30.03.2014

Popular books read in high school

Although many books have been written about the psychology of violence (as I learned during my days directing a program for court-referred perpetrators), Dr.
The same dynamic of denial applies to entire nationsa€”and goes far toward explaining why the a€?nicesta€? and most restrained people sometimes pick up a gun. Listening to the Rhino deals not just with outwardly expressed violence, however, but with confronting and transforming archetypal violence (as imaged by the dream figure of the Rhino) manifesting from within the psyche.
Following up on Jung's advice to translate emotions into images, Dallett writes about how a symptom or an illness, whether somatic or psychogenic (or both), represents an attempt at incarnation imparted by a spiritual force badly in need of translation from a literal source of suffering into an actively lived symbolic work. Active imagination furnishes a primary Jungian tool for this kind of deep work, but as Dallett reminds the reader, Marie-Louise von Franz always insisted on the importance of completing at least these four steps: setting the ego aside, tending the images, reacting to the images, and putting the results to work in life (italics added).
This belief may well be a candidate for what Dallett identifies in another context as a pathological identification with spirit: what Jung identified as inflation. In the chapter a€?Sedating the Savage,a€? Dallett presents many examples of how psychotropic medication represses unpleasant emotions while supporting artificial idealized states of happiness and surface contentment. While the matter of healing is a major theme of this book, the other is violence, and Dalletta€™s point here is that when violence is repressed it puts the individual and collective into grave peril. Dallett returns our attention to the potency of active imagination as a tool to activate the psychea€™s potential for literal physical healing as well as psychological wholeness. On the cover is a picture of a rhinoceros with two birds perched on its back, a classic example of a mutually beneficial biological symbiosis. Jungians are often the last bulwark in todaya€™s field of mental health practitioners, who remember the unavoidable reality and necessity of darkness and violence. We must develop an ego that is strong enough to contain the violent side of human nature, Dallett suggests, in order to live up to a€?what Jung saw as the millennial task (of) carrying the divine opposites of good and evil within the individuala€? (p.87).
To contain the worst kinds of violence, Dallett suggests that we find a way to give expression to our destructive impulses without causing too much harm. The gist of Dalletta€™s argument, however, points towards incorporating more of the almost lost Jungian technique of Active Imagination. The Rhino did not simply show up to heal the dreamer, but to inform her that she was to serve him. In Pat Britta€™s own words a€?During my early association with The Rhino, I could tell he wanted something of me, but I did not know what. In the alchemical laboratory of human life we are also mirrors for transformations on a larger scale, the transformation of the spirit in nature. Dallett reminds us that one-sidedness is one of our greatest dangers, be it the lopsided, misunderstood spirituality that denies the spiritual reality of violence or the overly rational slant of todaya€™s scientific community. We read in some detail here about the work of Jungian analysis, with special emphasis on active imagination, a method for bringing unknown parts of oneself into awareness and into connection with onea€™s everyday personality.
Seamlessly, the book then turns to two major topics of special concern in todaya€™s world: the nature of violence and the use of psychotropic drugs. While this discussion of violence focuses on the psychic sources of explosive violence, another section, on the use of psychotropic drugs, looks at contemporary uses of prescription drugs to damp down or cover up difficult, painful, unwelcome emotions (and violence). What we have in this small book is the fruit of a penetrating mind nourished by long experience of the psyche, and now offering us the essence of that experience, fueled by passionate concern over issues of todaya€™s world. Why is there so much violence around us - shootings in colleges, bullying in schoolyards, violent movies in theatres, graffiti in public spaces, news on television?
Janet Dallett is a Jungian analyst in her seventies, now living in Port Townsend, Washington.
Britt had hundreds of Rhino dreams in the course of her nine-year analysis with Dallettt, which always focused on the meaning of his latest appearance. Britt truly grasped the Rhino, writing poetry about him, painting his picture, and even casting him in bronze so he could stand in her front hall, and her damaged heart healed.
