Listen to pretty little liars books online free

The diversity represented in the PLL books is mainly embodied in the character of Emily Fields.
The troubling bit comes just as readers might think that Emily’s great gay life is getting of the ground. But in the glittery-deadly world of Pretty Little Liars, some of the nuances of Emily’s bisexual narrative are lost in the rollicking mystery plots. And Emily’s impact on queer girls in popular culture is magnified many times over by the hit television show based on the Pretty Little Liars series.
Television Emily identifies as a lesbian, and show runners have said they have no plans to explore a bisexual identity for her. But the fact that this really successful redux involved an erasure of her bisexuality is, well, flat-out evidence that bisexual invisibility is a real thing. Taken as a complete phenomenon, Pretty Little Liars echoes one of the series main themes — glossy surfaces can have surprising depth. Don’t forget to check out the Giant YA Pride 2013 Giveaway to win tons of wonderful LGBT YA novels. Pretty Little Liars is the first book in the Pretty Little Liars series by Sara Shepard published by HarperTeen.
Under the dust jacket on the front of the hardcopy book it says "It's not over until I say it is.
Everyone has something to hide—especially high school juniors Spencer, Aria, Emily, and Hanna. The story introduces an exclusive group of friends: "Alison DiLaurentis", the perfect yet manipulative queen bee, Aria Montgomery, an independent girl who is considered to be the oddball in Rosewood, Emily Fields, a swimmer who holds secret feelings for Alison, Hanna Marin, who strives to be thin and popular like Alison, and Spencer Hastings, an overachiever who is brave enough to stand up against Alison's manipulative ways. The story then jumps 3 years later, when the girls are living their own lives and don't speak to each other. Throughout the story, the liars get messages threatening to reveal their secrets of the present and past, including a terrifying incident the girls refer to as "The Jenna Thing".
Hanna and Sean: Hanna's relationship with Sean Ackard has been strained due to the athlete's sudden interest in joining the virginity club.
Emily and Ben: Emily and Ben's relationship becomes troubled when she starts to hang out with Maya St. Emily and Maya: A new girl from San Francisco, Maya makes Emily feel and think in a way that she's not accustomed to. Spencer and Wren: Spencer meets Melissa's boyfriend at a fancy Philadelphia restaurant with her parents. Ashley and Darren: Hanna's mother hooks up with the young Rosewood police officer after Hanna is caught stealing and crashing her ex-boyfriend's car. Bisexuality (Exposed) Assisted in the blinding of Jenna Cavanaugh Witnessed the murder of Tabitha Clark Hid out in her sister's dorm room while pregnant (Exposed) Gave birth to a daughter and put her up for adoption (Exposed) Molested by Mr. Emily Catherine Fields is one of the four main characters of the Pretty Little Liars book series written by the author Sara Shepard. Favorite things: Corny swimming t-shirts and the friendship bracelet Courtney gave her and "Alison DiLaurentis". Emily was best friends with "Alison" DiLaurentis in middle school and even loved her romantically.
In "Killer" she is convinced that she saw Ali when a fire decimates the woods behind Spencer's house. Emily dated Ben for a while in the first book, but ended up not liking him as much because she was interested in girls.
Emily dates Isaac in the book "Wicked" but breaks up with him in the book "Killer," because he won't believe her when she finds a picture of her face cut out in his mom's drawer. Isaac later comes to her and tells her that he knows she was telling the truth and that he wants to get back with her, but she refuses.
Emily dated Maya in the first four books, and they had a really strong romantic relationship with each other, but they ended up because Maya catches Emily with Trista Taylor, a girl from Iowa who Emily met while staying with family, and breaks off the relationship. Emily and Trista flirted with each other in Unbelievable, but it didn't lead to them dating. This item will be sent through the Global Shipping Programme and includes international tracking. Most purchases from business sellers are protected by the Consumer Contract Regulations 2013 which give you the right to cancel the purchase within 14 days after the day you receive the item. By clicking Confirm bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Programme terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. By clicking 1 Click Bid, you are agreeing to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. So here are some of my favorite teen mystery books and series – some are already well known, while others are new publications. This series includes currently 6 books, plus a shortner novella, each focusing on an adventure of a young Sherlock Holmes starting at the age of 14, set in 1868. There is lots of action, tension and suspense in these books, and for anyone who enjoys reading about Sherlock Holmes, or even loves watching the TV series with this character in center stage, these book will be a great addition to their collection. Some might not agree with me here, but I’m telling you, the Pretty Little Liars books are a heck of a mystery series worth reading.
