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Punjabi Post Newspaper takes pride in to announce itself as one of the leading Punjabi newspaper outside India.
Related ArticlesBest Newspapers of Punjab There are lots of Punjabi and English newspapers in Punjab. An isolated boost converter like this may not be useful for most people, but it could provide a means for making an isolated charger. Theoretically it's possible to convert from any voltage to any voltage, within the limits of available components. Another consideration is the size of conductors needed to carry the current, mostly on the primary side.
I'm getting ready to make some PCBs, probably including a DC-DC converter, although I'm not sure I want to commit to an LLC design at this time. Great design, i like capacitor switching circuits, how did the load on shaft affect the charging discharging of the input capacitors on the primary?
The half bridge with capacitors is similar to a 3 phase motor controller i made to have a play with. The 20 uF DC LINK caps have an ESR of approximately 5 milliOhm and the Rds of the mosfets is about 10 mΩ. At 25 kHz the current density in the center of a 1 mm CuL wire is roughly 35% of the density in the outer layer.
In all cases I will need to determine how much window area I have, and make primary and secondary about equal.
My response was not a detailed analysis, but a ballpark discussion of possible issues that were posted.
In fact published daily on a regular basis, the Canadian Punjabi Post Newspaper is quite unique because it is the first daily Punjabi newspaper published anywhere outside India.
Get the list of all the top best newspapers in Punjab and read online.Sikh Virsa Punjabi Magazine in Canada: Where to read it online? For my purposes, I wanted to boost a 24V nominal battery to about 240 VDC to be used with a VFD for a three phase motor.
For 12, 24, 36, or 48V inputs, I was able to choose an inexpensive 30A MDA ceramic cartridge fuse, rated at 125 VDC, but I could have used a much cheaper automotive blade type, which are rated to about 60 VDC. There is a 30A relay and a 50 ohm precharge resistor, because originally I had a large electrolytic across the supply voltage. There is another differential amplifier which reads the output voltage through 1 megohm resistors. I am using a pair of E-47-20-16 ferrite cores, which are N27 material, designed for moderate frequency power transformers, and I am using 20 kHz (or perhaps as high as 50 kHz). 96 VDC to 600 VDC is just a 6x booster, and the MOSFETs or IGBTs on the primary side could be 150 to 200 VDC rated, which is now very common and inexpensive.
The concept is that there will be no two points in the primary circuit that have greater than 50 volts between them, and the much higher secondary voltage exists only when all interlocks are enabled and the switching is actually creating the voltage.
I have a circuit that seems to work pretty well, and it's a lot simpler, but I don't know how efficient it really is or how it will work at higher power levels. I think this was due to the inductance and higher impedance at the higher frequency, but for a transformer the effective impedance of the primary is what is reflected from the secondary and its load. I have not done anything with this design lately but I plan to return to it soon, at least perhaps to make a prototype PCB. The secondary may not need to be made of Litz wire, as it will be carrying only about 3-5 amps and #20 to #22 should be sufficient.

Canadian Punjabi Post is now continuing its proud journey past its seventh year of the first publication Canadian Punjabi Post newspaper back in 2002. Sikh Virsa is a monthly Punjabi English bilingual Web Magazine published from Canada, offering Punjabi News, Punjabi Radio FM stations and lot more.Where to learn Punjabi in Toronto Canada You can learn Punjabi online but it is better to learn it from Punjabi schools and private teachers in Toronto.
I have built several such converters before, but they were center tap designs, and the duty cycle of the opposing drive voltages must be exactly equal (50%) to avoid a net DC component in the transformer primary and resulting saturation. But the simulation showed about 25 amps RMS through the capacitor, and the circuit works just as well with a much smaller 470 nF capacitor. But it might be good to have a way to disconnect the circuit from the supply until everything is OK. The choice is not critical, but for about $2 it has multiple PWMs, ADCs, and a USART, which I show available to an external BlueTooth module. Isolation is not really needed, as 300V output will only draw 300 uAmps, which is a safe level. This goes through a 100 uH inductor to the main output capacitor, and another high efficiency rectifier allows the inductor to act as a current mode energy storage and filtering component. From the data sheet, it has a fairly high permeability of 1700 and an A(l) of 2816 (2.8 uH for a single turn). I think this was due to the inductance and higher impedance at the higher frequency, but for a transformer the effective impedance of the primary is what is reflected from the secondary and its load. The cube has 111 square inches surface and the flatter shape has 160, so it can run cooler. Practically any malfunction shuts down the high voltage and you need only deal with 48 VDC batteries. Maybe I can make the board compatible with the LLC design as well, at least for a rough prototype. The inductance as calculated and measured above applies to the current draw under no load, and the maximum current depends on the resistance of the windings and the leakage inductance. This is typically 5% or more for smaller transformers and 1% for large ones with close coupled windings. This itself speaks about the accomplishment, and most importantly, the dedication behind that accomplishment.
This design uses a half-bridge and two capacitors, which blocks DC and even allows some duty cycle modulation to adjust the output.
I think that is sufficient for my purposes and multiple units can be put in series or parallel.
The two larger film type capacitors in series across the supply and connected to the transformer primary also function as energy storage and nothing more is needed.
This circuit provides some inherent safety because the high voltage is not present unless the PWM is running.
With a tristate on the pin, both will light dimly, and both will be off if an extra diode is added, or if 3.3V logic is used.
The inductance as calculated and measured above applies to the current draw under no load, and the maximum current depends on the resistance of the windings and the leakage inductance. However, the 4 kW modules draw only about 42 amps, which is easily handled by #8 AWG or perhaps even #10. There are other factors as well, such as the skin effect, which causes the effective resistance to increase with frequency. This may be too small for the primary although I might be able to use six windings in parallel.