Dallett attributes Britta€™s healing to her commitment to the Rhino, a voice for what Jung calls the Self, the God within. We are doing to the wild part of our psyche what we have done to the wild parts of the earth.
DESCRIPTION: More or less elaborate diagram-maps, in the tradition of the early medieval world maps, were still being produced in the 14th and 15th centuries. This manuscript has the ownership inscription of John Wardeboys, who was abbot of Ramsey at the time of its dissolution in 1539. The world map of Higden, derived as usual from a variety of Roman sources, is found in the first book, and some 21 extant examples can be traced to the 1342 London manuscript of the Polychronicon for which stemmata have been developed by Konrad Miller, with modifications by R.A. Higden began work on the Polychronicon early in the 1320s and regularly updated it until his death in 1363.
There is no evidence that Higden himself, unlike his famous predecessor, the chronicler Matthew Paris (Book II, #225), was particularly cartographically literate. The map that Higden finally selected for what is now the Huntington Library manuscript HM 132 was probably an already rather ancient model.
Detail of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, from Ranulph Higdena€™s Polychronicon, England, c. There is no pictorial illustration on the Huntington map apart from the depiction of Adam and Eve in Paradise and two dogsa€™ heads outside the map.
The absence of any explicit connection between illustration and text brings to mind the acute observation made by Rudolf Wittkower in relation to the divergence between the illustrations and the text in 15th century copies of Marco Poloa€™s travels: a€?No medieval artist aimed at a descriptive illustration of a text. In the course of the 1340s - possibly before Higden had selected a map to fill the space left in the text for it - a copyist, perhaps working for Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdonshire, created a larger, more detailed and better-executed world map, which illustrates the text much more fully. If evidence is needed of the decline of cartographic consciousness in England in the second half of the 14th century - perhaps as a consequence of the Black Death pandemic of 1348 a€“ one needs also to bear in mind that only twenty of the surviving 120 or so complete Polychronicon texts in Latin (and only those of the intermediate text and its continuations) contain maps. See also monograph #236.2, the Evesham world map, for additional information on Ranulf Higden. Detail of Noah in the ark with a ram, lion, and a stag, from Ranulph Higdena€™s Polychronicon, England, c.
An example of Higdena€™s mandorla or almond-shaped maps is shown here, perhaps representing a common Christian symbol of the aureole surrounding Christ. English manuscript map centered around Jerusalem and to be read from the north-west, in Ranulf Higden, Polychronicon, late 14th century, Oxford University MS. Dallett's clearly and concisely written book offers thoughtful and sometimes surprising reflections, case anecdotes, and scholarly musings on violence as a spiritual problem. It is easy for introverts in particular to skip the final step, but doing so severs inner from outer, contemplation from action. James Hillman has presented a similar critique, which can be summed up by the dictum: Silence the symptom and lose the soul. It is tiresome to be reminded that Jung believed active imagination to be the sine qua non of coming to terms with the unconscious. Oxpeckers or a€?tick birdsa€? sit on top of the rhino eating insects and noisily warn of approaching danger.
It contains big ideas that deserve to be pondered and digested many times and reading this book is an excellent way to re-engage this material. Dallett reminds us that the etymology of the word a€?violencea€? suggests a close relationship between violence and God.
Dallett makes a convincing case that our culturea€™s addiction to love, peace and happiness in effect creates senseless violence and that we must learn and find a way to teach our children, that the terrible side of life is not going anywhere. Dallett reminds us that, once a respectful and responsible attitude towards the unconscious psyche has been developed, the meditative dialogue of Active Imagination is the technique for the on-going and life- long task of engaging emerging images. Dallett grounds her reflections by allowing us a glimpse into the lives of two former patients, Pat and Teresa and she shows us the difference in attitude of these two women towards powerful inner animal dream figures.
Britt had this dream, but because she took the image seriously and engaged it for decades to come. It is a potentially dangerous, primitive animal that has visited the dreams and fantasies of Ms.
Dallett makes the analogy to the alchemical work, which Jung had translated into psychological terminology.
