journey may be long a€“ at least 46 days in Lewisa€™s reckoning a€“ and the path may not be singular or even, further out on the journey, marked at all, but one day, one day, one day, for Matthew andhis monastic audience, one day the reader would at last arrive. There they encounter resident trout and bass a€“ even sunfish, chubs and dace, all keyed into the increasingly plentiful and highly nutritious bounty of salmon eggs. Situated 90A km south-west of Prague at the confluence of four rivers, PlzeA? is first recorded in writings from the tenth century. That vision was about innovation and creativity within the context of an historical tradition. This is what youa€™ll see in a Sobota binding a€“ exceptional attention paid to context and relationships, using materials and technical means that do indeed function and last. He knew his work was valuable and documented it fastidiously a€“ confident that it would be last. There was, however, nothing about his nationalism that demeaned anybody elsea€™s traditions or origins. That smallish incident within the parade of American fringe politics elicited an insanely violent level of suppression. Masaryk a€“ and the cute little girl with a bouquet of flowers, is my mother Eva, at the age of three. Schmidta€™s income from the federal mint far exceeded anybody elsea€™s in the extended family and supported a network of cars, cottages and rent-controlled flats.


Schmidt, as he preferred to be called, was a man of conservative demeanor who preferred polite and reserved forms of speech and address. While visiting their unassuming engraver and extending my tourist visa 30 days at a time, I was quietly becoming qualified for life as a counterfeiter a€“ a vocation within which, one is set for life, however it may eventually turn out.
Jan allowed several binders to have their way with it a€“ amo boxes for slipcases with shell casings for hinges and so forth. This next incarnation of our exhibit in PlzeA? was all just a bit more prosaic and provincial. Is it the binding we consider and exhibit a€“ or is the binding there to conserve a text, which is ultimately the point?
There are also binders to whom everything else is merely the text block, who care little if it is an offset trade edition or a book made by hand.
The tales therein recorded reflected the accreted wisdom and wit of a people as they retold them across the highlands in modest log cottages after the harvest was in. The way of working belongs to the Sobota vision I addressed earlier a€“ the honor and soul to be found in conscientiously made handcrafts. I dona€™t feel that accomplished or ready to assume their mantle and yet with every generation that is what must happen. Gravels, with just the right flow of fresh water running up through stones of the right size are but a tiny portion of the riverbed.A  The salmon must struggle past cities and sewer pipes, farms and irrigation systems, dams and turbines, fishermen and waterfalls a€“ just to reach the streams of their birth. At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations. She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts). Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. It is probable that some time about the beginning of the 1470a€™s, the canon had come to discuss geographical questions with the King, or with Crown Prince JoA?o, who was more interested in geography, and then happened to mention Toscanellia€™s theory about a passage to India across the ocean to the west. Often before have I spoken of a sea route from here to India, the land of spices; a route which is shorter than that via Guinea. The chart also indicates various places in India which may be reached if one meets with a storm or head-wind, or any other misfortune.
Especially in the principal port called Zaiton [Marco Poloa€™s Zaitum] where they load and unload a hundred great ships of pepper every year, not to mention many other ships with other spices. This city is approximately one hundred miles in circumference, possesses ten marble bridges, and its name means a€?The Heavenly Citya€™ in our language. I have tried to answer your questions as well as the lack of time and my work have permitted me, but I am always prepared to serve His Highness and answer his questions at greater length should he so wish.
Poggio Bracciolini, the Papal Secretary who wrote about Nicolo Contia€™s travels in India, adds at the end of Contia€™s narrative: a€?There came a man from the northern parts of Upper India to the Pope, wishing, on the instructions of his Nestorian Patriarch, to learn of the Christians in the countries of the West.
It appears that Martinez had written Toscanelli at the request of the king to find out whether Toscanelli thought it would be feasible to reach India by sailing across the Atlantic to the west. At the end of this volume on two leaves the letter in Latin, dated June 25, 1474, is copied together with a letter from Toscanelli to Columbus. These were in fact the courses set by Columbus in the late summer of 1492, and Antillia was the first land which he expected to sight on his westward passage from the Canaries, based upon the Toscanellia€™s reference in his letter to Columbus to a€?the island of Antillia which is known to youa€?, in the latitude of Cipangu. Crone suggests that the belief that the East could be reached by sailing West was being reconsidered in geographical circles before the second half of the 15th century, possibly in the 14th. These were in fact the courses set by Columbus in the late summer of 1492, and Antillia was the first land which he expected to sight on his westward passage from the Canaries, based upon the Toscanellia€™s reference in his letter to Columbus to a€?the island of Antillia which is known to youa€?, in the latitude of Cipangu.A  A mapmaker who thought in terms of a globe could locate Antillia somewhat further west than might be suggested by an ungraduated mappamundi or portolan chart in which it was drawn at the left-hand edge of the parchment. Such as Sears' Kenmore and Montgomery Ward's Signature machines. Check the following list to determine if you have one of these "cross-branded" machines.
A 12th or early 13th century copy of a Late Antique original, the map has usually been studied for what it can tell us of ancient cartography or of the interest in the ancient world on the part of the 15th century German humanists who rediscovered it.
Suited to its location in a chronicle, the map serves a historical purpose in demonstrating the route of a well-known contemporary diplomatic expedition, Richard of Cornwalla€™s expedition to Sicily in 1253 as the claimant to the crown, although the map contains information drawn from multiple journeys and routes. For example, the Hereford map incorporates an itinerary through France and possibly one in Germany. Of the historical maps, one is a sketch showing the location of four pre-Roman roads in Britain. I will concentrate on the maps appended to the beginning of the first volume, though similar maps appear at the start of all three volumes, suggesting their great importance to Matthewa€™s conception of the Chronica, his major work.
Each column, then, represents a segment of the voyage from London, at the base of the first column of folio i r, through Sienna, at the top of the final column of the itinerary on f. It is worth mentioning that the Psalter Map is only a few inches tall, and that the whole codex fits comfortably in the hand, unlike Matthewa€™s larger, more cumbersome (and ever-expanding) volume. In essence, the center is presented as sacred and the margins as problematic, potent, and potentially monstrous, but also thereby seductive and attractive. This may result from the shift from counterpunctual arrangement of sacred center and monstrous margins on the Psalter, Ebstorf and Hereford maps, among others, to the less clearly structured arrangement of Matthewa€™s maps. Both are of a somewhat marvelous vein: to the left of the gutter, we read of Bedouins, whose description is reminiscent of wonders texts like the Marvels of the East. In the Chronica and contemporary accounts, Gog and Magog are conflated with the two most prominent cultural Others perceived as threats to 13th century a€?Christendoma€™: Jews and Mongols. Second, and more importantly, the choice to include or exclude such images might have been predicated on chronology. If those mental wanderings took them to the right destination, they would realize the function of the labyrinths rather than contradict them. Very quickly however, the labyrinth focuses your concentration on the path, else you are likely to stray from it. In walking a labyrinth, virtual pilgrims orient themselves to its shifting orientation; in traversing the itinerary, the world is bent, reorienting itself constantly to our perspective, making the shift to the trackless conclusion, the map of the Holy Land, all the more powerful.
