04.03.2014

Power supply regulator 12v

Javascript is currently disabled in your browser, please turn it on to avoid loss of functionality. Welcome, to enhance your experience we have divided our site into the following sectors. All electronic systems and equipment regardless of their size or function have one thing in common: they all need a power supply unit (PSU) that converts input voltage into a voltage or voltages suitable for their circuits. This is a conceptual circuit diagram of the power train of a typical ATX computer power supply unit. Note that unlike generators that convert energy stored in various fuels into electricity, PSUs convert electric energy from one form to another.
The main switch Q2 periodically applies voltage Vdc to the primary of power transformer T1. A separate flyback converter consists of power MOSFET Q5, transformer T2, rectifier D11 and filter capacitor C7. The circuit described here is of an economical smooth variable power supply which offers 0V to 24V. The pots used for voltage variation are 23mm carbon-film linear type and for current limit 10 ohm, 1w wirewound type is used. This circuit is simple and usefull but not really stabilized its working without any error correction . If I would make the circuit for upto 0-12Volt & upto 2 Amp variable power supply, what changes are required to incorporate in this existing Circuit? If you continue without changing your settings, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on the Rapid website. This schematic does not show the control circuitry, that's why you see all MOSFET gates and transistor bases are open. When Q2 is in "on" state, positive voltage appears at the upper terminals of the T2 secondaries.
They are not regulated by an individual closed loop control, but are partially stabilized by the PWM acting on the main 5V buss. It serves two purposes- to provide bias to the control circuitry and to provide 5V standby voltage (5VSB). It provides all controls and short circuit protection with acceptable regulation and a ripple free supply and yet uses very few components.


After rectification and filtering, a constant reference voltage is obtained by the 24V, 500mW zener diode.
I have designed 0-24V power supply using your given ckt diagram & It is working smoothly. There is a wide variety of SMPS topologies and their practical implementations used by PSU manufacturers. For clarity, the parts responsible for miscellaneous auxiliary functions, such as current limit, fan control, and OV protection, which are not essential for learning the basic concepts of the power conversion, are not shown as well.
As the result, rectifier diodes D2, D4, D7 and D9 conduct, and the energy from the input source is delivered to the loads. Our website contains Free Collection of Electronics Circuits, PIC microcontroller projects, diagrams, tutorials, cad and PCB design software, vintage vacuum tube archives, hobby designs, datasheets and many schematics. The filter is normally consists of a combination of differential mode and common mode chokes and capacitors. At the same time some energy is also accumulated in the cores of T2 and inductors L2, L4, L5 and L6. This page explains the principals of operation of a switching mode power supply and reviews its main parts and functions.
Its main purpose is to reduce the conducted radio frequency noise emitted from the power supply back into the input line to comply with regulatory requirements.
When Q2 is in "off" state, the voltages across the secondaries of T2 reverse polarities and rectifier diodes become reverse biased.
It is used to block a portion of the pulse in order to reduce the regulated voltage to 3.3V. This tutorial can be useful for system integrators, hobbyists, and those who are not necessarily experts in power electronics.
Reducing conducted noise also reduces radiated emissions from the input power lines that act as an antenna.
Since the output inductors still try to maintain the current flow, the polarity of the voltages across them reverse according to Faraday law.
The input section usually also includes inrush current limiting and surge protecting components. As the result, the inductors continue conducting via freewheeling diodes D3, D5, D8, and D10 thus maintaining close current loops through their respective loads.


The EMI filter in most off-line SMPS PSU is followed by a rectifier bridge (RB) and a power factor correction (PFC) stage. During this time interval the auxiliary switch Q3 provides clamp and active reset of the transformer core. The +3.3 VDC error amplifier (not shown on the diagram) often uses remote sensing to compensate for excessive voltage drop in the cable.
This stage was absent from older SMPS, in which the rectifier was followed by a large storage capacitor. When Q3 turns off, with a proper circuit design Q2 turns "on" at zero voltage, which reduces its switching losses.
Power supply manufacturers began introducing PFC technique beginning late 80's when Europeans introduced EN61000-3-2 norm.
This document specifies the maximum amplitude of line-frequency harmonics for various categories of equipment. Our diagram shows a typical PFC stage that consists of a full-wave rectifier and boost converter with a storage capacitor C1. Note that in this scheme the current always flows through two diodes of the rectifier bridge. The storage capacitor is designed to provide energy to the output during short input power interruptions.
The computer power supplies as well as commercial units normally have to ride through at least one cycle of input sine wave, which is 16 ms in U.S. If you are trying to troubleshoot a unit and you measure about 160VDC across C1-- it means the boost stage does not work. The output DC-DC stage in any SMPS always contains one or more switching devices that periodically commutate LC networks.




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