At first I thought his message was personal a€“ urging me to view life as whole, not with the limited eye of my rational ego.


Our collective ego is still trying to maintain its autonomy in relation to the larger mysteries while the power of the feminine in her own totality is pressing into consciousness. This discussion is unusually clear and thorough, giving a readable and rounded picture of this form of psychological worka€”both its potentiality for healing and its dangers. And why are we so fascinated by violence that crime, killing, and war are often at the top of the news? I hear him pronounce: a€?If a thing is worth doing it is worth doing easily!a€? By this he means, according to Britt, that if a thing is worth doing it is worth taking the time to get to know it, so the thing can show you how it wants to be done. When connected to your inner program something beyond the ego comes to your aid, but when you try to go against your destiny you hit a wall. Later she realized he wanted to reach a wider audience; he wanted to speak for life, all life, animals, plants and the earth itself. We North Americans have naively idealized the Christian virtues of kindness and self-sacrifice, dangerously repressing our so-called negative emotions.
We are sedating the suffering of body and soul with psychoactive drugs, unaware that pain is a reaction against something that needs to change. One of them, in various versions, appears in copies of a compendious and immensely popular universal Latin history book, the Polychronicon, written in the mid-14th century by Ranulf Higden, a Benedictine monk at Chester (ca. It is oriented with East at the top, Jerusalem near its center and the heads around the map represent the twelve winds. It depends largely on classical writings such as Plinya€™s Etymologia (especially as transmitted by earlier medieval writers and encyclopaedists, notably Isidore of Seville (Book II, #205), on medieval chronicles, on travel accounts such as those of Vincent of Beauvais, Giraldus Cambrensis and Marco Polo, on the Alexander legends and, above all, on the Bible. Other chroniclers contributed their own a€?continuationsa€™ to Higdena€™s text until after 1400.
Their occurrence or non-occurrence, however, is so apparently arbitrary and the design of most of them so unrelated to the text as to prompt questions about Higdena€™s attitude towards maps and about the nature and purpose of these so-called Higden maps. Almost certainly the now-lost original short version of the Polychronicon did not contain a map.
It presented the essentials of his worldview without the frills (such as the texts and illustrations relating to the Marvels of the East and to the Bible) found on the great 13th century world maps.
Only the principal cities, rivers, seas and provinces of the classical world are named, except in Western Europe where some medieval place-names appear.
In some ways this work resembles the great maps of the previous century with their descriptive texts. Even if a few of the other hundred mapless texts may originally have been accompanied by larger, separate maps - in the way that a copy of Gervase of Tilburya€™s Otia Imperialia may once have accompanied, explained and elucidated the Ebstorf world map (Book II, #224) a€“ the likelihood must be that most had none. Also criticized is the widespread habit of using meditation to get rid of (repress) the emotionally charged images flowing from the unconscious.
I would like to see this insightfully expressed logic extended more often to the state of the oppressed struggling on every side and in all corners of the world. The Indoa€“European root of the word a€?violenta€? is wei, which means vital force and one definition of the word God is a€?an immanent vital forcea€? (p.86). The reader is encouraged to reflect on seemingly counter-intuitive statements, such as a€?violence is the human spirita€™s protest against the enforcement of more goodness than it can stomacha€? (p.92). This suggestion, although fundamentally right, may need more elaboration than this book provides, because the danger of infection by archetypal forces is high and not to be taken lightly. With reference to Barbara Hannah, Dallett devotes a segment of the book to a much needed review of what Active Imagination is and discriminates what it is not.
We are informed on the front page that this book was written with contributions by The Rhino and by Dalletta€™s former patient Pat Britt. Dallett writes, a€?The Rhino has been the central figure in hundreds of Pata€™s dreams continuing still today. The alchemists believed that their work was to redeem God or the son of God, whom the alchemists imagined as a a€?fabulous being conforming to the nature of the primordial mothera€? (p. We are encouraged to look at the place within ourselves where we remain a€?fundamentalista€?, where spirit is trapped in a literal, concrete enactment, physical illness or cherished convictions of the nature of reality. The cover photo of a rhinoceros with two small birds casually perched on its back leads us into a text full of insight into both interior and outer worlds.