However, since the endpoints on Matthewa€™s maps and at the centers of the labyrinths are the Heavenly Jerusalem, the motion is as chronological as it is geographical. That is, while medieval maps are organized spatially, they are in a sense oriented temporally.
The de-centered maps of Matthew, unlike the labyrinths or the Psalter Map and its cognates, do not announce their radial orientation toward Jerusalem. At the upper left is the enclosure in which Alexander confined Gog and Magog, but Matthew notes that they have now emerged in the form of Tartars. Albans, a portion of the supposed Pilgrim-road, as far as southern Italy, is given in another shape, together with the Schema Britanniae.
This widely beloved stamp was re-issued in 2000 and mother continues to receive philatelic fan mail to this day. He died the day I was composing a colophon for the Spawned Salmon with words of praise for his lifea€™s work.
She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself. At that time the Portuguese believed that they had already reached the southern extremity of Africa, and that the way to the riches of India already lay open before them. You tell me that His Highness wishes me to explain this in greater detail so that it will be easier to understand and to take this route. That country has many inhabitants, provinces, kingdoms and innumerable cities, all of which are ruled by a prince known as the Grand Khan, which in our language means a€?The King of Kingsa€™, who mainly resides in the province of Cathay. Amazing things have been related about its vast buildings, its artistic treasures and its revenues. He told of the Grand Khan and of his dominion over nine powerful peoples.a€? This man was probably the ambassador mentioned by Toscanelli, and we shall have to presume that Conti and other travelers who are unknown to us today gave Toscanelli further valuable information.
There is no evidence that at that time Portugal was endeavoring to reach India by rounding south Africa. This copy, according to Columbus, was a copy of the one that had been sent to Martinez and which had been sent to Columbus himself at some later date, unknown because this second letter of Toscanelli is not dated.
Toscanelli (as he told Columbus) supposed Antillia to lie 35 degrees west of his prime meridian through the Canaries; and it is in just this longitude, a little north of the equator, that Martin Behaim lays down, in his globe of 1492, the Island of St. It is, however, extremely important to remember the commitment of time and resources involved in producing the medieval copy: the question then arises of what this map meant to the society that found the human and financial resources to copy it. Parisa€™ map of Palestine draws on the kind of information about the length of the journey from city to city that would normally be found in an itinerary as an indication of scale for the map. Harvey has suggested that the maps of England and the Holy Land might be seen as enlargements of the end points of the itinerary. Daniel Connolly in his book The Maps of Matthew Paris: Medieval Journeys through Space, Time and Liturgy writes that Matthew began the Chronica majora a€?as a fairly strict copy up to about 1235, of Roger Wendovera€™s Flores historiarum [Flowers of History]. There is, though, a more substantive manner in which the itineraries break down their apparent linearity: they a€?forka€? from the very start, with two paths diverging from London.
Still, the Psalter Map remains a strong point of comparison for two reasons: first, it was made within perhaps a dozen years of Matthewa€™s maps.
While Iain Macleod Higgins (Defining the Eartha€™s Center) is correct that a€?the viewer of a circular map can never quite lose sight of a well-marked center, since the very shape of the map keeps onea€™s gaze circling around it,a€? by the same logic, we cannot lose sight of the periphery for long, and the visual attention given to the monstrous peoples of the South, as well as the other peripheral points of interest, keep pulling the gaze back.
Matthew managed through his texts, marginal illustrations and maps, to bring the whole of the world and its history, from Creation to the present, from sacred Jerusalem to the monstrous elephant, to himself and his monastic brethren. In contrast, a€?[t]he main audience for [Matthewa€™s] maps doubtless was the brethren at St. Unlike these other maps, Matthewa€™s maps of the Holy Land de-center Jerusalem and, since it is not replaced with anything else, they do not have a clearly defined umbilicus.
To the right, more promisingly, we find a passage that begins, in Lewisa€™s translation, a€?There are many marvels in the Holy Land, of which [only a few] shall be mentioned.a€? However, these marvels are, in comparison to the Wonders of the East and other such texts, somewhat anemic. Indeed, these beasts a€“ fairly ordinary to modern eyes a€“ do appear just above the two- faced people in the Beowulf manuscripta€™s version of the Wonders of the East.
Muslims occupied the Holy Sepulcher, as well as the Temple of Solomon a€“ home of the Knights Templar a€“ and the Temple of the Lord by 1250.
By tracing their routes on foot or on their knees, virtual pilgrims would hope to reap spiritual rewards akin to those gained on pilgrimage, effecting peregrinatio in stabilitate a€“ that is, pilgrimage without moving. There is a second pathway, also rubricated and turned ninety degrees, at the right edge of the map. Yes, they are oriented toward the east, but on several mappaemundi, beyond the east, it is Jesus who rises. Instead, they challenge the viewer to work though them slowly, meditatively, to explore and wander as we do in life. The engraving was masterfully done by Schmidta€™s long-dead colleague, Bohumil Heinz (1894-1940).
The state security apparatus was surely aware of my presence, but if they kept tabs on me, I never knew.
The graduation will bring together hundreds of students, parents, professionals and leaders from the state of Ohio and national leaders in education.A Invited dignitaries include Ohio Governor John Kasich, Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman, Columbus Schools Superintendent Dr. But then came the disconcerting news that once past the Cameroons the coast again turned south and continued to do so for mile upon mile; it seems almost as if all hope of ever being able to circumnavigate Africa was abandoned.
Although I could show this on a globe representing the earth, I have decided to do it more simply and clearly by demonstrating the way on a nautical chart. His forefathers greatly desired to make contact with the Christian world, and some two hundred years ago they sent ambassadors to the Pope, asking him to send them many learned men who could instruct them in our faith; but these ambassadors met with difficulties on the way, and had to turn back without reaching Rome. It lies in the province of Manji, near the province of Cathay, where the king chiefly resides. Toscanelli probably based his very exaggerated idea of the size of the world on what Marinus of Tyre had said; this was later to have some very remarkable consequences, for Christopher Columbus corresponded with Toscanelli during this time. It might appear from the contents of it, however, that Toscanelli believed that Columbus was still in Portugal, and indeed he may have been there, but I think it was much more likely that the letter did not reach Columbus until he had gone to Spain. Brendan, with an outline very like that of Antillia in the 15th century charts and in the Vinland map (#243). It has been plausibly explained in the context of the strong interest in the classical world that we have already seen influencing the toponyms of later medieval world maps; however, more research should be done to elucidate the importance and the influence of this map.
