29.03.2014

Indian astrology 2000 review

The work is written in Turkish with large naskhi script in black ink on 90 leaves of delicate finished (aharlA±) paper.
This work was made for the Treasury of Sultan Murad III, and the quality of its paintings, its binding and its calligraphy make it one of the greatest works of Ottoman art created for a sultan. A contemporary copy of an illustrated cosmography, and perhaps the earliest to survive of the great geographer Ibn al-Wardi (d. The work has also been attributed to an earlier author, Zayn al-Din Abu Hafs a€?Umar Ibn al-Muzaffar Ibn al-Wardi, who died in 1348 AD, but according to the 1479 and 1487 copies of the Kharidat, this author would pre-date the original work.
Though the identity of the author is still uncertain, at the very least the physical evidence of our copy would indicate either that it is a very early edition of the later Ibn al-Wardi, perhaps copied within a few years of the original, or that it is an edition of the earlier author, completed within less than a century of his death. Islamic sacred geography differs from the Ptolemaic tradition in that it does not employ cartographic grids, or longitude and latitude scales; as a rule, these used Mecca and the Kaa€?ba as the center of the world.
Between the 12th and 16th centuries, the study of Islamic geography often extended to include cosmology, cosmogony, astrology and similar subjects, rather than the production of purely geographical works that were characteristic of earlier periods.
In addition to the two dated copies mentioned earlier, further copies of the Kharidat al-`Ajaa€™ib include one in the Vatican Library dating to the 18th century, one of a similar date (1778 AD) in the National Library of the Czech Republic, as well as one in the Library of Congress, which is undated. The following excerpts are taken out of a work older then 968 when Cairo became the capital.
The land of the Zinji lies opposite to that of Sind; between the two intervenes the breadth of the Sea of Persia. Aden, nice town, where the ships of India and China come, one finds there all the products of the eastern countries, brought there from different places, silk, arms, kaimoukt (kind of leader) , musk, aoud (aloes wood), several aromatics, ivory, ebony, clothes of grass, estimated higher is value then those of silk, lead, pearls, precious stones, the zoubad (civet) and amber.
Concerning the lands in the southern hemisphere; they start with the lands of the Sudan or the Blacks, which extends up to the extremity of the Mogreb or Africa, towards the big sea, there are many deserts there where there is nobody.
The Zindges; their country is the biggest of the countries the Blacks live in, at one side it touches Abyssinie. The island of Camar or the island of the Moon, very long and very large, one says 4 months walking east to west; there is a town called Han, where the king resides. There you do not see anymore the pole star, or the big bear, and the waves are big as mountains. He calls the area south of the sources of the Nile: Rub'a al-Kharab, one of the richest regions in the world.
He describes Zanzibar as peopled by idolaters who boasted no code of writing (meaning no revealed religion) but were accustomed to being harangued (meaning they get speeches) by leaders of society in the marked places. One finds at Sofala a big amount of gold, in very pure nuggets and each nugget (tibra) can be 2 to 3 mithcals. Oriented with the South at the top, it shows the known world as a sphere surrounded by the Encircling Sea, which is enclosed by mountains. An important cosmography composed for the Mamluk na'ib of Aleppo Shahin, Arabic manuscript on paper, 178ff.
A A  The land of the Zinji lies opposite to that of Sind; between the two intervenes the breadth of the Sea of Persia. A A A  The Zinji are extremely numerous, through deficient in the means of carrying on war.
A A A  Concerning the lands in the southern hemisphere; they start with the lands of the Sudan or the Blacks, which extends up to the extremity of the Mogreb or Africa, towards the big sea, there are many deserts there where there is nobody. A  The island of Camar or the island of the Moon, very long and very large, one says 4 months walking east to west; there is a town called Han, where the king resides. A A A  He describes Zanzibar as peopled by idolaters who boasted no code of writing (meaning no revealed religion) but were accustomed to being harangued (meaning they get speeches) by leaders of society in the marked places.
A A A  One finds at Sofala a big amount of gold, in very pure nuggets and each nugget (tibra) can be 2 to 3 mithcals. The stronger groups tended to settle in the more desirable areas where there was an abundance of water, natural resources (wood, clay, iron ore, coal), and natural protection (hills, sea coast, rivers, lakes). And by the time the weaker finally arrived at a location to settle down, they were frequently so far removed from other groups that there was little contact, trade, or interaction.
