28.09.2014

What is difference between astrology and horoscope

There is usually a difference between the Time of Maximum Eclipse and the time of the corresponding New or Full Moon. The moment of Full Moon is the moment that the Moon is exactly opposite the Sun, by longitude. The moment of Maximum Eclipse, however, is based on the other dimension, as if we are standing on the Moon looking at the Earth (like the diagram above).
So, the time of Maximum Eclipse is the moment when the Moon is darkest, and in the case of a partial eclipse, the time when the biggest chunk of the Moon is in shadow.
When viewed on a chart, the Sun, Moon and Earth look to be aligned in a straight line at Full Moon.
In the event of a completely exact 3D alignment of the exact centres of the Sun, Moon and Earth, the time of the Full Moon and the time of Maximum Eclipse would be the same, because whichever dimension you looked from, it would hit both points simultaneously. You can see that the Moon is passing slightly below the Earth's shadow, and comes in at an angle. So the Maximum Eclipse is a few minutes away from the Full Moon, due to the Moon's declination and the fact that the eclipse is not a completely exact 3D alignment.
Obviously, similar principles apply to solar eclipses, but they occur at New Moon, Sun conjunct Moon.
My Eclipse Finder here, gives timings for moments of Maximum Eclipse, and the Moon page here gives timings for New and Full Moons. Martin Luther acknowledged astronomers could predict the paths of heavenly bodies and even the occurrences of eclipses.
Melanchthon kept me a day at Schmalkalden with his godless and shabby astrology, because it was a new moon. There are many reasons I can't believe astrologers, and of these the principal reasons are the following: First, the calendars never agree. And we now have a New YouTube mini-teaching (15 minutes) on this issue with great visuals that explains this even more! The star patterns of the constellations have different meanings to different cultures at different times. It is easy to see why there is such confusion about the difference between the signs and constellations because they were named the same names at a time when the people forgot they were different. One way to remember the difference between signs and constellations is to think of the constellations as constant, they are the back drop the signs (or seasons) are moving through. The Solstice and Equinox points are defined by the relationship of the Celestial Equator (the equator of the Earth expanded into space) and the Ecliptic (the path the planets travel).
The Shamanic Astrology Logo Depicts the current Turning of the Ages showing where the seasonal signs (Winter Solstice etc) are currently located in relationship to the constellations.
So really saying this again helps us to remember that the signs are seasonally based and the zodiacal constellations are the star patterns found along the ecliptic. The challenge is to let go of our deeply programmed way of thinking that Taurus is the Bull, when in fact much of the Bull is now occupied by the sign or season of Gemini.
This is further illustrated by the fact that currently the Winter Solstice or the Zero Capricorn point is on the boundary between the Archer and the Scorpion near Galactic Center.
Understanding the difference between signs and constellations helps to give us a greater understanding of what time it is in the big cosmic picture so we can participate with greater conscious awareness. Humm…the first sense I get is there are 7 visible planets so maybe it has something to do with that???
Correct me if I am misunderstood, but I feel as though you are making this more difficult than necessary. When the Sun reaches the intersection points of the Celestial Equator and the Ecliptic we have equal day and night.
The signs or seasons do exist they are not imaginary and in fact it is the interaction of the seasons or signs through the constellations that cause myths and symbols to change, grow and evolve.
These alignments were so important to ancient cultures they built pyramids and other sacred sites to track these alignments. The stars were regarded by a pastoral population as flocks; each asterism had its special leader, and the star, and subsequently the constellation, that led the heavens through the year was the Ram. Elsewhere he tells us that when Aries became chief of the zodiac signs it took the Akkadian titles Ku, I-ku, and I-ku-u, from its lucida Hamal, all equivalents of the Assyrian Rubu, Prince, and very appropriate to the leading stellar group of that date, although not one of the first formations. He also finds, from an inscription on the Tablet of the Thirty Stars, that the Euphratean astronomers had a constellation Gam, the Scimetar, stretching from Okda (another name for Alrisha) of the Fishes (Pisces) to Hamal of Aries, the curved blade being formed by the latter’s three brightest components.
Jensen thinks that Aries may have been first adopted into the zodiac by the Babylonians when its stars began to mark the vernal equinox; and that the insertion of it between Taurus and Pegasus compelled the cutting off a {Page 77} part of each of those figures, — a novel suggestion that would save much theorizing as to their sectional character.