In 1240, or soon after, Matthew started writing, covering the material from 1235 and continuing to the middle of 1258, at which time another hand takes over.a€? These maps, along with the marginal images throughout the Chronica, have been securely attributed to Matthew himself and, according to Suzanne Lewis in her The Art of Matthew Paris in the Chronica Majora a€?may be regarded in large part as original conceptions and inventions,a€? rather than derivatives of traditional models. Second, unlike some mappaemundi, including Hereford (#226) and Ebstorf (#224), the Psalter Map was not freestanding. Indeed, two of the three sites were originally Muslim structures a€“ the Temple of Solomon was a mosque and the Temple of the Lord was the Dome of the Rock a€“ and they had reverted to Muslim control by the time the maps were made. The labyrinth is at first a challenge of some dexterity, and so it also foregrounds your sense of balance and of bodily position relative to it. The maps echo and invoke the actual experience of pilgrimage, which a€“ like modern travel a€“ was surely bewildering, disorienting, but also amazing.
The Hereford, Ebstorf, and the Psalter maps are all oriented not only toward Earthly Paradise at their eastern extreme, but beyond it to the creator of that paradise. They become all the more powerful, therefore, when their off-center, deemphasized Jerusalem turns out to be the only and inevitable end.
Everything is just so wonderful and everybody so creative, but suspending judgment long enough to actually look at some artwork and then giving it a chance isna€™t so bankrupt, is it?
Human body parts are again flying and the Baron is at his best defeating Turks and evading friendly fire from buffoonish generals.
Farmers would occasionally find their possessions and take them as souvenirs, unaware that the last Indians still lived in their midst. Damn the cost; ita€™s who we are and the last material vestiges of soulful encounters with our elders a€“ onea€™s whose stories are slipping inexorably away, thinned by each passing year and generation. Their kids were grown and they were by then slipping into that last, reflective phase of life a€“ done competing. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement. Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. Gene Harris; Westerville Schools Superintendent Dan Good, Southwestern Schools Superintendent Bill Wise, Governors Director of Minority Affairs Lynn Stevens, representatives from the Ohio State University, Ohio University, Columbus State, Denison University, Capital University, Franklin University, Ohio Department of Education, and other county, state and state officials. It was in this situation that the King instructed his confessor to write to Toscanelli and ask him to explain his plans more clearly.
I therefore send His Majesty a chart drawn by my own hand, on which I have indicated the western coastline from Ireland in the north to the end of Guinea, and the islands which lie along this path. In the days of Pope Eugenius, there came an ambassador to him, who told him of their great feelings of friendship for the Christians, and I had a long conversation with the ambassador about many things: about the vast size of the royal buildings, about the amazing length and breadth of their rivers, and about the great number of cities on their banks - so great a number that along one river there were two hundred cities with very long, wide bridges of marble which were adorned with many pillars.
And from the island of Antillia, which you call the Island of the Seven Cities, to the very famous island of Cipangu are ten sections, that is 2,500 miles.
He sent Columbus an encouraging reply along with a copy of a letter and map that he had prepared at the request of Afonso, King of Portugal, outlining his ideas.
The original letter to Martinez, or the copy of it rather, is nothing but an abstract from some text of Poloa€™s narrative, either manuscript or printed. He sent Columbus an encouraging reply along with a copy of a letter and map that he had prepared at the request of Afonso, King of Portugal, outlining his ideas.A  The map by Toscanelli depicted the intervening ocean which Pierre da€™Ailly described in his Imago Mundi as a€?the sea is little between the farthest bound of Spain from the east and the nearest of India from the westa€? and that a€?this sea is navigable in a few days if the wind is favorablea€? (#238).
Behaim gives it the name Insula de sant brandan.A  This apparent association of Antillia and St. They are known in the parts houses as "Whirlpool belt-drive" models. In the early 80's, Whirlpool began manufacturing their "Design 2000" washers. These interconnections are especially striking in the rich cartographic production of Matthew Paris. On the peripheries of both maps, we see the Garden of Eden, the Red Sea, a plethora of monstrous peoples, and the hordes of Gog and Magog (feasting in bloody cannibalism, on the Ebstorf and also, perhaps, on the Hereford). In CCCC 26, the center would be just east of (that is, above) the crenellated wall of Acre.
In a sense, this follows the logic of the mappaemundi discussed above; we appear to have zoomed in on the center of these maps, to focus on the area around Jerusalem, which would necessitate cropping the worlda€™s monstrous fringe.
Like medieval labyrinths, Matthew Parisa€™s maps were not mazes per se, in that there are not alternate routes leading to dead ends: both contain singular paths. At the same time, there is a loss of your sense of a€?placea€? in the church as orientations are constantly shifting and revolving. So, too, while these maps are centered on Jerusalem, this umbilical point presses the viewer to consider the future.
The first columns contain cities connected by clearly marked paths; these are followed by columns with cities still arranged in clearly linear fashion, but without the marked paths. These scraps turned out to be a deck of medieval playing cards - the second oldest such cards known. A book is so much more than the sum of its parts a€“ and yet each of us tends to have our own bailiwick in which we shine and to which we look first. Somali community leaders and educators including the first African man to receive a PhD from Princeton University and former Ministers will be honored at the event.A In addition to financial scholarships by the Law Office of Russell Flickinger, Presidential Service Awards will be conferred on members of the Somali-American community in recognition of their contributions to the community. Toscanelli answered at some length, enclosing a map of the sea which divided Europe from Asia. This country is richer than any other yet discovered, and not only could it provide great profit and many valuable things, but also possesses gold and silver and precious stones and all kinds of spices in large quantities - things which do not reach our countries at present. That island is very rich in gold, pearls and precious stones, and its temples and palaces are covered in gold. Besides Toscanellia€™s extract from Poloa€™s narrative he included in the letter some calculations on the method of reaching Cathay and Cipangu by sailing to the west. Toscanelli sent the letter and maps (or charts) to the King of Portugal in 1474 and to Columbus before 1481.
CCCC 26 opens, following the flyleaves reused from a manuscript of canon law, with a series of linked maps running from folio i recto through iv recto (the lowercase Roman numerals indicate the status of these folios as prefatory). The Psalter Map is one of two that form a sort of series, like Matthewa€™s maps, with one more geographical and one more linear, text replacing itinerary but no less clearly directional and effacing of actual geographic arrangement. Jerusalem a€“ so ardently central on the Psalter Map a€“ is shunted off to the right by Matthew. However, if we assume some consistency of geographical space from map to map, Matthewa€™s expansive map, filling the complete manuscript opening and extending out onto added flaps of vellum, does reach to the margins of the world. Matthewa€™s paths seem to fork out from London, but ultimately all converge at one geo-chronological endpoint, at a place that is also a time: the Heavenly Jerusalem, at the center of the physical world and simultaneously the end of human history.
Its movements to and fro, back and forth create a regular and somewhat wearying effect that combines with the hypnotic vision of the pavement receding beneath your alternating steps. Then, the linearity ends, and we are left with images that are more conventionally a€?map-likea€? in their appearance. These plates have been inked and wiped by hand, employing methods that woulda€™ve been familiar to Rembrandt.
And be not amazed when I say that spices grow in lands to the west, even though we usually say the east; for he who sails west will always find these lands in the west, and he who travels east by land will always find the same lands in the east.
