06.07.2015

Name two reading strategies

It is obvious that on a map of so small a scale we cannot hope to find any points of minute interest in the delineation of those parts of the world which were at that time comparatively well known.
The peninsula of Hindustan is laid down with tolerable correctness, not differing much, although with far fewer insertions of names, from its representation in the 1511 map of Bernardus Sylvanus (#318) of Eboli in the kingdom of Naples, when the discoveries of the Portuguese had already made them acquainted with the outline of that country.
Thus much for the east coast of Africa with respect to Madagascar itself we have the island laid down, but without a name. It is in America, the scene of active and progressive exploration, that we find the special value and interest of the da Vinci globe gores, as well as the means of more clearly fixing its approximate date.
The question, as to whether England or Spain may claim the priority in the discovery of Florida, has given rise to many contradictory statements. The other West Indian islands, not indicated by names, may all be without hesitation accepted as amongst the discoveries of Columbus. With respect to the delineation of South America on the map of Leonardo, the peculiar form of the map itself renders it difficult to trace the form and sequence of all the names which I shall have to refer to, I will, for clearnessa€™ sake, take them in the order in which they occur on the north coast of South America westward from St. The next name, Plaia, is doubtless the equivalent of the Portuguese word Praya, which simply signifies a€?a shorea€?.
For the intervening name, Palinmot, Major finds an equivalent in the Palinmete of Codazzi, occupying the same position, but not in any preceding map or book. The next name that we encounter in our progress westward on the map of Leonardo is Santa Marta itself, which is the name of an important province lying eastward of the Rio Grande de Magdalena, and including the mountains of the same name. The two remaining names are Angla and Mastilca; the latter may be construed to mean the Mosquito Coast, which was visited by Columbus during his fourth voyage in the month of September, 1502. Now for the names as they occur on the east coast of South America, southward from Cape St. The last name which occurs on the east coast of South America is Cananea, which lies in 25A° 5a€™ south latitude, and by its position presents great difficulties with reference to the latitudes stated by Vespucci to have been attained by him in the last two of his four voyages. The da Vinci drawing possesses one feature peculiar to itself, with respect to the indications of discovery westward and northward as to the continent of America. The map shows indications of having been first drawn in pencil, suggesting the great likelihood of its being a copy from the work of another, and by an Italian, since the names in Spanish are not only Italianized in the spelling, but are in some cases so grossly misspelled as to indicate misreading of names from their form as written in Spanish, and in others the misapprehension of the form of name as uttered verbally. Major writes about the probable personal connection between the two distinguished Florentines, Leonardo da Vinci and Amerigo Vespucci through various existing correspondence. Until the year 1832, the earliest known manuscript map containing the delineation of America was one of the date of 1527, now in the military library at Weimar; it is earlier by two years than the map of Diego Ribero (#346), in the same library.
In 1508, in an edition of Ptolemy published at Rome, appeared the first engraved map containing the new world, by Johann Ruysch (#313).
The first place in which we find the name of America used a little further a-field, is not, as has hitherto been stated by Humboldt and others, in the Pomponius Mela of 1522, but in the edition of that work of 1518.
Areolodo is a manifest mis-spelling for Arboleda, a grove or plantation of trees.A  Grana occupies the position of the peninsula of Paraguana, the Indian name of Cape San Roman, which protrudes twenty leagues into the sea.
The gores are drawn as equilateral triangles, each representing one eighth of the eartha€™s surface, not as bi-angles, which is the usual form for early globe gores. These parts, of course, thus form equilateral triangles, each side of which is an arc of a circle, of which the opposite point is the center.
In the easternmost parts of Asia we see Cathay and Mangi of Marco Polo, on what is freely described as the Smanrni Situs, and also Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu, here misspelled Zipugna, intended to represent Japan. In Africa we find, as might be expected, the west coast delineated with tolerable accuracy, but with comparative emptiness of description on the eastern side; the only internal feature being the river Nile, with the river and two lakes from which it was supposed to take its source, laid down as in Ptolemy and the Portuguese maps of the time, in a latitude much nearer to the Cape of Good Hope than to the equator.