For these reasons while civilizations were forming in Mesopotamia, India, China, and North Africa, groups that had roamed as far as North and South America and islands in the Pacific developed little further in cultural organization than the tribal unit and possessed a technology that was far less developed than in the larger civilizations. About the early civilizations, the Apostle Paul, in Romans 1-3, states that they were created with a clear knowledge of God, but having rejected and twisted what truth they did possess, they worshipped the creature rather than the Creator. Sumer was a collection of over thirty city-states, each possessing its own patron deity, but sharing a common religion featuring the worship of Elil with a central religious center at Nippur.
Other innovations of the Sumerians were the wooden wheel, the wooden plow, and the wooden oar for their ships. The Sumerians developed (or recovered from their spiritual memory derived from Noah) an elaborate belief system that included many gods who possessed human characteristics, a concept of personal sin, that they had been created to serve the gods, a class system of sorts between major and minor gods, and an elaborate flood story. On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the story of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. The Sumerians were weakened due to the salinization of their wheat fields and were overcome by an invading group of people led by Sargon, the Great. An Akkadian legend says that Sargon was abandoned by his mother in a reed basket which she placed in a river. Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria. The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire) required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular.
Although the Babylonians absorbed much of the Sumerian worldview, they also developed a complex religion based upon astrology.
The Assyrians, located to the north of Babylon, revived and were able to fight off several other invading groups that came into the Fertile Crescent from Indo-Europe and Syria. The constant flow of invading peoples into the Fertile Crescent resulted in a blending of cultures, religions, and gene pools.
After over 400 years as slave in Egypt, Abrahama€™s descendants, under the leadership of Moses, left Egypt miraculously under Goda€™s guidance around the year 1250 B.C.
During this period of time God delivered to the Hebrews the religious system known as Judaism.
After the 40 years of wilderness living, which resulted from their disobedience evidenced in worshipping the golden calf fashioned by Aaron, the brother of Moses, the Hebrews entered Canaan.
The northern section, Israel, was invaded, captured, and sent into exile by Assyria in 732 B. During their centuries of development, God raised up among the Hebrews the ancient prophets, who were raised up by God to give warnings to both Israel as well as to their pagan neighbors. They were chosen by God to be his covenant people, from among whom the Messiah was born of the virgin Mary.
The Philistines were descendants of a sea people who originated from around the Aegean Sea area to the east of Greece. The Philistines were a literate people who originally spoke the language of people living in Crete, Cyprus, and the Aegean area. This civilization eventually concluded that their ruler, the Pharaoh, was actually divinity in the flesh.
Perhaps the most famous of its rulers was Cleopatra who was the lover of both Julius Caesar and of Marc Anthony of the Roman Empire.
He restored Egyptian religious worship and traditions back to their state prior to the radical revisions introduced by Tutakamena€™s father, Pharaoh Akhanaten. Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries. The early Minoan settlers of Crete and southern Greece were descendants of Egyptians who first migrated to the island of Crete. They were the first to develop the skills necessary to build large stone columns for their many massive palaces, monuments, and temples. They were major importers and exporters of gold, silver, ivory, bronze, pottery, and animals from the continent of Africa to the south and developed extensive trade with Middle Asia, North Africa., and even East Asia. They were master canal builders and specialists in highly developed agriculture and irrigation systems.
It is speculated that they were extensive travelers, and that skills needed to build the pyramids constructed by the Mayans in South America may have been brought by Egyptians traveling in their reed boats. They hosted the descendants of Abraham for over 450 years, first as guests and family members of the house of Moses, and later as slaves.
Together with the Hittites after the Battle of Kadesh, the Egyptians pioneered a format for developing a long-lasting treaty between two powerful nations that numerous other subsequent civilizations followed. The Gospel of Christ was brought to the Egyptians by the Apostle Mark who was martyred during his ministry in Egypt. The civilization that developed in the Indus River Valley rivals Egypt and Mesopotamia as the oldest known civilization.
At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™s population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia. The Harappa civilization developed when a large number of Aryan people descended into the Indus Valley from the northeast.
A large, extensive sewage system to which all of the buildings in the cities were connected. Agriculture was made possible by the annual flooding in the spring when the ice melted and in July and August during the rainy season.
The Longshan Culture built large fortified towns along the Yellow River, fortified by large earthen walls and ramparts. There are indications that the early Chinese who settled along the Yellow River believed in the same God as the Hebrews, the God who was revealed to them in creation and in the stories received from Noah and his sons.