And there are also many scholars, philosophers, astronomers and other men skilled in the natural sciences who govern that great kingdom and conduct its wars. But since the route to this place is not yet known, all these things remain hidden and secret; and yet one may go there in great safety. The letter is somewhat ambiguous but with the letter to Columbus he sent a map on a plane projection and Columbus speaks of it several times in his log. We must note, however, that the globe also shows Antillia, as a triangular island lying on the Tropic of Cancer (thus nearly due west of the Canaries) and about 10 degrees east of his St. We are able to choose our path to the Holy Land a€“ should we, leaving London, travel via the main route, Le Chemin a Rouescestre [the Road to Rochester] or the side route, le chemin ver la costere et la mer [the road toward the coast and the sea]? Indeed, before the late-13th century insertion of additional prefatory miniatures, it was positioned before its text as a sort of frontispiece, as are Matthewa€™s, and was also one of a series of maps.
He adds an inscription referring to Jerusalem as a€?the midpoint of the world,a€? which seems visually contradicted by his map, whereas such an inscription would have been redundant on the Psalter Map.
At the upper left corner of the foldout flap along the folioa€™s left edge, as if to ensure the clarity of their separation from the Holy Land, are the peoples of Gog and Magog, visually implied by the wall of the Caspian Mountains, held there until the end of time, when they are to be released to rampage across the face of the earth.
Instead, it presents the period before, but also simultaneously, the period after, the transient, lost glory of the Crusader Kingdom and the immutable glory of the Heavenly Kingdom to come.
Like the labyrinthsa€™ single paths, Matthewa€™s many roads can only guide the viewer toward one destination. Most images function spatially, not linearly, but the itinerary pages present a line or course of travel; a route, much as a text would. They crashed with my wife Jana and me in Kalamazoo, while taking the a€?orientation coursea€?nearby. I can confidently report back to my English reader, that Jan would only grow in stature for you, if you could have fully understood the subtlety of his thoughts in his own maternal tongue. In his letter Toscanelli says that the map is divided into spaces which could only have been five degrees square. These machines were sold as GE, Hotpoint, and "private-labelled" as JC Penney and Penncrest brands. In 1995, GE started making a new "front access" washing machine. Once in the Holy Land (CCCC 16), we are free to choose any routes we desire, as the roads themselves disappear (up until the very end, as will be discussed below). The Psalter Map, like medieval labyrinths, is emphatically centered on Jerusalem a€“ following a new 13th century trend a€“ and around its circumference, we find points of great interest. The Caspian Mountains, restraining the hordes of Gog and Magog, actually touch the very margins of the world on the Psalter and Ebstorf Maps, and nearly do so on the Hereford Map. They prepare and condition the viewer, raising an expectation that the maps will function in a linear fashion, and thereby convey motion in time as well as space. Perhaps right for those who shouldna€™t have sharp objects, for fear of hurting themselves. That show was purchased whole by Special Collections at Western Michigan University and constitutes the largest collection of Sobota bindings and the most complete archive of my work.
There were twenty-six such spaces from Lisbon to Quinsai, he said of 250 miles each, that is 6,500 Italian miles, or about 5,000 Spanish miles.
All the evidence which he could collect indicated that both his objective and the best route thither lay in tropical latitudes.
I know that your love will last for all time, that your faithfulness is as permanent as the sky.
Unlike the old model, there is no rear access panel on these machines; all the machine internals are accessed through the front.
Upon hearing that the Mongols a€“ feared by Christians to be the apocalyptic hordes a€“ are making progress toward Europe, he imagines that continental Jews a€?assembled on a general summons in a secret place, where one of their number who seemed to be the wisest and most influential amongst thema€? instructs them to undertake a complex plot to smuggle arms to the Mongols, so that they can defeat the Christians. The final segment of the path a€“ le chemin de Iafes a Ierusalem [the road from Jaffa to Jerusalea€?] a€“ realizes this expectation. Few people would have cast a second glance at that glued-up mess of moldering old papers before pitching it, nor would they have recognized what they had in hand or known how to restore or sell it. From the island of Antil [that is Antilla] a purely legendary island, Toscanelli says it is 2,500 miles to Cipangu. Matthewa€™s fantasy is not merely xenophobic, but outright eschatological, a vital distinction in the context of the maps of CCCC 26.
These folks were a profound blessing to a family facing some truly rough sailing a€“ a Godsend. Schmidt had worked was signed with warm dedications to him and thus worth real money to collectors. He wanted to see the printmaker in me come to full fruition and I wanted to be worthy of his attentions. The family has dwelled within sight of the seats of power, pushing copper plates through a press and outlived the Hapsburg Monarchy, First Republic, Nazis and Communists. The intact packages were still there on their shelves, all duly graded, labeled and priced, awaiting an owner who was never to return. 15: But you, O Lord, are a merciful and loving God, always patient, always kind and faithful. If the Mongols (or the Jews, or for that matter, the Mongols and Jews, or even the Jewish Mongols) are the hordes of Gog and Magog, then they have already broken out of the gate prophesied to contain them until the apocalypse. It reads, Le chemin de laphes a Alisandre.a€? This seems to be a vestige, a latent echo of the itinerarya€™s multiple paths. Back home, their Czech neighbors would have envied them and accused them of theft or worse, but people here seemed to be pleased as punch to see them prosper a€“ genuinely happy for them. Those items too, kept trickling out the door, until there came a sad, sad day, when the golden eggs were all gone.
He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors.
Toscanelli, however, neglected to state how far it was from the mainland to Cipangu and this omission cut a great figure later in Columbusa€™ bewilderment when he finally reached the West Indies. WCI's machines were sold under these original brand names, as well as Westinghouse and White-Westinghouse brands. When Columbus finally found what he called Cipangu, he did not know where the mainland lay because Toscanelli had neglected to state it. Frankly, these washers were pretty poorly designed, displaying major oil and water leakage within five years. In the '90's, WCI was bought by Swedish giant Electrolux, who changed the company name back to the Frigidaire Home Products Company. They bashfully admitted their foolishness and went back to making beautiful books a€“ and their American friends were so relieved to see them regain their sanity.
You take time to grieve and then pick yourself up by your bootstraps (by God a€“ get a grip) and get on with it (Rome wasna€™t built in a day you know). StrejA?ek was still working, but it was all coming to an inevitable end, as he grew shaky of hand and hard of seeing.
Toscanellia€™s figures amounted to about 130A° longitude difference between Lisbon and Quinsai, whereas the actual difference is about 220A°. Yamamoto, Ambassador Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of African Affairs Donald Yamamoto's prior assignments included serving as the U.5. He probably figured his 50 miles to the degree on the parallel of about 40A° which passes close to Lisbon. Enriched by my days of being nurtured by Prague, Matkou MA›st (Mother of Cities), I moved on to meet my destiny with art. As he advised sailing a little south of west he evidently considered Quinsai to lie in a lower latitude, which as a matter of fact, is the case. Like Toscanelli, he took Antillia to lie on or near the Tropic of Cancer; and if (as we suppose) the world maps he consulted included ones like those by Henricus Martellus in 1489 and 1490, which reflects Toscanellia€™s views, he could see that a course along the same parallel would bring him to Cipangu and to Mangi, the a€?cape of Asiaa€?.