I am using the area of an equivalent square section wire to allow for imperfect packing density.
For the high current transformers I have designed, with only a few turns of bus bar for output, 5% is considered pretty good. Canadian Punjabi Post is actually the only newspaper that not only takes pride in a varied and wide readership base spread all over the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), but at the same time expands to the satellite zones. Get the details of where to learn Punjabi in Toronto, Canada.Read Daily Punjab Express Punjabi Newspaper Free Online Newspaper The Punjab Express Punjabi Newspaper has a good glance of Punjabi News ranging from local to global level news analysis mix. It also provides some current limiting and absorbs energy during voltage transitions due to leakage inductance.
I show voltage dividers to the ADC inputs of the PIC so the supply voltage can be measured, and the precharge resistor would be shorted once the capacitor(s) have charged fully. There are other factors as well, such as the skin effect, which causes the effective resistance to increase with frequency. Thus I might get 8 primaries of 10 turns each of the smaller wire, or 3 primaries of 7 turns each for the larger. The capacitors have a reactance of 0.4 ohms at 20 kHz so with an input current of 40 amps that is a 16V drop so that would seem to severely limit the output. AIUI, this means that a more practical transformer for this design might have 2%-5% leakage inductance, but I think that would only mean that the output may be 5% lower under load. More than 25000 copies of this NRI Punjabi newspaper in Canada are circulated six days a week among its readers. But since it is capacitive, and at quadrature to the load, it may still provide 18 VAC instead of 24V, for a 25% drop of output.
If you are looking to get Canadian Punjabi Post distributorship you can contact them because their customers are increasing day by day and the paper is now available wherever there is a South Asian community. This will produce 120 VAC, so I need to connect the secondaries in series to get the desired 240 VDC. If the output is set to be about 320 VDC at no load with 48 VDC input, it could be as high as 346 VDC with fully charged battery voltage of 52V. The Canadian Punjabi Post directly serves cities like Brampton, Mississauga, Scarborough, Markham, Rexdale, and North York.
And then at full load it would be 240 VDC which is still acceptable for a VFD bus link with a minimum of 200 VDC. The Canadian Punjabi Post newspaper readership is very colourful and vivid just like the Punjabi NRI Diaspora in Canada. The reader base of this Punjabi newspaper outside India range from people coming from all the tiers of the society including businesspersons, lawyers, doctors, professionals, service people, home-makers, social and political leaders, as well as taxi and truck drivers. Advertising in Canadian Punjabi Post boasts the true entrepreneurial spirit regarding its management.
The Canadian Punjabi Post Classifieds Section> offers a scope for lawyers, real estate, mortgage professionals, insureance, social and religious organizations, individual politicians, political parties, and businesses of all scales to advertise themselves in very cheap rates. Yet another great feature of the newspaper is Punjabi NRI matrimonial classifieds which can provide the Punjabi diaspora community in Canada with Canada NRI Sikh Matrimony newspaper ads.
Since almost all the issues of it are stored in the official website of Canadian Punjabi Post newspaper, you can have yet another privilege to Read Punjabi Post Newspaper Archive Old Issues free online.

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