Melinda was the northernmost point attained by Vasco da Gama in his northward passage along that coast. It was in 1500 that the Portuguese, in their reconnaissance of the coast of Zanzibar, became acquainted with the island of Madagascar, although Marco Polo had previously spoken of it under the name of Magaster.
For the English, the honor has been claimed for Sebastian Cabot; and by the Spaniards, for Ponce de Leon.
Columbus died in the belief not only that the newly found continent was part of Asia, but also that Cuba was part of Japan, or the Zipangu of Marco Polo. Augustine, and in a second series along the east coast of that continent southward from the same point. Augustine itself it can simply be said that it was first seen in January, and again in April, of the year 1500 by Vicente Yanez Pinzon, Diego de Lepe, Alonzo Yelez de Mendoza, and Pedro Alvarez Cabral. The Tanabacoa of Leonardoa€™s map is identified with the Tamaragua of the map of Johann Ruysch, in the 1508 edition of Ptolemy (#313), where it is represented as an island, which, in the Tabula Terre Nove by Hylacomilus, inserted in the 1513 edition of Ptolemy published at Strasburg (#320), has its name reduced to Eiqua, and is in all probability the island of Aruba. The discovery of this country had been attributed to Eodrigo Bastidas, in the voyage that he made with the pilot Juan de la Cosa, ranging from October, 1500, to September, 1502; but this claim was contested by Alonzo de Hojeda, who claimed the discovery for himself in his second voyage, which occupied from January, 1502, to January, 1503.
Vespucci and Hojeda did not sail so far westward in their voyage between May and September, 1499; but, as just shown from Encisoa€™s account, this coast was visited in 1501 by Eodrigo de Bastidas. It appears to be Arifep which may be intended for the Punto de Arecife, Anglice Reef Point, which is given in a similar locality on the fifth map of Kunstmanna€™s Atlas zur Entdeckungsgeschichte Amerikas, Miinchen, 1859.
In this voyage Columbus explored the coast from Honduras to the Puerto de Mosquitos, at the western extremity of the Isthmus of Panama.


Another potential connection between the map of the former and the writings of the latter a€”a connection the certainty of which is established by that surest of all tests, the repetition of a mistake. In 1832, however, was discovered the now famous map of the pilot Juan de la Cosa (#305), who accompanied Columbus in his second voyage in 1493, and Hojeda and Vespucci in their expedition of 1499. It does not bear the name of America; but it is proved, in common with Leonardoa€™s map, to have had a Vespucian origin, for it contains the remarkable word Abbatia.
The passage itself is to the following effect: Si Americam a Vespuccio repertam et earn Eoae Terrse partem quae terrse a Ptolemseo cognitse adjecta est ad longitudinis habitatse rationem referimus, longfe ultra hemisphserium habitari terram constat, and occurs in a letter addressed by the editor Joachim Vadianus to Rudolphus Agricola at the end of his commentary on the ancient geographer, and this letter is dated from Vienna, 1512. Herrera, who, a few lines after, speaking of Cape de la Vela yet further west, says that it was so named by Alonzo de Ojeda when accompanied for the first time by Amerigo Vespucci, long after that coast had been discovered by el primer Almirante Columbus.
Major described the map as the oldest known on which the name America appears, giving as the probable date of construction the year 1514, which date is thought by Henry Harrisse to be five or six years too early. In the South Seas we have an indication, but without names, of Sumatra, and the Sunda Isles, which may have been gathered from Marco Polo, but which islands we also know from Barros and Galvao to have been visited, at the close of 1511, by the Portuguese captains Antonio de Breu and Prancisco Serrao, who were sent out to Banda and Malacca by Albuquerque, and who passed along the east side of Sumatra to Java, and thence by Madura, Bali, Sumbavaj Solor, & c. But as, at the time that this map was made, the passage of the Portuguese to India by the Cape of Good Hope had become a beaten track, it is not upon the delineations either of Asia or the west coast of Africa that we need rest for evidence as to the period of its construction, unless indeed we should find amongst the few names laid down on those countries any that might betray a later period than that which we should otherwise be led to ascribe to it; but this, upon examination, proves not to be the case. It was on the 15th of April, 1498, that he arrived there, and from that arrival may be traced the successful accomplishment of the magnificent dream that first had birth in the brain of the never-to-be-forgotten Prince Henry of Portugal, namely, the attainment of the coast of India by the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope. In the former name we have no difficulty in tracing the Terra de Bacalaos or country of the Codfish.