8: But God has shown us how much he loves us a€“ it was while we were still sinners that Christ died for us!Hebrews 13, vs. He also served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State in the Bureau of African Affairs from 2003 to 2006, where he was responsible for coordinating U.
As it was when he had sailed some 3,000 miles or more he gave up the search, largely I imagine because the crew refused to sail any farther from land. Ambassador to the Republic of Djibouti from 2000 to 2003 and was the Deputy Director for East African Affairs from 1998 to 2000.Ambassador Yamamoto entered the Foreign Service in 1980. The orbital machine, manufactured since the late '80's, is a "Newton" machine with a redesigned "orbital" transmission with only six moving parts. I would come home from work and plop myself in the chair for A? hour or so, wash up, change my clothes and eat dinner. The "orbital" transmissions are interchangeable with the pre-1980's so-called "counterweight" transmissions. Unlike the counterweight machine, the gearing in the orbital transmission can be serviced without removing the transmission from the machine.1-2 BEFORE YOU STARTFind yourself a good appliance parts dealer. I can count on my one hand the number of times I played ball with my boy or took my daughter shopping. You can find them in the Yellow Pages under the following headings:APPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, MAJORAPPLIANCES, PARTS AND SUPPLIESREFRIGERATORS, DOMESTICAPPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, REPAIR AND SERVICECall a few of them and ask if they are a repair service, or if they sell parts, or both.
He attended the National War College in 1996 for senior training and received a Congressional Fellowship in 1991.Ambassador Yamamoto is a graduate of Columbia College and did graduate studies at Columbia University, receiving a Master's degree in International Affairs. I feel sorry for my children for not being there for them and sorry for my wife because she raised the kids pretty much on her own and she did a great job of it. I am sorry for myself also because the moments that I missed with my children can never be recovered. I thought I was doing my best by beingA a goodA provider but in my older wisdom I know that being a Dad was the most important thing they needed. They'll tell you it's too complicated, then in the same breath, "guide" you to their service department. If you pass the turn-off ramp, you will enter onto the freeway and will have to get off at the next exit and backtrack. They should contain the model number SOMEWHERE. If you have absolutely NO information about the washer anywhere, make sure you bring your old part to the parts store with you. Sometimes they can match an old part by looks or by part number.1-3 TOOLS (Figure 1-2)The tools that you may need (depending on the diagnosis) are listed below. Somalia needs to be united or the ongoing problems will simply be exacerbated, said Abdinur Mohamud, a consultant for the Ohio Department of Education.There has to be a solution that brings all those territories together so regions and communities can function at the local level, said Mohamud, a member of the organizing committee.
He created us, molded us, watches over our lives, provides for us, and when we die He brings us into His kingdom.
Global Leadership Coalition.Somalia has been in a state of violence and conflict for over two decades now, Jibril Mohamed, president and chief executive officer of the Northland-based Somali Community Access Network, said last week. Many attempts were made to bring together the sides that were fighting for power in Somalia.


State Department, was invited to be one of the speakers but will not be able to attend, according to Mohamed.
It was customary at that time for Rabbis (Jesus was onea€”it meant teacher) when they were among a crowd to say the first verse of a Psalm. It can save you lots of time and hassle.1-4 BASIC REPAIR AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS1) Always de-energize (pull the plug or trip the breaker on) any washer that you're disassembling.
What He most likely was doing was wanting the rest of the people, and us, to say the rest of the Psalm.
If you need to re-energize the washer to perform a test, make sure any bare wires or terminals are taped or insulated.
Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 2) To work underneath the washer sometimes requires leaning the washer back against the wall at a 30- to 45-degree angle.
Always have someone standing by to help you while you work beneath the washer, in case it comes down on you.Figure 1-7: Leaning the Washer Against the Wall 3) If the manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!!
There is a reason that it stopped--you can bet on it--and if you get it going and re-install it, you are running a very high risk that it will stop again.
Kendall===============================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop June 12, 2010. Replace the part. 4) If you must lay the washer over on its side, front or back, first make sure that you are not going to break anything off, such as a drain hose or fill valve.
But as we do with any policy we look at the situation on the ground and make determinations on when and whether we need to make adjustments to that policy. It is going to be a painstaking process to move things forward in a positive direction.Malac was invited to give the keynote address last night at the conference, which will conclude today. And for goodness' sake, make sure you drain the thing completely first! 5) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component. Somalis many thousands of whom live in Columbus have an important role to play in determining policy.We understand that having a connection to them is something we need to do to ensure that we have that flow of ideas or an understanding what the impact of what our policies might be, she said, adding that violence is a major concern among Somalis.
And NEVER EVER remove the third (ground) prong in the main power plug! 6) When opening the washer cabinet or console, remember that the sheet metal parts are have very sharp edges. They take every opportunity to try to get that message to us to put pressure on us to keep doing something.Mohamed said he was one of two Somalis invited to attend a 2010 forum at the White House, where the president unveiled his administrations strategy in Somalia. If you're not getting full power out of the outlet, you'll know it right away. 2) If you just can't get that agitator unstuck, your appliance parts dealer has a device called an Agi-Tamer for just such an occurrence. Scripps School of Journalism Statehouse News Bureau.A ****************************************************************************************************************************************************Ohio conference discusses Somalia future, problemsJan. It's basically a heavy-duty rubber balloon that fits under the agitator, and uses water pressure to lift it upwards from underneath. 3) If you need to drain the tub (usually because your pump isn't pumping out) most folks try to bail it out. And what happens when that nice, week-old dirty wash water reaches your mouth? You guessed it: there's a better way. What's the point in sucking the water through the hose?
Well, instead of using lung suction to do that, let's use hose pressure. Leave your garden hose connected to the faucet, and put the other end of it in the washer tub.
Lost loves, friends, jobs, disagreements with others, death of relatives, and depression are just some of the reasons we lose pride and hope in one self. We could go on with this forever so today I am just addressing those qualities in single people.
The air is gone now, right? Kink the garden hose so you don't lose the water charge, and disconnect it from the faucet. With single people, it could just be the problem with finding the right a€?someonea€? to love.
When you're sure the faucet end of the hose is lower than the bottom of the washer tub, release the kink in the hose. The delay or loss of a past love (among other things) could send someone spiraling downward into a loss of respect for themselves. No muss, no fuss.1-6 HOW TO USE A VOM AND AMMETERMany home handymen are very intimidated by electricity.
It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked.
Issues discussed include the national roadmap, piracy, humanitarian crisis, frontline state military interventions, Diaspora remittance challenges and community development issues. Nationally, there are 85.6 unmarried men for every 100 unmarried women and the birthrate is approximately 53% women over men. Remember the rule in section 1-4 (1); while you are working on a circuit, energize the circuit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then take the power back off it to perform the repair. Engagement in Somalia: DualTrack Policy Aims and Implications * Debunking the Roadmap: A Tool for Statehood or Death-knell for Disintegration?