The Sumerians, Amorites, Egyptians, Longshan, and Harappa were some of the earliest groups that formed civilizations. The Indo-European language group spread from the Black Sea area into the Indus River Valley and into Euro-Asia.
Civilizations emerged early and quickly after the Flood throughout the four major population areas of Europe, Euro-Asia, and Asia. The Nile River Valley was home to the great Egyptian civilization that reached its zenith during the reign of Ramses II, the probable pharaoh reigning during the time of Moses and the Exodus.
An advanced Harappa civilization existed in the Indus Valley of India that conducted trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Respond correctly to at least 80% of the questions based upon the nine big ideas found in the first section above, Whata€™s Worth Knowing? Be able to list several chief characteristics and features of each of the four major river civilizations. Create with your group ten test questions you believe all student should be able to answer after your groups presentation.


Identify on a blank map the four major areas of civilization along the four river valleys and the items below. On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the storyA  of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria.A  He also developed a library of several thousand clay tablets, built a vast network of roads, and established the first known postal system. The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire)A  required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular. From Moses was received the Pentateuch, or the Five Books of Moses.A  He also established the first representative government, a system of government, Peoplea€™s Law, that was carried across Europe into England by the Anglo-Saxons, and became foundational for the United States of America.
After the death of Solomon, the nation of the Hebrews experienced civil war and separated into Israel in the north occupied by ten of the tribes, and Judah (from which the name a€?Jewa€? was derived) in the south occupied by two of the tribes. Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries.A  He was so revered by the nation (for three generations of Egyptians knew no other Pharaoh) that for generations after his death he was referred to as the Great Ancestor of the nation. At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™sA  population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia. The major power in the Harappa society was the priestly caste that presided over a polytheistic religious system.
Find Your Fate - Sections include Indian and Western astrology, palmistry, numerology, graphology and compatibility.
Within are 55 miniatures depicting subjects in the text, some of them one to a page and some two.
The type of paper used here, which is a style associated with 14th and 15th century Spain, and the style of calligraphy which points to a 14th century hand, suggest this copy was produced during the 14th or 15th century, and may thus indicate the earlier authorship.
The tradition is generally associated with 10th century scholars such as al-Balkhi, al-Istakhri, al-Muqaddasi, Ibn Hawqal, and the ninth century geographer Ibn Khurdadhbeh (d. These cosmological works seem to have been produced for the average lay reader as organized compendia of world knowledge, rather than critical scientific works, and relied heavily on earlier sources.
64r, shows the direction of prayer to qiblah [Mecca] from different countries, seen here in 35 sectors.
Several inscriptions on the inside of the front doublure exist in a later maghribi hand; one of these refers to one unidentified individual by the name of Ibn al-Maa€™mun. There are also several examples in the Chester Beatty Library, dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries; and several examples are cited in C. Others are his stories taken from Masa€™udi (without mentioning his name) in which the Zenj warriors ride on cattle. It is said that their king goes forth to battle with three thousand followers, ridding on oxen. In the north there is a mountain who goes from one sea to the other, leaving two wholes through which the boats can pass, this town (Aden) is 4 days away from the Zendges. That island produces nardgil or coconuts, sugarcane, one makes there clothes of grass, as beautiful as from silk, one builds boats of 60 elbows long, that carry 200 men. Mecca, the focal point of all spatial references, is near the center of the Arabian Peninsula, which is embraced by the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the shape of a crescent moon to signify the unity of the celestial and terrestrial worlds, a unity of conjoined sacredness. While obviously these maps were produced after the European a€?early medievala€? period, they still reflect the medieval world view of the Arab cartographers. Seems either no one is talking about louis daguerre at this moment on GOOGLE-PLUS or the GOOGLE-PLUS service is congested. Initially they were propelled to distance themselves from each other by major language differences.
Because they settled in these areas and because they settled first, they had more time and resources to develop civilizations. One thing that is usually required for a culture to develop is interaction with other culture groups. Hence, the imperialistic armies of Europe with canons, ships, and guns met tribesmen in parts of Africa armed with spear and bows and arrow.
The Sumerians were a people who perhaps migrated from the Caspian Sea area into the Fertile Crescent, the fertile area lying between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Sumerian priests would climb these tall towers thinking that at the top they might encounter the gods who would descend from the sky to meet with them. Little is known about this period or people, but there are written records that indicate that there were kings who ruled Sumer during the antedeluvian period (period of time between Creation and the Flood). They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area. Sargon established the powerful and vast empire of Akkad that ruled over most of the Fertile Crescent.