Only a profound understanding can put forth such subtle and complex ideas in such apparently plain talk. Britt had been so ill with bacterial endocarditis and kidney failure that she was expected to die in her early forties. However, if something is hard to do you should change your relationship with it, or let it go.
We are suppressing the healthy masculinity of normally active children with Ritalin, either because the way we are living is driving our children crazy or because they do not conform to our expectations. Not too surprising, in Britain (shown in the color red, lower left) there are more town symbols than are shown for all the rest of Europe.
Fourteen cities are represented and identified, including London, Winchester, Lincoln, Oxford, Worcester, Gloucester, Norwich, Northampton, York, and Exeter.
Commonly styled the Polychronicon which comes from the booka€™s longer title Ranulphi Castrensis, cognomine Higden, Polychronicon (sive Historia Polycratica) ab initio mundi usque ad mortem regis Edwardi III in septem libros dispositum, Higdena€™s Polychronicon became the most popular history book in medieval England and, as mentioned above, more than 120 manuscript copies survive today. Although Higden occasionally interjected stories and observations of his own, and sometimes criticized earlier authors, he was generally satisfied with their information. After a few years, however, Higden evidently concluded that a map would be appropriate, and the intermediate and final versions of the text specifically refer the reader to a map.
Furthermore, the one copyist of the 1340s who was sufficiently enthusiastic to create the more elaborate of the Ramsey Abbey maps, which closely corresponds to Higdena€™s text, was an isolated figure.
That the Caspian is not an inland sea but open to the ocean signals this depictiona€™s conservatism. Below them to the right is the Red Sea (colored red), interrupted by a label marking where Moses led the Hebrews to safely from Herod.
In my men's groups we always knew which men were at greatest risk for another violent incident: those who maintained that their anger was an aberration they had now overcome with penance and good intentions. An overemphasis on decency and virtue not only darkens the personal and collective shadow, it unconsciously identifies with divine goodness and thereby falls into inflation and self-righteousness.
These and other New Age maneuvers are enlisted in the service of propping up the happy persona that conceals the darker dimensions of conflictual psychic life.
Yet Dallett goes farther: Psychiatric medication should only be used to contain severe symptoms, she argues, preferably in small doses and even then only temporarily.
Most of the examples of violence in this book break forth from the uptight middle class, where swings are removed from parks to prevent lawsuits.
In Jungian thought, the Self, which is the psychological equivalent to the image of God, often breaks into consciousness violently. Active Imagination is not guided fantasy nor is it art, but, following Hannah, Dallett sees Active Imagination as a creative function. 28), an earthy, fabulous, night creature, like the Rhino, equally life threatening and life giving. We meet the rhino of the title as he first appears in the dreams of a gifted woman whom the author has known for more than 30 years, initially as her Jungian analyst. Rage, she says, is a natural instinctive response to a threat to the Self; violence is the human spirita€™s protest against the enforcement of more goodness than it can stand. That he was English may be significant given the English associations of the group of world maps that include the Ebstorf and Hereford maps (Book II, #224 and #226). In fact, there are some 39 castellated towns throughout the entire world map, 14 of which are in England alone, while there are only four throughout all the continent of Africa. The original manuscript of the earliest version is lost, but the copy that the Huntington Library possesses is now generally accepted as Higdena€™s working copy for the intermediate version, which contains the text up to 1327 with continuations recording events up to 1352. Unlike Paris, however, Higden was either unable or unwilling to create a map specifically for his description of the world. The map omits all legends, notably those referring to the Marvels of the East or to the Bible (with the exception of an indication of the passage of the Hebrews across the Red Sea) even though these are dealt with in detail in the text.
The other copyists became, if anything, less cartographically concerned than Higden and their maps even more conventionalized.