You will only need to be able to set the VOM onto the right scale, touch the test leads to the right place and read the meter. In using the VOM (Volt-Ohm Meter) for our purposes, the two test leads are always plugged into the "+" and "-" holes on the VOM.
They have the a€?TV-ADa€? looks, drugs, drinking, sex, and instant communication (cell and text). Some people give up on themselves and become self destructive with over eating and drinking or hibernation.
It's derived from the word "continuous." In an electrical circuit, electricity has to flow from a power source back to that power source.
His remarks will provide an overview of Americas role in supporting humanitarian, development, and security assistance in Somalia. For our purposes, it doesn't matter how fast the current is flowingTo use your VOM to test continuity, set the dial on (resistance) R x 1, or whatever the lowest setting is. Ambassador James Swan has served as the United States Special Representative for Somalia since August 2011. It should peg the meter all the way on the right side of the scale, towards "0" on the meter's "resistance" scale.
He has served with the State Department since 1988 in Djibouti, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of Congo, Cameroon, Haiti, and Nicaragua, as well as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (2006-2008). If the meter does not read zero resistance, adjust the thumbwheel on the front of the VOM until it does read zero. If the solenoid's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something.
If there is still live power on the item you're testing for continuity, you will burn out your VOM instantly and possibly shock yourself. Touch the two test leads to the two bare wire ends or terminals of the solenoid.
You can touch the ends of the wires and test leads with your hands if necessary to get better contact. Somalis in America are not only active contributors to their newly adopted communities, but also continue to follow, and more importantly, influence developments in Somalia.
So it was a priority for me to engage in a dialogue and learn from the Somalia diaspora in the first few months of my new assignment as the U.S. From a mana€™s perspective, if a man is looking for a quick date, sex, or just a temporary girlfriend he will frequent a bar.
If there is GOOD continuity, the meter will move toward the right side of the scale and steady on a reading.
They see heart-breaking news coverage of malnourished Somali children, read about bright young college students murdered by suicide bombers, or hear reports of wide-scale corruption and say that Somalia cannot be helped. If a man is looking for a long term loving relationship or wife, he will look around church, a library (or book store), coffee bars, or social groups. This is the resistance reading and it doesn't concern us; we only care that we show good continuity. The problems Somalia faces today, the critics say, are the same problems it has faced for twenty years. Dona€™t settle on things that go against you conscience whether it is with yourself or a mate. Interests in Somalia The answer is simple: Americas national interests require robust engagement with Somalia. People with multiple divorces fail in relationships, drinkers are good drinkers, abusers (physical or mentally) are just abusers and players, and cheaters are cheaters. If you own an ammeter, you probably already know how to use it. If you don't, don't get one.
As a compassionate society, the United States has an interest in addressing the acute humanitarian needs of our fellow human beings in Somalia. People rarely change and never enter a relationship with the thought that you can later on change that person to your expectations. As part of our global commitment to advancing democratic values and improved governance, we have an interest in promoting political reforms that allow Somalis to be represented by leaders who will govern for the benefit of the people and the development of the country. If a person you care for ever poses this statement ----- A a€? If you want me (or love me) you need to do a€?this or thata€™.a€? ----- then walk away and dona€™t look back. The combination of instability and poor governance threatens not only the Somali people, but the security of our regional partners in the Horn of Africa and beyond. The ammeter simply measures the strength of this magnetic field, and thus the amount of current, flowing through the wire.
These factors have led to the most serious piracy problem in the world on key international trade routes. To determine continuity, for our purposes, we can simply isolate the component that we're testing (so we do not accidentally measure the current going through any other components) and see if there's anycurrent flow.To use your ammeter, first make sure that it's on an appropriate scale (0 to 10 or 20 amps will do).
They have also created a dangerous terrorist organization al Shabaab that wantonly attacks innocent civilians and African peacekeepers, has conducted terrorist attacks against Somalias neighbors, and has actively recruited American citizens.A For all these reasons humanitarian, democracy and governance, and cold-eyed security concerns America is committed to helping Somalia regain stability and security.
While Somalia faces enormous challenges, it also has, to quote President Obama, enormous support from the people of the United States.A A Vision for Success in Somalia We are committed to working with Somalis and the international community to help develop indigenous, long term solutions to the countrys ongoing problems.
America, as President Obama also said, wants Somalia to succeed.A Success means that Somalis facing drought and famine are helped to survive the current crisis and are given the long-term tools to better withstand future droughts. Success means that Somalia is free from totalitarian terrorist groups like al Shabaab, which is responsible for many lost and shattered lives not only in Somalia, but in Kenya and Uganda, through its terror attacks and through its policy of banning humanitarian assistance.
Success means that Somalis can turn to their government for the basic services that we take for granted in America. It means that humanitarian and development assistance goes where it is needed and not into the pockets of corrupt officials or the armories of warlords and terrorists. And success means that the Somali people get to decide what form of government and constitution they will have. Poll after poll shows that the Somali people want self-determination, even if they are unclear exactly how that democracy should look. Our role is to support the Somali people as they arrive at these decisions.A The Current Humanitarian CrisisLet me turn first to the current humanitarian crisis, which has been so much in the headlines in recent months. Nutritional data released by the Food and Agriculture Organization in early September spoke of 4 million people in need of assistance in Somalia alone, with more than three times that number at risk elsewhere in the region.A To address the immediate crisis, the United States has provided over $750 million to meet ongoing and urgent humanitarian needs in the region. Our dollars and diplomatic leverage are also being used to provide protection and assistance for Somali refugees in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Djibouti.A While America is the largest donor of humanitarian assistance to the Horn of Africa But, we are not alone.
European partners, Turkey, Gulf Cooperation Council countries, China, Japan, and many others have all responded to Somalias urgent need.
Together, we have met nearly 80 percent of the $1 billion UN Consolidated Appeal for Humanitarian Assistance for Somalia, the highest percentage reached of any appeal in the world today. WCI's machines were sold under these original brand names, as well as Westinghouse and White-Westinghouse brands.
In addition to aid from governments, there have been significant contributions from private citizens and NGOs from around the world. In many respects, our core humanitarian challenge is not only to continue to mobilize the necessary resources, but also to ensure that all donors and implementing agencies are coordinating their response for maximum efficiency and effect.The areas worst affected by the famine are not coincidentally those where the extremist group al-Shabaab is most influential. Though assistance is beginning to reach these areas, coverage is uneven and continues to be impeded by al-Shabab in many places.
We call on al-Shabaab to remove urgently all remaining obstacles to aid delivery in areas where they are present. Although humanitarian access is far better in areas of Transitional Federal Government presence, we believe this could be further improved through efforts to establish more effective TFG aid-coordination systems and address the problem of small armed bands that control entry to some Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) sites. The TFG should make areas it controls a model of effective aid delivery.A There is also something that you can do. You may be surprised to know that more than 54% of Americans have no idea there is even a crisis in the Horn of Africa region.