But, whatever may have been the southernmost point reached by Cabot in coasting America on his return, it is certain, that he did not land in Florida, and that the honor of first exploring that country is due to Juan Ponce de Leon. It was not till 1508, two years after his death, that Captain Sebastian de Ocampo proved it to be an island by sailing round it by the orders of Nicolas de Ovando.
Giovanni, for which I have not succeeded in finding any explanation either in history or in maps within a century and a half of the period of our map; but in the Nova et accurata Brasilise totius Tabula, by J. Majora€™s inference that Poriana is a mis-spelling for Coriana or Curiana is confirmed by the circumstance that the name is repeated further westward, beyond the name Ciribiceni, which is manifestly Point Chiriviche, off the mouth of the River Tocayo, near Porto Cabello; for beyond this same point one finds a similar repetition of the name of Coriana, represented as explored in 1500 by Hojeda and Vespucci, in the map of the coasts of Tierra Pirme, drawn up by Colonel Codazzi to illustrate the routes of Columbus and contemporary navigators. Giovanni, which can best be illustrated by a quotation from Acostaa€™s Descubrimiento y colonizacion de la Nueva Granada, in which he says, El dia 25 [de Setiembre, 1502] fonded la expedicion en cierta isla que los indigenes Uamaban Quiriviri y Colon Husita, a mas de legua y media de distancia de Cariay, poblacion que estaba situada a las margenes de un gran rio (probablemente San Juan de Nicaragua), i.e. The earliest occurrence of this name is in the form of Yilla de San Jorge in a corresponding position on the map of Brazil published by Jan Blaeu, in Amsterdam, 1662; and Father Cazal mentions the place in his Corografia Brazilica, but without allusion to the period at which the name was given.
Major feels bound to accept this fact as an indication of the map being posterior to the discovery of the Pacific by Vasco Nunez de Balboa, on the 25th of September, 1513. It has been seen that on the east coast of South America occurs the word Abatia, the real interpretation of which is the well-known name of Bahia de todos os Santos. It was this Juan de la Cosa of whom, according to the testimony of Bernardo de Sbarra, in a suit against Diego Columbus, the admiral complained that being hombre habil, andaba diciendo que sabia mas qued. In 1509 the name of America, proposed by Hylacomilus in 1507, appears, as if it were already accepted as a well-known denomination, in an anonymous work entitled Globus Mundi, printed at Strasburg in that year.
One of the first maps of the New World, either engraved or manuscript, hitherto known with the name of America inserted on it, is a mappemonde by Appianus bearing the date of 1520 (#331), annexed to the edition by Gamers of the Polyhistoria of Julius Solinus (Viennse Austr.
Giovanni, which can best be illustrated by a quotation from Acostaa€™s Descubrimiento y colonizacion de la Nueva Granada, in which he says,A  El dia 25 [de Setiembre, 1502] fonded la expedicion en cierta isla que los indigenes Uamaban Quiriviri y Colon Husita, a mas de legua y media de distancia de Cariay, poblacion que estaba situada a las margenes de un gran rio (probablemente San Juan de Nicaragua), i.e.