The text specifies that Gog and Magog will break out at the end of the world and do great damage, and that they were enclosed by Alexander. The small square islands near the middle of the page, set against a green sea, include Crete, Cyprus, Rhodes, and Sicily. As with illustrations, so with maps, Higden may have realized that the map he selected was not ideal, but he was not sufficiently cartographically sophisticated to be bothered by it.
In the light of this observation, the missionary and the terrorist stand revealed as brothers-in-arms.
Making a work of art, breaking a therapeutic impasse, or modifying a relationship are three of many possibilities for new forms of expression that liberate the archetypal power from remaining trapped a€?in mattera€? (in symptom or illness).
One can almost hear in popular a€?thinking positivea€? propaganda the voice of the family cheerleader castigating brothers and sisters for being so a€?depressinga€? as to discuss Dad's alcoholic violencea€”or on a national level, the violence inflicted by the precarious rule of empirea€”out in the open.
Although the alarm should be raised about overmedicationa€”psychotropics are even being found in public water suppliesa€”I have known people with major psychiatric disorders for whom the advice to go off meds to do a€?psychological worka€? has been disastrous. Dallett pleads us to acknowledge that the terrible in human life is real and that only by confronting it, by taking it by its horns, do we have a chance of not being controlled by it.
The Rhino represents an instinctual mercurial principle in psyche that holds the power to heal or to wound. The Rhino becomes an imaginal companion for Pat Britt and Dallett speculates that his a€?dependable presence may compensate the uncertainty of a life in which death is always at handa€? (p.33).
We follow the patienta€™s devoted inner work with the dream rhino, as he emerges into a living imaginative reality: mentor, opposite and guide, and we learn of the healing of her life-threatening physical illness. In Britta€™s initial dream, the dream that is thought to foretell the course of therapy, a small rhinoceros charges her, but she catches him by the horn and holds on.
If you can let it speak to you, and give it what it needs you will have an inner partner for the life that remains to you, however long or short that may be.a€? (p. Royalties, in part, go to the International Rhino Foundation, which helps to preserve the rhinoceros from extinction. As a testimony to its popularity, some 150 manuscript copies of the Polychronicon have survived and are illustrated by a world map, all having similar geographical content, although their individual form and shape vary considerably. Not all of these town symbols are the same, for instance Jerusalem, Rome, Babylon, and Santiago de Compostella (Spain) are quite unique, large cathedral-like drawings with considerable more detail than the other identified towns. Although he was evidently proud of Chester and of the English language, the tone of his text is not at all nationalist.
Skelton and David Woodward have all followed Konrad Miller (who, however, did not know of the Huntington Library map) in focusing their attention on this map from Ramsey Abbey. By the 1370s they were creating circular maps (or maps shaped like the aureoles often shown surrounding Christ in medieval art), which mostly lacked even the rudimentary coastlines and decoration shown on the Huntington Library Map. Higdena€™s work seems to have been very popular: around 185 Latin manuscripts traceable to Higdena€™s design. In this case, Higden himself is likely to have been responsible for the additions as well as the core text, and the Huntington Library manuscript, therefore, should be regarded as the most authoritative expression of Higdena€™s own intentions. Almost certainly his chosen map was a familiar image that, because of its very familiarity, would have been as acceptable to his readers as to himself in providing an illustration of the world. I am thinking of people legitimately diagnosed with bipolar disorder who took similar advice from their gurus and ended up psychotic; one, a former student, is still homeless and ranting in the streets.
As fantastic amounts of money continued to be funneled upward, the number of Americans living below the poverty line soars higher than ever before.
There is a story about the late Edward Edinger in which someone asked him, a€?What is new in Jungian psychology?a€? He replied, a€?New? Then I am reminded of the story of Edinger and his comments about what is old and what is new in Jungian psychology.
Instead she asks us to recognize violence as an intrinsic aspect of the collective psyche, one that must find expression and that does have a purpose as when a€?the Self often breaks into consciousness in ways that are violent, primitive, even monstrous. The unconscious is a minefield of devastating, destructive potentials, but without venturing, and at times suffering this minefield, there is no way of getting to the treasures.