Therefore, Hammurabi developed an extensive set of laws to govern the culture and the economy. They observed the movement of the stars through astronomy in an attempt to understand the behavior and will of the gods. People in the area became known as a€?Mesopotamiansa€? rather than Amorites, Sumerian, Assyrians, or Babylonians.
The growth of population created problems with sewage, garbage, overcrowding in urban centers, decreasing drinking water supplies, disease, and the constant threat of a new people group arriving to take advantage of the fertile soil -- even though salinization continued to be a constant problem.
In a revelation from Elohim, Abraham was promised an inherited land that would remain the possession of his descendants. During a period of 40 years in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan Moses received from God the Ten Commandments while communing with God on the top of Mount Sinai. Under the leadership of Joshua, the Hebrews systematically defeated all the people groups living in the land of Canaan and possessed the land promised to them by God. They gradually adopted the language of the Canaanites and blended their religion with that of the Canaanites and featured the worship of the god Baal. Therefore they could not corrupt the divine blood line through marriage with common people.
The i??entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River.
For one brief period, however, one of the Pharaohs, Akhenaten, promoted a form of monotheism.
Cleopatra was a descendant of General Ptolemy who was given governance over Egypt by Alexander the Great of Greece. When Ashkenaten became Pharaoh he banished the gods of Egypt, banished their priests, emptied their temples, and forbade their worship or sacrifices made to them. He (1) ended the worship of Aten, contrary to his fathera€™s policy, and (2) restored the worship of Amun.
His wife petitioned the king of the Hittites, asking to be given as a wife to one of his sons. He was known as a war pharaoh, leading campaigns against the Hittites, Syrians, Libyans, Nubians, and other neighboring nations. They founded the Minoan civilization and their capitol city of Knossos on the island of Crete.
They fell victim to the plagues brought by God against the Pharaoha€™s (likely Rameses II) stubbornness to refuse to allow over one million Hebrew slaves to leave Egypt peacefully. The Indus River civilization, known as the Harappa civilization, was located in present-day Pakistan, appearing about 1500 B.C. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean i??area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. The priests were both religious and military leaders and ruled from walled citadels in the major cities. The Chinese today consider this river basin to be the cradle of Chinese civilization and refer to the river as a€?the mother river.a€? It has an east-i??west extension of about 3,000 miles from the Kulun Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and a north-south extension of 684 miles.
It is probable that they moved into the Yellow River area after the Tower of Babel event and retained the knowledge of God received from Noah and his offspring.
It had elaborate drainage and sewage systems superior to those in many parts of modern India today. They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area.A  Cuneiform (from the Latin cuneus, three-sided wedge) used wedge-shaped markings made with bamboo pens on soft clay. The entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. On pages 1ba€“2a two round medallions carry an inscription stating the worka€™s subject and saying that it was prepared for the Treasury of Sultan Murad III (r.
This work sums the geographical knowledge of the Arabic world of the time, referring to climate, terrain, fauna and flora, population, way of living, existing states and their governments in individual regions of the world.
In addition to a compendium of place names, seas and mountains, the author has also included a description of the flora and fauna of the places he describes. 912 AD) who devised the earliest known geographical work using the Kaa€?ba as the center of the world in his Kitab al-Masalik waa€™l-Mamalik.
The text and map in the manuscript suggest a medieval precursor; old place names and archaic descriptions occur frequently.
The final page bears a partial reference to the owner or scribe of the manuscript, whose name appears to be al-Qawariqi. They worship idols, are brave, hardy and fight in battle riding oxen, as their country supplies neither horses, mules, nor camels. Turkish Constantinople is a red crescent a€?walla€? or barrier against the a€?people of the crossa€?.
His first chapter is almost entirely based on Yaquta€™s geography.A  As a result, those trying to date his work start from c.
There is nothing so uncomfortable as being around people who dona€™t speak your language, and nothing more comfortable than finding others who do!
Those who were constantly on the move and being chased from place to place by the stronger had less opportunity to develop a civilization or to benefit from natural resources. The Spanish conquistadors, while few in number, were able to subjugate an entire Latin American continent due to their superior technology. They cultivated fields of wheat, groves of date palms, developed herds of cattle, manufactured pottery and woven baskets, and developed a wide-ranging trade system using their sea-worthy boats.