The usually adopted form of orientation is used, as shown by the word Cima being placed between the four converging points at the north, and the words La Bassa between the corresponding points at the south. In the sovereign of Melinda, Da Gama found a friend and a helper beyond all price; he supplied him with a Guzerat pilot, named Malemo Cana, or Canaca, who was not only perfectly acquainted with the navigation of the Indian Ocean as known at that period, but entered into the service of the Portuguese with so much loyalty and good faith that, after leaving the coast of Africa on the 28th of April, he brought them on the 17th of May in sight of that India which had been the subject of such ardent longings and such earnest efforts on the part of his countrymen for nearly a century. Lorenzo from the visit of the Portuguese Lorenzo Almeida, but it was not until 1506 that its coasts and capes and harbors were examined by Tristan da€™Acunha. The name of Bacalaos is the earliest we find applied to any part of North America subsequently to the Scandinavian voyages. This cavalier, who was governor of Puerto Rico, induced by the vague traditions circulated by the natives of the West Indies, that there was a country in the north possessing a fountain whose water restored the aged to youth, made it an object of his ambition to discover this marvelous region.
The Isabella of our map is manifestly intended for Hispaniola, although it is mistakenly so-called, as that name was originally given by Columbus to Saometo, now known as Long Island. Augustine along the northern coast of South America, is too vague to call for comment, as in Spanish it simply means a€?a cape,a€? and differs from the similar Portuguese word Angra, which is a€?a creek, bay, or station for shipsa€?.
This word, which is a mis-reading for Bahia, an abbreviation for Bahia de todos os Santos, is the most important of any on the face of the map for Major because it provides him with the most valuable link in connecting the map with the voyages of Vespucci. The earliest known map showing a similar indication is that of Johann SchA¶ner printed at Bamberg, 1520 (#328), but which at the same time presents this great difference from Leonardoa€™s map, that it contains the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and thus manifestly indicates a period considerably later. It is fortunate, for the avoidance of prolixity, that the examination of the origin of this mistake leads us, at the same time, into the history of the first suggestion of the name of America.
1520), and a second time to the edition of Pomponius Mela, by Vadianus, printed at Basle in 1522.
The North American region is represented by two islands, one of which bears the name Bacalar, the other Terra Florida. Its occurrence in this place agrees with the account of the Bachiller Martin Pernandez Enciso, who is said to have accompanied Bastidas in his voyage along this coast.


The scale is very small; but, though the insertion of names of places is consequently by no means abundant, a certain amount of care has been given to the delineation of the outline of the then known parts of the world.
It was on Sunday the 20th of May that, under the directions of his skilful pilot, Da Gama anchored off Capocata, two leagues below Calicut. We also find, on the map, what would seem, to judge from their relative position with regard to the north point of Madagascar, the Aldabra Islands; but, if the size rather than the exact position of the islands were to be accepted as a criterion, we might infer that the Comoro Isles were intended. It has been advanced by Father Cordeiro, in his Historia Insulana, that it was discovered in 1463, twenty-nine years before the first voyage of Columbus, by Joao Vas Cortereal, a nobleman of the household of the Infant Don Ferdinand of Portugal. With this view, he resigned the governorship, and set sail with three caravels on the 3rd of March 1512. It is true that Ruysch adds a legend apropos of the third voyage of Vespucci, to the effect that the Portuguese sailors had explored this part of the land, and had reached 50A° of south latitude without coming to the end of the continent; but, again, from Vespucci himself we get no intimation of a landing at Cananea.
Although, as Humboldt says, this work is anonymous, yet from the colophon, if not the author, at any rate from what quarter the book emanated. South America, a large island, has conspicuously inscribed the name America, together with a few prominent coast names.
In his Suma de Geografia, printed in 1519, the first Spanish book which gives any account of America, Enciso says, Desde Sancta Marta vuelve la costa al sur veynte leguas y en la vuelta [del] Cabo Sancta Maria esta Caria, que es la gente muy mala, y adelante esta Aldea grande. It has no meridians or parallels of latitude; but that is not to be wondered at, for numerous manuscript maps were made at that time, which have now disappeared, but which were drawn up, like this one, with the object of giving the picture of the discoveries without supplying navigators with any information as to the dangers or courses by the routes.
But, meanwhile, at the very time that this map was made, there was resident in Abyssinia a Portuguese, who was not only the first, since ancient times, to visit the coast of Abyssinia, but who also may be called the theoretical discoverer of the Cape of Good Hope. Further north, though still without name, we find what is doubtless meant for the Seychelles Islands.