In Pat Britta€™s case, it was the spirit released from a life threatening illness that took the image of this large, gravelly voiced Rhino. Finally we see that this work gives the former patient her independence of analysis and analyst. On some the map is circular, on some a pointed oval (vesica piscis [fish bladder] or mandorla type), and on some it is a rounded oval. Book I is devoted to a geographical description of the world, while Books 2 through Book 5 encompass the history of the world. It is surely significant, as John Taylor has pointed out in his The Universal Chronicle of Ranulf Higden (1966), that several of the later copies of the earliest version have a blank folio - or a completely unrelated piece of text - at the end of the prologue to the first book - exactly where the map is to be found in the Huntington Library manuscript.
Undoubtedly it is relatively more informative than the Huntington Library map, i??but there are major problems in terming it the Higden map, as has been the practice.
The relatively high level of map consciousness and cartographical skill that had distinguished England and the English in 13th century Europe had sunk low.
The oval shape of Higdena€™s maps and its simplification, the vesica piscis, is a particular characteristic of his, but not original. Undoubtedly it is relatively more informative than the Huntington Library map, but there are major problems in terming it the Higden map, as has been the practice. I have also known people with schizophrenia who could never hold down jobs or attend school without some kind of long-term antipsychotic medication. People still dona€™t understand the old.a€? Author Dallett might heartily agree with this sentiment.
He speaks to our desperate post-modern world, saying we must turn away from our arrogance and learn again to live with the rhinos, the crocodiles, and all the natural, instinctive forms of life a€“ now, before they are gone, leaving us alone, alienated, and doomed to extinctiona€? (p.37). The circular Higden maps are thought to be simplifications of the earlier oval maps, and they certainly appear in later manuscripts. What's important in such cases is to prescribe a correct and accurate dosage not only to contain extreme symptoms but to make psychological work possiblea€”work that includes dealing with the psyche's responses to the need for medication.
If the Self in such sufferers is enraged, social constraints and injustices give it excellent reason to be, for as Martin Luther King pointed out long ago, a riot [like a symptom] is the language of the unheard. In her latest offering she reanimates many penetrating insights from Jung and reminds us that they are as cogent and urgent now as when Jung first presented them.
In response to her dream, the woman took up the task of relating to the unconscious through art, dialogue with the rhinoceros and study of dreams. The cities of Rome and Jerusalem are always prominent, but are rarely placed in the center of the map. Second, the inclusion in the same manuscript of another simpler map that is closely related to the Huntington Library map and may, therefore, be a slightly later addition to the Ramsey Abbey copy of the Polychronicon, suggests a loss of confidence on the part of the copyist - a feeling, perhaps, that with the fuller map he was unacceptably stepping out of line. Skelton implies that a lost prototype (which may have been a large world map such as that referred to by Matthew Paris a century earlier) was probably circular and that the oval shape was an adaptation to the shape of the codex leaf. The remarkable dreams and healing experience of this dreamer make up one part of this rich book and serve to illustrate and put flesh on the abstract bones of some of C.G. Third, it is worth recalling that the fuller Ramsey Abbey map produced no cartographic progeny, whereas the Huntington Library map is related to, and is probably the ancestor of, no fewer than ten oval or circular maps, including the Evesham world map (#236.2), which were being created up to and into the 1460s. It is more likely, however, that the oval shape was derived from the practice described by Hugh of Saint Victor of drawing maps in the supposed shape of Noaha€™s Ark (which, by the way, is actually pictured at center-left on the map displayed below).
But the growing data about the impact of a deep alignment of psyche and body reveals that we have merely scratched the surface of that mysterious intersection. A connection and engagement to the depths of the psyche that stimulates powerful healthy growth and that transforms body as well as psyche is unhappily still on the fringe of accepted consensus today, this in spite of what depth psychologists, in addition to Jung, have intimated or stated for over one hundred years.



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