Currently there are 16 main books in the series (14 published, with 2 more on the way this year, as well as 2 additional shorter novellas), so there is plenty of reading material for a long hot summer of fun and reading. You can check out the Pretty Little Liars series  on Amazon, all books are on Kindle right now. The books are about the Angel family, a very wealthy family with a lot of skeletons in their proverbial closets.
Here is another fun mystery series worth checking out for teens, pre-teens and any age before and after. Here is Lois Duncan’s page at Amazon with a listing of all her currently published books. I will add more great mystery books for teens as I add them to my reading list or by others recommendations. The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible.
Pretty Little Liars on ABC is an exhilarating television series that will keep your attention from the first few seconds until the final scene.
The series also decided to “forget” some characters.For example, when Emily is an only child in the show, it turns out in the bookshe actually has a younger sister named Carolyn. This page lists many of the differences between Pretty Little Liars books and the Freeform TV series of the same name. Spencer is a very intelligent girl in both the books and the TV show but in the books, as A starts stalking the girls she starts doing stupid things. In the show, Ali encourages Hanna to purge occasionally, but in the books, she has a more serious issue; bulimia.
In the show, Aria and Ezra have a long going relationship, while in the books the two have a brief relationship, while Ezra is still her teacher. In both the show and the books, Emily has a crush on Ali, and goes on to date Maya once she admits to herself that she likes girls. The major difference with Jenna in the show and the books is that she is portrayed as more of a victim, rather than the perpetrator. In the show, Jenna would make Toby have sex with her, but in the books it was the opposite, he would molest Jenna all the time and she was too scared of him to say anything.
In the show Ian hooked up with Spencer and Ali while he was dating Melissa for the first time, but in the show they portray him as a man with anger issues who tries to kill Spencer.
Among the interesting things that came to light was that no matter how you break down the combination of “best selling” and “diversity representation” the Pretty Little Liars book series by Sara Shepard is a major player at that intersection.
Over the course of 16 books (with a few more on the way) Emily has questioned her sexuality, questioned it again, and had serious relationships with both boys and girls. The girls fall along pretty typical teen lines — Aria is the artsy one, Hanna is obsessed with fashion, Spencer is an uptight overachiever. Early on in the first book, Shepard makes it clear that Emily is lukewarm about physical contact with her boyfriend Ben but much more heated up over the new girl in town, Maya. Just as her parents accept her and she reunites with Maya, Emily finds herself attracted to a boy, and a devoutly Christian boy at that. Some girls who are bi really have to figure out how to handle the fact that they’ve already struggled to get people to understand their same-sex attraction, and now they have to struggle to get people to understand that’s not the whole story. The other girls’ complicated sexual and romantic relationships, and their own secrets — eating disorders, explosive tempers, older men — are painted with the same broad, salacious and admittedly entertaining brush as Emily’s story. And by adjusting some of the racial lines and socioeconomics of Rosewood, the show manages to ground the world of Pretty Little Liars in a warmer, slightly more realistic landscape.
Because I know everything about the bad girls they were, the naughty girls they are, and all the dirty secrets they've kept.
Alison mysteriously disappears during a sleepover with the girls in the summer before 8th grade. Aria returns to Rosewood from a 3 year trip to Iceland with her family and comes back much more sophisticated than before she left. They automatically believe it is their missing friend, Alison, because she is the only one each of them confided in regarding their darkest secrets.
The brunette is very eager to have sex with her boyfriend, but with each attempt at intimacy he becomes more distant.
It's a strange but refreshing feeling and she often catches herself looking at Maya in a more sensual manner.
Wren's a bit intimidated by the Hastings' intense attitudes but finds that Spencer does not have the same need to appear perfect. The brunette sees the two adults enter the Marin household with their arms wrapped around each other.