Against the correctness of this statement we have the reasonable argument of the Baron von Humboldt, that, had this been the truth, so important a fact would scarcely have been omitted by Martin Behaim in the minutely detailed notes which are inserted in the globe which he constructed in 1492, and which is now at Nuremberg (#258). Steering NWN he came upon a country covered with flowers and verdure and, as the day of his discovery happened to be Palm Sunday, called by the Spaniards Pascua Florida, he gave it the name of Florida.
The name at first given to the newly-discovered land of South America was Terra de Santa Cruz, or Terra Sanctse Crucis.
This is the more remarkable as a pedrao or monumental stone bearing the arms of Portugal, but without the towers in the bordure, and with the date of 1503, was discovered in 1767 by Colonel Alfonso Botelho de Sousa, in the Island of Cardoso, off the Bar of Cananea ; and it is well known to have been the custom in more early days to place such boundary-marks to establish the right of possession. The solidity of this argument is confirmed by the fact that Cordeiro makes Cortereal to have been appointed Governor of Terceira on the 12th of April, 1464, while it is a certain fact that Jobst de HA?rter, the father-in-law of Behaim, only a few years after, went to the Azores, with the rank of Governor of the Flemish colony of Payal. He landed on the 2nd of April, and took possession of the country in the name of the King of Castile. The precise period of its replacement by that of Brazil is not known, but that it was before 1507 is shown by the occurrence of the latter name in Ruyscha€™s map (#313), which was made in that year, although not published till 1508. Research has hitherto been fruitless in the attempt to establish the exact date of the discovery of these islands. The truth would rather seem to be that the name of Bacalaos, which in the Basque language means codfish, was first given to Newfoundland, and then also to the countries which they found near that island, by the Biscayan fishermen, who frequented those coasts for codfish as early as the year 1504. The word a€?brazil,a€? which properly signifies a€?red dyewood,a€? was known in Europe long before the discovery of the New World, as is shown by two documents relating to tariffs of excisable goods.
Various dates have been assigned, but in none of the Portuguese authorsa€™ who address of the exploits of Pedro Mascarenhas in the Portuguese conquests in India does one find any allusion to the discovery of these islands.
The Biscayans pretend that a countryman of theirs, named Juan de Echaide, discovered the shores of Newfoundland many years before the New World was known, but there is no authority to prove it. One of them is from Ferrara, with the date of 1193; the other from Modena, with the date of 1306.
Now, this Adelphus was a physician, a native of Muhlingen, near Strasburg, who afterwards established himself in that city. One thing, however, is certain, that these islands were discovered, not only before the period of the da Vinci globe gores, but also before 1507, inasmuch as they are laid down in the map of Johann Ruysch, in the 1508 edition of Ptolemy (#313), where Mauritius bears the name of Dinarobin, and Bourbon that of Margabin, which means a€?western,a€? as rightly describing its more western position. But, as mentioned, in this same year, 1509, a re-issue of the Cosmographise Introductio, containing the first suggestion of the name of America, appeared from the press of this same Johann Gruniger, with the following words in the colophon, Johanne Adelpho Mulicho, Argentinensi, castigatore. It is a mistake, therefore, to suppose that the red dye-wood known as brazil-wood took its name from the country now called Brazil in South America. The converse was the case; for when the Portuguese discovered that that wood was growing in great quantities, and of excellent quality, in the newly-discovered country to which Pedro Alvarez Cabral had, when he first reached it in 1500, given the name of Terra de Santa Cruz, they within a very few years after gave the name of Brazil to the country itself.
The coincidence suggests the suspicion that Hylacomilus, the author of the suggestion, is the author also of its adoption; but, in any case, the idea presented to the mind by Humboldt of the denomination being well known on account of its insertion in the Globus Mundi, receives a serious modification, for the original suggestion and its adoption two years later are thus shown to emanate, almost to a certainty, from the same quarter. This same name had already been given on maps of the 15th century to an island near the Azores, which has been generally supposed to be equally imaginary with the islands of St.



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