Today we are asking that 13.3 million people, the same number of people impacted by the crisis, take action to raise awareness for the Horn of Africa. Dual Track Policy after One YearBeyond the immediate crisis, our primary vehicle for advancing broader U.S. Under Dual Track, our diplomatic engagement and development assistance for Somalia is steadily increasing. These funds support a vast array of programs, across the entire country, that address security, peace and reconciliation, conflict mitigation, good governance, justice, democracy, education, economic growth, private sector competitiveness, health, water sanitation, food security, nutrition, and protection for vulnerable peoples.A Track one of the Dual Track policy reaffirms Americas continuing support for making the Transitional Federal Institutions more effective, more inclusive, and better able to provide services to the Somali people. Track One is consistent with our support for the Transitional Charter and Djibouti Peace Process. Track one also reaffirms our continued support for the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) peacekeepers who defend those institutions.A The Second Track of Dual Track broadens our engagement with regional and local administrations, civil society groups, and communities across the country that share the same goal of defeating al-Shabaab and bringing peace and stability back to Somalia. In reality, the Second Track announced last year codified efforts that were already underway to expand outreach to communities and organizations that were creating pockets of stability and improved governance. Key administrations and organizations we engage under Dual Track include Somaliland, Puntland, Galmuduug, Ahlu Sunna wal Jamaa, other local administrations, and civil society groups.A The past year has seen important progress on both tracks of Dual Track. On Track One, the Transitional Federal Government and AMISOM have succeeded in retaking ninety-eight percent of Mogadishu from al-Shabaab. This is a significant accomplishment in the security arena and one that has led to increased humanitarian access in newly liberated parts of the city. Mogadishu has been the scene of the fiercest battles in the country as al Shabaab struggled to keep its grip on the city that remains the economic heart of the country and has historically been its political epicenter as well.
While al Shabaab has lost territory and support over the past year, it remains a very dangerous organization within Somalia and our support to the Somali forces and the Ugandan and Burundian troops deployed alongside them in Mogadishu will continue.
The United States supports the Somali National forces with stipends, training, and equipment, and has also provided the lion's share of equipment and training for the AMISOM troop-contributing countries ever since their first deployment in 2007.A On the second track, we have increased outreach and support to key regional administrations and local governments across the country that are providing stability and services and countering al-Shabaab. Somaliland, for example, emerged from a successful presidential transition last year, a process the United States supported with over $700,000 in assistance.
Having clearly progressed on democratization, the Somaliland administration has also successfully attracted new investment. That is why the United States more than doubled its assistance to Somaliland under Dual Track, going from about $8 million in 2009 to more than $20 million in 2010.
This funds programs focused on local government administration and planning, education, community development initiatives, and economic growth.A We plan to extend the same type of Track Two community development assistance programs to Puntland, Galmuduug, and accessible areas of Gedo Region in the coming months. Even in Mogadishu, our quick impact community-focused projects are channeled through the Benadir Administration in order to reinforce local ownership and keep the projects close to the people.A We know Dual Track also has its critics. Some claim the policy has undercut the influence of the Transitional Federal Government, but this ignores our continued support to both the TFG and AMISOM. There are those who claim Dual Track further Balkanizes Somalia, pointing to opportunists who quickly self-declared newly independent states states that often represent little more than a hastily-posted website in a foreign capital.A The Second Track is in no way an open-ended commitment to assist any regional entity.
The following religions or faiths consider Jesus as an enlightened spiritual teacher: Jehovaha€™s Witnesses, Mormonism, Unification Church , Christian Science, A? of all Wicca, New Age, Nation of Islam, Bahaa€™i World Faith, Hare Krishna, Hinduism, some of Judaism, and Islam.
We are focused on looking for opportunities to help political structures that enjoy real legitimacy with their constituents and have a record of building pockets of stability within Somalia and responding to the people. It is funny that all these listed above recognize him as a great spiritual teacher but do not follow His teachings. We want to help Somalis living in such communities, even while Somalis as a whole decide what sort of relationship they want between their central and regional governments. When it comes to recognizing new African states, America follows the African Union lead -- and the African Union supports a single Somali state.A On both tracks, we will continue to provide training to local authorities and targeted Transitional Federal Institutions to promote credibility and confidence in the peace process. This includes funding activities to support constitutional and democratization processes across the country. The other half of Wicca, Transcendental Meditation, Scientology, and Buddhists either do not mention Him or He is not important to their way of thinking.
It also includes training, often with the expertise of Somali diaspora like yourselves, to promote government transparency and responsiveness. A great recent example includes a member of the diaspora who returned to work with the TFG. He identified $1 million dollars in lost assets, funds which belonged to the defunct Somali national airlines that were sitting unused in banks, and restored these assets the national budget.A Road Map Let me turn now to the national political process.
If Somali political leaders want to garner credibility with the Somali, they must capitalize on the improving security environment to make significant progress in both the political and governance realm.A Many Somalis still express a deep skepticism about the Transitional Federal Institutions ability or willingness to govern in a representative, responsive and accountable manner. Much of their frustration comes from the perception that the Transition Federal process begun in 2004, which was supposed to provide the constitutional, electoral and parliamentary foundation for a new Somalia, has become hopelessly stalled. In the eyes of many of their constituents, the political leadership in Mogadishu has become complacent with the status quo, and the benefits it affords those in power, rather than committed to progress that will help the average Somali.A On September 6, however, these Somali leaders created a unique opportunity to change that perception.
On that day, Somali leaders from the Transitional Federal Government, the regional administrations of Puntland and Galmuduug, and the Ahlu Sunna Wal Jamaa movement signed the Roadmap for Ending the Transition in Somalia.
Genesis Chapter #1 in part of verse 2 says, a€?and the Spirit of God was moving over the watera€?. The terrible suffering of the Somali people, particularly during the current famine, underscores that the signatories must make rapid progress toward representative and effective governance that can meet the basic needs of all Somalis. We will continue to support the efforts of those who strive to achieve its goals and bring stability back to Somalia.
And for goodness' sake, make sure you drain the thing completely first! 5) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component. Equally, we will work with our regional and international partners to hold accountable those Somali officials who obstruct progress.A Final ThoughtsFor all the challenges Somalia continues to face, we have seen positive though still fragile results from the efforts that we and our Somali, African, and international partners have expended. This years humanitarian response has been massive, and now needs follow-through and improved coordination to ensure the necessary effect.
In the security arena, momentum has shifted from al-Shabaab to the TFG and AMISOM -- although al-Shabaab still remains dangerously capable of asymmetric attacks. Politically, the Roadmap offers a positive vision for the end of the transition and also the prospect of convergence between the national government and regional entities, but it needs strong direction by Somali political leaders and active regional and international engagement to keep it on track. He won trophies for the best in class in New York State for horseshoes and archery (before compound bows) for several years running.
He hunted and fished and always, it seemed, brought back his limit no matter what game, fish, or bird was in season. He joined the Navy Sea Bees in WW2 and ended up getting drafted in the Marine Corps on an Island in the Pacific during the conflict. He wants the United States to provide more humanitarian support to help stabilize the country.
The air is gone now, right? Kink the garden hose so you don't lose the water charge, and disconnect it from the faucet.
We need an American action immediately, said Issa, who is a village council member in Urbancrest.