Roland (Exposed) Didn't tell Isaac Colbert about their Daughter Accompanies the "Merry Elves" on their biggest prank. At a big swim meet, flyers with a picture of Emily and Maya kissing are passed out among the crowd. Even with her friends' skepticism, Emily refuses to give up hope that Alison is still out there. She hid in her sister's college dorm and worked at a restaurant that provided health insurance. Ben teased her and tormented her about being gay but she ended up ignoring him and also hurt him. She loses her virginity to him and is banished from his mother's house when his mom finds out. She discovers she is pregnant with their child and places the baby up for adoption when she is born in the summer.

She even wrote a letter professing her love to her, which she didn't send because she was afraid. Emily was the first one Ali, at first pretending to be Courtney, told about her true identity.They were supposedly in love with each other, showing their affection to each other by kissing or making out.
She pushes her younger sister Grace in the baby carriage outside of Spencer's home, while Emily walks outside to take a break from coatcheck at Veronica's party. Find out more about your rights as a buyer - opens in a new window or tab and exceptions - opens in a new window or tab.
By clicking Confirm bid you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder.
Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount.
I got an email a few days ago with a request to list some young adult mystery books that this growing generation can also read. Some are old school mysteries, while others are recent publications by known and new authors. In the first book Sherlock, who so far has lived a normal life, is sent to his aunt who lives in Hampshire, and here is when he comes across a first murder…murder that he has to solve, of course. However he has also started recently to write a young adult mystery series called Confessions. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.
When the show took a break this September, I decided that I wanted to read the books to see what they were like. In the book Spencer has blonde hair and Hannah has brown hair, but in the show, Spencer and Hanna switch hair colors.
At the end of Flawless, Tobyis found dead after everyone accuses him of being “A.” He committed suicide leaving a note stating all his motives for dying.
I found it really interesting that even the writer of the novels says she looks forward to seeing the show. I agree with Meg above, that it's interesting that Sara Shepard says she enjoys watching the shows based on her books. I would not of expected Sara Shepard to be happy about her work being completely changed just for a t.v. I feel like I would enjoy the TV show and the different plot lines because then I can get into both rather than reading and watching the same exact thing.  I also think that I might get them confused and not rememeber which characters and situations go with the book or TV show.
I have never read the books or seen the show and I really didn't feel the need to watch because I heard everyone talking about the next day so I knew the basic plot line anyways.
However, after reading your blog, I am more interested in seeing the whole series of episodes, and reading the books.
She is later admitted to a mental hospital, the Preserve at Addison-Stevens by her father when he finds out about her past with bulimia, which doesn't occur in the TV series.
However, in the books, when Emily's parents find out about her relationship with Maya, they send her to her aunt's house in Idaho as a punishment. After Ali's disappearance, however, she and Hanna become best friends and climb to the top of the social ladder.
When Alison accidentally blinded Jenna she blackmailed Toby into taking the blame; if he didn't she would tell everyone what he had done to Jenna. In the books he and Spencer never like each other after he started dating Melissa after Ali's disappearance. The fact that Emily and her complicated queerness are an integral part of one of today’s most popular young adult series is interesting. And Emily (perhaps too typically for the one who ends up kissing girls) is the sporty one, a swim champion and good girl a little bored with the straight(laced) life. Over the course of the next few books, Emily breaks up with her boyfriend, begins a relationship with Maya, and reveals that her friendship with Ali involved a little more-than-friendly kissing, all the while being tormented about her big gay secret by the ubiquitous A. And, although she is clearly depicted as feeling attracted to girls and guys, the character doesn’t actually use the word bisexual to describe her identity. And it is undeniably something notable in queer representation to have a bisexual main character (and the many queer girls she falls for) in a best selling young adult series. The result is an incredibly likable character that is both easier to relate to and easier to admire than she is in the books. Rounding out the cast and the plots with a variety of characters that are equally likeable and suspicious, the show simultaneously keeps things mysterious and gives viewers a community that is a bit more diverse than in the books. Rose lives with her wife in northern Manhattan; they are currently  foster moms to two awesome kids. She meets and kisses a guy in a local bar who is revealed to be her English teacher, Ezra Fitz. However, they are shocked when the police find her corpse buried in the gazebo of her former house.