He ruled by means of a powerful military nobility that lived off of a vast taxation network extracted by those whom they subjugated.
As with the Vikings much later in history, the sea people were ruthless, relentless in their attacks, and arrived at unexpected times. The history of the Hebrews after the Exodus from Egypt is a story of constant conflict with the Philistines, including the story of Samson and Delilah, and the numerous battles between the Hebrews and Philistines under the Hebrew king, David.


The Nile provided a fertile valley carved out of hot, sandy desert that was able to sustain a large civilization extending along the narrow river valley from the Mediterranean in the north to Ethiopia in the south. A variety of causes have been suggested for his early death, and for many years it was suspected that he was murdered.
He abandoned the new royal city built by his father at Akhanaten and moved the capitol back to the traditional capitol at Thebes.The royal celebrations and sacrifices to Amun were restored, winning him great favor with many of the people.
He was also the most prolific builder of monuments honoring his rule, as well as pyramids for the burial of his many children. The priests were intermediaries between the people and the numerous gods and goddesses discovered on clay seals and figurines. This period is also credited with the development of the Chinese five-tone music scale, the five-stringed zither, and pan-pipes. Persia is supplying rockets to Hezbollah, American troops are in Babylonia, and Assyria questions whether it wants to be part of the new Iraq. The author also speaks about Slavs and their lifestyle and mentions al-Mahdiyya as the residence of the Fatimid dynasty.
Throughout the work, the author refers to various historians and geographers, such as al-Masa€?udi (d. These geographical works neglected to include coordinates or to employ mathematical geography in the maps, and bear great similarity to the simpler-produced maps of medieval Europe. The region between North Africa and Syria is associated with the northwest wall of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah from east to south. At the top, Africa is extended the length of the Indian Ocean, but unlike Ptolemya€™s map, here the continent does not enclose the ocean. And Christian missionaries from Europe and the United States armed with computers, flashlights, and modern medicines, encountered stone age tribesmen in the islands of the Pacific as late at the end of the 20th century. They developed a system that divided a circle into units of sixty, from which we today get our minute composed of sixty seconds and a system of counting based upon the unit of ten. Two of the consequences were (1) a confusion of languages, and (2) a huge flood that lasted for seven days and seven nights. But they were described as being primarily a nomadic people who were never conquered, refused to live in houses, and moved frequently from place to place.
One of their number who had gained prominence in Egypt, Joseph, was able through his position to ensure their safe move into Egypt. Eventually they were controlled by the Egyptians who at times extended their control northward to Syria. This was not a monotheism that resulted from special revelation granted by the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but developed from his angry response to all those who belittled him when he was a boy.
But more recent examination of his mummified remains indicate that he had severe scoliosis, a broken leg that had become infected, and probably died from several genetic diseases, caused by the fact that his mother was one of his fathera€™s sisters.
He fathered at least 80 sons and 60 daughters, all with the purpose of leaving behind a royal line and a successor to the throne.
Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.
Knowledge of the Aryans comes primarily from a series of stories called vedas passed down orally in India.
Fertility was seemingly a major emphasis of the Harappa religion and was the cause of the veneration of sacred animals, especially bulls. The vast area of fertile soil and extensive forests was fueled by tremendous amounts of soil that annually washed down from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean. Recent studies now propose that it was a change in the path and frequency of typhoons that brought the decline of the Harappa civilization. It merges with the Yangtze River as it nears the Pacific Ocean to form a vast and fertile plain.
Oracle bones were simply that: bones on which cracks in the bones were deciphered by oracles who added written pictographs for interpretation. He also developed vast wheat and barley fields, groves of date palms, and under his leadership Babylon became a central power in Mesopotamia.
Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.A  Large granaries were built to hold surplus wheat and barley. The work, which was written by the court panegyrist (Azehnameci) Sayyid Loqman AAYuri, consists of two main sections.
The region between Iraq and Afghanistan is connected with the northeast wall of the Ka`ba and has a qiblah from south to west.
The Nile, drawn in red, takes a right-angle turn, possibly reflecting the rivera€™s great bend. The weaker tended to move out farther, and the stronger tended to settle down more quickly and claim their space. Ur was a community of moon-worshippers and from among them God called out Abraham and his family to become the father of all who have faith (Romans 4). They practiced taxation, conquest of neighboring peoples, slavery, and developed an early monarchial form of government. A Sumerian king, Ziusudra, survived the flood in a large boat, in which he preserved the seeds of plants and life.
