19.08.2014

Law of gravitation uses

Visit The Physics Classroom's Flickr Galleries and enjoy a visual tour of the topic of gravitation.
Explore the effect of object mass and separation distance on the force of gravity using this interactive Java applet from PhET. Now here's a chance of a lifetime - build your own solar system with this interactive Java applet from PhET. Improve your problem-solving skills with problems, answers and solutions from The Calculator Pad.
Students can explore the effect of object mass and separation distance using this interactive Java applet from PhET. This unit from The Physics Classroom Tutorial provides excellent background information to support this problem-based learning unit. As discussed earlier in Lesson 3, Isaac Newton compared the acceleration of the moon to the acceleration of objects on earth. Newton knew that the force that caused the apple's acceleration (gravity) must be dependent upon the mass of the apple. Since the gravitational force is directly proportional to the mass of both interacting objects, more massive objects will attract each other with a greater gravitational force.
Since gravitational force is inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the two interacting objects, more separation distance will result in weaker gravitational forces. The proportionalities expressed by Newton's universal law of gravitation are represented graphically by the following illustration. Another means of representing the proportionalities is to express the relationships in the form of an equation using a constant of proportionality.
The constant of proportionality (G) in the above equation is known as the universal gravitation constant. Knowing the value of G allows us to calculate the force of gravitational attraction between any two objects of known mass and known separation distance.
Two general conceptual comments can be made about the results of the two sample calculations above.
Gravitational interactions do not simply exist between the earth and other objects; and not simply between the sun and other planets. Use the Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation widget below to investigate the effect of the object masses and separation distance upon the amount of gravitational attraction. How did Newton establish that it was the force of gravity between the sun and the planets was the force responsible for keeping the planets in motion along their elliptical path?


If the distance is increased by a factor of 2, then force will be decreased by a factor of 4 (22). The Statement of the Law ? Magnitude: Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Believing that gravitational forces were responsible for each, Newton was able to draw an important conclusion about the dependence of gravity upon distance.
So as the mass of either object increases, the force of gravitational attraction between them also increases.
So as two objects are separated from each other, the force of gravitational attraction between them also decreases.
Observe how the force of gravity is directly proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of separation. The precise value of G was determined experimentally by Henry Cavendish in the century after Newton's death.
When the units on G are substituted into the equation above and multiplied by m1• m2 units and divided by d2 units, the result will be Newtons - the unit of force. Gravitational interactions exist between all objects with an intensity that is directly proportional to the product of their masses.
If you interesting in "Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation" powerpoint themes, you can download to use this powerpoint template for your own presentation template. So for Newton, the force of gravity acting between the earth and any other object is directly proportional to the mass of the earth, directly proportional to the mass of the object, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separates the centers of the earth and the object.
Newton's place in the Gravity Hall of Fame is not due to his discovery of gravity, but rather due to his discovery that gravitation is universal. If the mass of one of the objects is doubled, then the force of gravity between them is doubled. If the separation distance between two objects is doubled (increased by a factor of 2), then the force of gravitational attraction is decreased by a factor of 4 (2 raised to the second power). So as you sit in your seat in the physics classroom, you are gravitationally attracted to your lab partner, to the desk you are working at, and even to your physics book. Knowing that all objects exert gravitational influences on each other, the small perturbations in a planet's elliptical motion can be easily explained. If the distance between the two objects is doubled, what is the new force of attraction between the two objects?
For viewing only, you can play with our flash based presentation viewer instead of downloading the ppt file.


If the mass of one of the objects is tripled, then the force of gravity between them is tripled. If the separation distance between any two objects is tripled (increased by a factor of 3), then the force of gravitational attraction is decreased by a factor of 9 (3 raised to the second power). This illustrates the inverse relationship between separation distance and the force of gravity (or in this case, the weight of the student). Newton's revolutionary idea was that gravity is universal - ALL objects attract in proportion to the product of their masses. As the planet Jupiter approaches the planet Saturn in its orbit, it tends to deviate from its otherwise smooth path; this deviation, or perturbation, is easily explained when considering the effect of the gravitational pull between Saturn and Jupiter. If the mass of both of the objects is doubled, then the force of gravity between them is quadrupled; and so on.
Newton's comparison of the acceleration of the apple to that of the moon led to a surprisingly simple conclusion about the nature of gravity that is woven into the entire universe. This force of gravitational attraction is directly dependent upon the masses of both objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separates their centers.
However, a mere change of 40 000 feet further from the center of the Earth is virtually negligible. All objects attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to their distance of separation. This altitude change altered the student's weight changed by 2 N that is much less than 1% of the original weight. To illustrate this, use Newton's universal gravitation equation to calculate the force of gravity between the following familiar objects. This alteration of distance is like a drop in a bucket when compared to the large radius of the Earth.
As shown in the diagram below, distance of separation becomes much more influential when a significant variation is made.



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