Wonder what your mom would think if she found out about your dad's little, uh, study buddy . The next morning, just after Ali's body is found, Aria returns to Ezra's house to get her phone. The swimmer begins to second-guess being with her boyfriend; she wonders if she's really happy with Ben or just doing what everyone expects her to.
Spencer notices her older sister staring at them from a short distance and the older Hastings appears with a calm yet cold demeanor. Ashley told her previously that she would handle the situation, but Hanna had no idea that this was how she would do it. After the funeral, she started to push her girlfriend away again, desperate to keep her sexuality quiet. Isaac is Emily's first sexual relationship with a male after experimenting sexually with females, making her bisexual.
Although Ali was just manipulating Emily by using her old feelings for Courtney to her advantage so she can continue her revenge plan. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. Now with summer almost here, once all exams are over and done with, mystery and crime books, which have nothing to do with study books mind you, will be all the rage among the young folk who do love reading rather than playing computer games all day long.
Currently there are 3 books in the series (2 published and a third one available from this October). Gilda is a professional psychic investigator who solves mysteries that she comes across – which are quiet a lot, I might add.
Btw I love the covers, they are really awesome, especially if you have the books in paperback.
It is a fun series about Tory and her ragtag band of teenage “sci-philes who enjoy solving crimes in their own strange ways.
I could not believe they managed to fit the entire first book into less than an hour of television. Also, in the book Emily is a ginger which differs a lot from her character in the movie with sleek black hair. When I read about his suicide, I was shocked, because in the show, Toby is alive and doing better than ever. If you see any other differences with the first two books or just want to say something feel free to comment! I wouldn't expect the author to even watch the show regularly, I feel like if I were the writer it would make me sad when people change my words. I would think that she would be at least a little upset, if not mad, that the directors of the PLL TV series completely changed the storyline. I'm a little sad that you mentioned there's no Caleb in the book since he is a great character on the show, but thanks for pointing out the differences and I can't wait, still. Your blog makes the books sound really interesting and I'll definitely add them to my list of books to read! Later, while taking summer courses at a university, she starts to develop a drug addiction from a drug nicknamed Easy A, which she buys from a guy named Phineas who is later revealed to be part of the A-Team. In the books, she is also in a serious relationship with Mike Montgomery, Aria's brother, while in the TV show it was a one time fling. Another similarity between both versions of Pretty Little Liars, is that Mona is the first A, but with different motives. In the show, it is actually Toby who is molested by Jenna, although he is still blamed for the Jenna Thing and sent to juvenile detention in Maine. Spencer thought he was A so she was glad when he was held responsible for Ali's death and sent to prison, but while he's away she realizes he's not the killer. The fact that the arc of the entire series is arguably fueled by the tension inherent in young feminine characters actively embracing their sexuality is fascinating. Emily is eventually publically outed by A, rejected by her family and sent away to a conversion camp for de-gaying. And maybe she’s not bi, maybe she’s pansexual or fluid or would prefer some other identity marker.
The book ends with the liars receiving a text at Alison's funeral saying, "I'm still here, bitches. At this point his patience with her runs out and he tells her she's not the type of girl he wants to be with. Interestingly, many of the other swimmers suggested that the two should go out, which makes Emily further question if she really wants to be with Ben. While he attempts to keep the relationship from going any further, he eventually gives in and hooks up with Aria again. Emily is very naive at times and lets her love for Ali get in the way of her logic thinking.
She's always been very obedient to her parents and has tried to fit in as a 'normal girl' as much as she could. The pictures from the photobooth all showed them kissing, so she was very paranoid even though Maya supposedly has the only copy of the photos.
They are homophobic and her mother had revealed a racist attitude when she found out that Maya's family was black.
There, she discovers that Officer Darren Wilden was a member of the community and dated the sister of the girl she was staying with. She has a hard time telling Isaac about the baby and tries to at a restaurant but is interrupted by Isaac's mom, who still has a hatred for Emily. Chloe is the new girl in Rosewood, having moved into the old Cavanaugh house, so Emily shows her the ropes. My neighbor’s daughter, who is now 16 has all the books in paperback nicely aligned on her shelf.

Locked In Time, Don’t Look Behind You, The Third Eye, I loved each book, and I can warmly recommend them all. While the producers were doing all this condensing, they clearly missed a few key points… and people. But also I find it interesting that there is such a difference between the two, while still staying the same. I would of thought she would be sad that she was being replaced with the people who write the show.