There they were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians, and they remained slave for over 400 years. The southern section, Judah, with its capitol, Jerusalem, was invaded, captured, and exiled by Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.
Eventually, however, the sea people were able to settle along the Mediterranean coastline of the land of Canaan and were known as the Philistines. They possessed a written language, but deciphering the script used is still in its early stages. Estimates now available from satellite imagery shows a ridge of fertile soil up to 20 feet deep, 10 miles wide and 100 miles long that straddles the Indus River. The pattern of the annual typhoons gradually moved increasingly eastward and the people followed the rainfall in scattered, smaller groups. Because only 10% of the Chinese land is productive for food, the Yellow River basin was crucial in the development and survival of the Chinese people. The first begins with the universe and the signs of the zodiac and continues with stories taken from the Torah, the New Testament, and the Qura€™an which tell of the lives of prophets and those who rendered service to the faith. Its sense of proportion is highly schematic, and the location of certain places is rather unusual, but al-Andalus [Spain], Qustantaniyyah [Constantinople] and the River Nile are all approximately where one might expect. India, Tibet and China are associated with the Black Stone in the eastern corner of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah pointing slightly northwest. Snow is not know among them, nor rain, which is commonly the case with the greater part of the country of the blacks.
They have islands in the sea, from which they collect cowries to adorn their persons, and they use them in traffic one with another, at an established rate. It was with Abraham that God made his redeeming covenant that resulted in the coming of Jesus into the world as Savior.
But the Hebrews for the most part lived under a series of male and female Hebrews judges, and then a series of kings. Because they were viewed as gods in the flesh, they strove to keep the royal bloodline pure through marriage between brothers and sisters. In addition to the rich alluvial soil, water was plentiful from typhoons that annually dumped immense amounts of rainfall on the area.
In addition, the fact that the Harappaa€™s bronze tools and weapons were inferior in design and quality to those manufactured in Egypt and Mesopotamia may also have resulted in invasions as the cities declined in population. The river gained its name from the color of the mud and silt that flows from the Kulun Mountains.
The original work is said to have been completed around the year 1419 AD, as stated on the earliest known copy which is dated 1479 AD (cited in R.
The world is shown surrounded by water, with an outer boundary of mountains, seen here as the polychrome outer border. A fourth region, the Yemen, the Hadramawt, Aden and Socotra are linked with the southern corner of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah pointing north. They have no ships, but traders come in vessels from Uman, to buy their children, whom they sell in different countries. Sumer was located near to where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers merge and flow into the Persian Gulf.
Both the veneration of bulls and the use of the lotus position were later developed further in Hinduism and Buddhism in India. The first part ends with genealogical trees of the Prophet Muhammad, the Four Orthodox Caliphs, and the sultans and high officials of Muslim dynasties such as the Umayyads, the a€?Abbasids, the early Islamic period, the Ghaznawids, the Ilkhanids, the Seljuqs and the Timurids.
Sellheim, Arabische Handschriften: Materialen zur Arabischen Literaturgeschichte, Wiesbaden, 1976-87, Vol.
In addition to the extensive chapter on geography, the Kharidat al-`Ajaa€™ib contains a chapter on the types of birds and other animals that exist in the places that the author has described.
She was the daughter of Akhenaten and his favorite wife, Nefertiti The result was two daughters who both died in infancy. The second part opens with Sultan Osman, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, and goes up to Sultan Murad III, with 12 portraits of Ottoman sultans.
The inclusion of a small section explaining the game of chess, including a detailed drawing, has not been recorded in other copies of Ibn al-Wardia€™s cosmography.
The inhabitants are infidels, and the tartars among the blacks, consisting of savage tribes of freebooters, who continually take captive and plunder every thing that falls in their way. In recent works from about 2000 on the Ibn al-Wardi concerned is often called pseudo Ibn al Wardi.
In their country the river divides; one branch going towards Egypt, and the other to the country of the Zinji. The paper of the present manuscript can be clearly located to Spain no later than the middle of the 15th century. It is an extensive district, and mines of iron are found in it, which the people of the country work and sell to the traders from India, who give a high price for it, on account of it being harder and of better temper than that which they obtain in their own country, and they purify it and make it into steel, which admits to a durable edge.
The most remarkable produce of this country is its quantity of native gold that is found, in pieces of two or three Meskalla weight; in spite of which, the natives generally adorn their persons with ornaments of brass.



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