When you're sure the faucet end of the hose is lower than the bottom of the washer tub, release the kink in the hose.
The only way there is through His Son Jesus so I accept Him as my Lord and Savior and try my best to follow His ways. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked. That includes $175 million to Somalia.A Swan said the transition period for the government must end if the many needs of the Somali people are to be properly addressed. Yesterday, I led a community roundtable in each city, home to the two largest Somali diaspora communities in the United States.
The UN has declared famine in two regions of southern Somalia where humanitarian access has been limited by Al Shabaab.
USG is urgently supporting partnersto provide food, health, water and sanitation assistance wherever they can access communities desperate for help.I was also able to listen and learn from this dynamic community. Somali Americans are a vital lifeline of supportfor their communities and families throughout Somalia.
I heard from dozens of community leaders who have mobilized their friends and neighbors to raise money for the drought through car washes, bake sales and fund drives. A young woman in Minneapolis, choking back tears, described her Facebook page where she is raising money for drought relief and posting stories of families struggling to survive.
As I heard from Jibril Mohamed in Columbus, In 1992 I was a boy who fled the conflict and drought of southern Somalia and did the same long walk to the border that families are doing now.
For our purposes, it doesn't matter how fast the current is flowingTo use your VOM to test continuity, set the dial on (resistance) R x 1, or whatever the lowest setting is.
The Somali American community is a critical partner in identifying ways to help save lives.
We need urgently to ensure life-saving assistance reaches people now and are committed to doing so. A ====================================================== ==============================================Note: If you have not seen the movie "Left Behind" with Kirk Cameron, now would be the time. If the solenoid's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something. Well to begin with; this promise from God is only for believers and followers of Jesus Christ. Paul was talking about believers and inserted the condition of a€?for those who love Goda€?. You see, when you accept Christ as your Lord and Savior and ask for forgiveness and confess to Him your sins --------- you are washed clean with the blood of Christ. However, sometimes you carry the baggage of the memories of those sins in your mind and heart. This verse in Romans assures you that your guilt is unjustified because God will make it turn out in the end for good. Jesus did not promise that this life would be easy but that He would walk through those troubled times with you.
Although it was a good one, it caused me much stress and sometimes aspects of it violated my conscience.
I do believe that God is making this bad thing turn out to be good and I think He has a better job for me in the near future. If you believe in God and love Him and believe in His promise, these too will turn out for the better. And leta€™s not forget that even though what his brothers did was a€?wronga€?, God made it into good when Joseph forgave them and helped them. His promise does not make wrong right but makes it turn out into something good for his glory, for us believers. We know that Jesus will walk with us through the valley but God will get us to the mountain top when we get through it. I am sure there are many stories out there of how this verse helped many people weather their storms. Kendall============================================================Pastor Pop-Pop July 31, 2010. Do not make for yourselves images of anything in heaven or on earth or in the water under the earth.
Do not bow down to any idol or worship it, because I am the Lord your God and I tolerate no rivals. I bring punishment on those who hate me and on their descendants down to the third and fourth generation. It tells us His personality, words, likes, dislikes, rules, commands, pleasures, and all the things he has done. So any god or image of him that does not conform to or match the one described in the Bible (the word of God) is not the God of Israel that we are to worship. Let us be clear that making images of anything is not a violation of the commandment but actually worshiping it as a god. Some churches within the body of Christ have pictures or statues of saints or even Jesusa€™ mother. That is not a violation unless the statue (or the person) a€?itselfa€? is being worshiped as a god or the statue is believed to have some sort of power within itself.
Wearing a Jewish star or a cross is also not a violation unless the emblem itself is worshiped. If they are decorations that is OK but if you actually place or believe some hope or faith of luck in them, it is a violation of the commandment. People now seem to create their own god to worship in a€?their own minda€? and not within the scope of the Word of God (the Bible). The one I hear the most is, a€?I am a good person so that is all that is needed to go to Heaven and be saved.a€? That is not what the Bible tells us. Matthew 7:21 (ESV) says, a€?Not everyone who says to me a€?Lord Lord,a€™ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father in heaven.a€? What is the will of the Father? People go around saying god is this or god is that or that is a€?not what I believe ina€™ but if their beliefs are not in line with the Bible, they are in violation of the first commandment.
God is OK with working on a Sunday (or having your place of business open), God is OK with Homosexual and Gay behavior, I dona€™t have to go to church and worship Him, I dona€™t have to give, I dona€™t have to forgive everyone, it is OK to kill unborn babies, He is OK with pagan rituals, I can be rude to people, God did not make the earth a€“ and on and on and on. The pastor said that this church was saying the Holy Spirit told them this was OK but another church said that the Holy Spirit was against this and yet another one had a different view point from the Holy Spirit.
We all violate them in some way or another but that is why Jesus died on the cross to wash us clean in His blood and absolve us of our faults. He scribed it on stone tablets and gave them to Moses on the mountain top to give to His people.
That is the translation that she likes to use.===============================================================Thou shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below.
You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous Goda€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦. Leta€™s take one at a time and discuss:We discussed this command last sermon (review if you want to). Have you ever created another God in your mind or worshiped another god of a different religion or faith?
Jesus said that if you even lust in your heart (or mind) for another that you violate this commandment.
Covet is defined in the NIV dictionary as: To want for yourself something that belongs to another person. Whether you take it or not, take it and not return it, or just desire it ---- you have violated this commandment. If you believe in Jesus and accept Him as your Lord and Savior, you are forgiven of your sins and you are washed in His blood clean and white as snow. A Timothy McVey the mastermind on the Oklahoma bombing defied God and declared that he alone was the a€?master of his destinya€?.
A ==============================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop August 24, 2010. Having a good relationship with your spouse, family, friends, or co-workers is usually based on a good two way conversational attitude.
To render Him praise and glory through prayer, actions, good deeds, following His laws and commandments, and accepting Jesus as our Lord and Savior. He knows what we need before we ask but He likes to hear it from us also with some praise and worship attached.
Your Mom knows you need food and gives you healthy meals but approaching her and asking for a snack also tells her you would like some cheese doodles too.
Prayers can be from a book, made up by you, from the Bible, or just general conversation between you and God.
They can be on your knees by your bed, in Church, or just during every day activities or work.
I try to concentrate not on an earthly or worldly fixture or thing but temporarily close my eyes (not while driving) or look up when I talk to Him. I find one (or a paragraph or verse) that I derive comfort from and say it as a special prayer to the Lord. What can flesh do to me?Psalm 121(NLT): I look up to the mountains-does my help come from there?
Go to a good book store and page through some and see which ones are comfortable for you personally.
They are good Bibles but one is paraphrased and one is in a so called modern language that, for me, does not read real well. I highly recommend The New Living Translation (NLT), The New Century Version (NCV), or the New American Bible (NAB). The first two are used a lot with Contemporary Christian Churches and the third contains extra books as it was designed to meet the needs of Catholic Christians. I also like the Good News Translation (GNT).A It is important that you like it and are comfortable with it.



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