I think Sara Shepard should have stopped the series after Killer  just because it got really long and started not to make any sense.
I thought it was funny how even the author didn't know what was going to happen with the show! She then goes on to frame her roommate, Kelsey, for drug possession to avoid getting herself into trouble.
She also has brown hair and brown eyes in the books, while having blonde hair in blue eyes in the TV series.
In the books, she wants revenge for all the years the girls treated her badly, but in the show, she is angry at the girls for stealing Hanna from her.
The fact that it’s all wrapped up in a fashion conscious, murder happy prep school setting is just damn fun.
When their queen bee Ali went missing a few years ago, they drifted apart to their personal dramas.
But without seeing the character discuss it further, the takeaway for the reader is a bit muddied, and Emily’s position on the spectrum of sexuality depends on how much of her story you read.
Google Paige McCullers!) have been handled with care and dexterity, snagging the show two GLAAD award nominations for Outstanding Drama Series in its four season run. A had apparently sent Aria more texts throughout the night; Ezra read them, believing that his student was playing him for a fool and telling her friends about their relationship. He also tells Hanna that she needs to respect herself more instead of throwing herself at him. He catches Emily kissing Maya in a photobooth at Noel's party and angrily tosses his drink on them.
She used Noel Kahn, also an AP English student, to make Ezra jealous and it worked wonderfully. She's on the swimming team at Rosewood Day, her boyfriend Ben Coogan is on the male team, and she spends a lot of her spare time with her family.
Her now ex-boyfriend starts to taunt her with his teammates when they see her and he even sexually assaults her a few times. Once Emily gets home, her parents order her to enroll in a reforming program for gay people called Tree Tops or else she would be sent to Iowa to stay with her austere relatives. Darren's girlfriend went missing after the two went on rumspringa and Emily starts to believe her body was found and not Ali's.
At first Emily was thrilled with Gayle but at time wore on she discovered that Gayle was a little crazy. After Emily gets a frantic text telling her that "A" has her baby, she runs to Gayle's home, not knowing it's her house at first and it's where "A" told her where the baby was. Emily still has feelings for her in the later books, even after she discovers her duplicity.
She then starts dating Emily later on and it's later revealed that Jordan is wanted by the police for stealing and her real name is Katherine DeLong.
Chloe becomes friends with Emily at a critical time when she is feeling particularly friendless after the fallout with the summer in Jamaica. To start off, the descriptions of the characters Aria, Hanna, Spencer, and Emily in the book differ from the show. Emily is still an amazing swimmer, Hanna is the queen bee, Aria remains artsy and Spencer is still the perfect straight A athelte. Often I would tell someone about Hanna’s lover Caleb andthey would just stare at me blanky and respond with “Who’s Caleb?” Another key difference from the first book and the show is allison’s disapearrance. It is most definitely NOT what happened with Percy Jackson, but the last Harry Potter was very good at staying by-book.
In fact, I read the books first before I watched the TV show, and it's been a couple of years since I've read the original story. I found it weird when she said that even she was excited to see what would happen and who was A. I watched out for all the subtle differences mentioned in this blog and it was a great way to introduce me to the show. You should still read the series and see what you think but I think it is not as good as the TV show.
Aria also almost elopes with a guy named Hallbjorn, who she met during her stay in Iceland. In the books, Maya's death never takes place, so Emily never meets nor kills Nate (aka Lyndon). In the books, she ends up falling off a cliff to her death, while in the show, she falls off the same cliff but ends up in a mental hospital until released. After going to a dance together, Toby thinks Emily has found out about his big secret, raping Jenna, so he goes into the woods and commits suicide. But when they start receiving menacing messages from “A” who seems to know all their deepest darkest secrets, they find themselves involved in each other’s lives again, trying to figure out who has it in for them and what really happened to Ali.
Aria becomes so upset and dazed that she bites Ezra's hand before he screams at her to leave his house. Not wanting to deal with her even more conservative relatives, Emily agrees to enroll in the program and avoids her girlfriend for good measure. She hears a baby crying and runs to where the baby is only to see a shadow, then a gun shot. In thebook allison goes missing in the summer before eighth grade, and is not founduntil three years later, while in the show, Allison just goes missing for ayear. Like everyone else, I thought it was interesting that the author was looking forward to the show. That being said, I think I'm way too addicted to this show. She is later thought to be dead in the show in season 5, however, it is revealed that A, Charlotte DiLaurentis, captured her and took her to the Dollhouse, forcing her to dress and act like Ali.
This secret cost her her life, when Alison came back and killed her just as she killed Ian.
In the show, after becoming friends with Emily, he goes on to date Spencer and ends up falling in love with her. She kissed Alison when they were in 7th grade, but she figured it was a special infatuation on her part.
At first she is very wary of the once troubled boy, but she warms up to him after they have a few conversations and eventually she starts to date him. Emily and Courtney become close friends and the latter reveals that she is actually Alison. She gave birth to baby girl, snuck out of the hospital, returned Gayle's money and gave the baby to the couple. Well anyways, I thought that the differences you mentioned were so different they almost seemed to be different stories. In the TV show, she is on the smaller side, with brown hair and hazel eyes, while in the books, she is described to be tall, with black hair and blue eyes.
The two hook up and Emily becomes pregnant, and she has a baby girl who she gives up for adoption. Hanna battles the urge to turn back to bulimia, and struggles to manage the stress of keeping her queen bee status. However, when a new family moves into the DiLaurentis home, she finds herself falling for the new girl, Maya St.
In "Crushed", Emily still has feelings for her, and makes a tweet saying that she wishes she could go to prom with her "true love", hoping Jordan will see it. When Chloe walks in on her father grabbing Emily after her swim meet, she becomes enraged and blames Emily to whatever extent for the encounter.
However, I kind of like the fact that the "A" in the TV series is not the same one as in the books, so it's still a completely exhilarating mystery to me.
Then again, making the show different from the book gives everyone a chance to be surprised at who A is, so no one can spoil it for anyone.
In the book series, she has dirty blonde hair and green eyes, while in the TV show, she has brown hair and brown eyes. Spencer continues to struggle in her long-standing rivalry with Melissa Hastings, her perfect older sister.
However, things go sour on the night of a dance at Foxy when she and Toby talk about Alison. The two lose their virginity together and his mother is not pleased with her son's new friend. Jordan does, and tweets back under an anonymous name, telling Emily to expect a surprise on prom night at 10pm.
She turns sinister and threatens to expose Emily's secret child, who she gave up for adoption, but Emily convinces her to back down, promising to keep Mr. In the show, she has tan skin and brown eyes, while in the books, she has reddish hair, green eyes, and lots of freckles. She was very hesitant to get involved with Maya as she is a bit ashamed of not being solely attracted to boys. He bitterly states that he's glad she's dead and makes a few other remarks that leads Emily to believe he's "A", an anonymous entity who has been terrorizing her and her old friends Spencer Hastings, Aria Montgomery, and Hanna Marin with dark secrets only known by Ali.
When Ali reveals that the twins knew Courtney as "Ali" all along and that she killed her twin for stealing her life in Rosewood, Emily doesn't want to believe it. After he finds a picture of them in his kitchen with Emily's head cut off, he apologizes but she doesn't want to date him anymore. She confronts Ali as the girls try to escape a fire started by the vengeful DiLaurentis twin. Emily hopes that she can resume her friendship with Chloe, but the latter is not interested and walks out on Emily's party, celebrating her swim scholarship win thanks to Mr. Later, Emily buries a bunch of photos of herself and Courtney next to her old friend's grave.
In a last letter addressed to Emily, he discusses his guilt over molesting his stepsister Jenna Cavanaugh.

Name numerology calculator cheiro umbigo
Daily horoscope 2012 indian astrology zone
Number to call dubai taxi

Comments to «Listen to pretty little liars books online free»

  1. xXx_3X writes:
    Studying this,you understand what you off this lifetime being overly fill.
  2. RAMIL writes:
    His life to the study why does the IB not.
  3. Roya writes:
    Any case within fourteen (14.
  4. NEW_WORLD writes:
    Give 7 folks the chance to be in contact with the.
  5. ELSAN writes:
    So, tarot card reading certainly offers a great platform for the compatibilitiesVirgo.