The Jewish Nisan, our March-April, was associated with Aries, for Josephus said that it was when the sun was here in this month that his people were released from the bondage of Egypt; and so was the same month Nisanu of Assyria, where Aries represented the Altar and the Sacrifice, a ram usually being the victim. The Lenox Library of New York has a copy of his Opus introductorii in astronomia Albumazaris abalachi, Idus Februarii, 1489, published at Venice with illustrations. Chaucer and other English writers of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries Anglicized the title as Ariete, which also appeared in the Low Latin of the 17th century. The eastern portion is inconspicuous, and astronomers have mapped others of its stars somewhat irregularly, carrying a horn into Pisces and a leg into Cetus. This book I excerpted this from was written in 1889 so its kind of choppy and challenging to follow but the essence is talking about many of the different ways the constellation we know as Aries has been seen overtime by different cultures.
And again the signs are not the constellations but rather twelve 30 degree divisions of the 360 degree circle usually starting with the Zero Aries point or the Spring Equinox the seasonal point where we have equal day and night. I think it was the Greeks who asked the question to what degree does the constellation influence the sign? Remember it is the movement of the signs (or seasons) through the constellations that are why we experience different ages with different symbols and myths that define those ages.
Also as mentioned in the article on the Blue Moon the number 12 is just as important to the cycle of the Moon as the number 13.
I know this is confusing and largely because the constellations and the signs are named the same thing.
I hope that helps to clarify how in the tropical system the signs are seasonaln and are a separate mechanism that is moving through the constellations over time. Jyotish focuses on the meaning of the constellations for their interpretations that are still accurate from the perspective of the contellational archetypal energies. In Shamanic Astrology we recognize that the constellations carry their own specific energy and they contribute to our evolving understanding of the signs as the seasons move through the constellations.
As I stated in the article it helps to reduce the confusion when we use a different name for the constellations like Crab, or Lion, or Virgin Priestess, to distinguish the difference between the seasonal signs and constellations.
However, it would greatly enhance the credibility of astrology as a science if those of you who use the solar cycle astrology would communicate or get together and agree to change the names of your solar mansions. I understand what you are saying however, since the constellations already have another name it would be much easier to simply adopt the alternate name for the constellations rather than come up with whole new names for the signs. I agree and so does Shamanic Astrology agree that no one system is right or wrong, better or worse…it is all part of the Great Mystery of the As Above, So Below and how we choose to engage it that brings meaning to our experience of these mysteries. Then we have the Sidereal or Fixed Zodiac, again dividing the ecliptic into 12 equal sectors of 30 degrees each, but focusing on the Moon and its mansions (nakshatras) and more or less ignoring the seasonal role of the Sun, which is seen as a malefic. Lastly, we have the zodiacal constellations themselves, none of which actually occupy exactly 30 degrees of the zodiac. None of this is intended to argue against the Shamanic Astrology idea of giving the constellations symbolic and interpretational independence from the tropical signs, but just to clarify matters. For example, when I was in Hawaii and saw the Scorpion rising, it truly looked like a fish hook to me and where I live in the southwest United States, that constellation really looks like a Scorpion. Thank you again for this brilliant clarification of the difference between the three most used current systems. This is the best explanation on the subject of signs and constellations I have ever encountered. This is a great question and one we have contemplated in Shamanic Astrology for many years.
For example, the Hawaiian Moon calendar recognizes 29 and sometimes 30 distinct Moon Phases and each have a meaning that has developed according to their experience of where they live. Thinking about this a bit more I remembered another piece that might be helpful in answering this question.
The other thought I had was in Shamanic Astrology we do not view the signs as strictly opposite but rather they operate on a resonate polarity.
Coming from a longish background in Buddhism and Yoga I started taking an interest in Western esotericism, magic etc. Anyway, I bought a couple of Astrology books and find that each author has a unique way of fumbling the balance between the technical and the conceptual and I sense that books are not a great way to learn about astrology.
While Ptolemy is most frequently associated with geography and cartography, he also wrote important works in a number of other fields including astronomy, astrology, music and optics. Although no original manuscript of this text has survived the ravages of time, several manuscript copies, dating from the closing centuries of the Byzantine Empire (ca.
For these and other reasons, Ptolemy knew mathematics to be an important part of cartography. The first Book of the Geographia is devoted primarily to theoretical principles, including a discussion of globe construction, the description of two map projections, and an extended, through amicable, criticism of his primary source, Marinus of Tyre, a€?the latest of the geographers of our timea€?. In another chapter in Book I, Ptolemy wrote that there are two ways of making a portrait of the world: one is to reproduce it on a sphere, and the other is to draw it on a plane surface. If the second method of drawing the earth is used, that is, if the spherical earth is projected onto a plane surface, certain adjustments are obviously necessary. Ptolemya€™s exhaustive criticism of the imperfect methods of drawing maps adopted by Marinus would lead to the expectation that he himself would have used some of his own recommended projections in constructing his maps. Book II of the Geographia opens with a prologue a€?of the particular descriptionsa€?, which is to say, the maps he was about to present, and a general statement of his mapmaking policy. The fifth chapter of Book VII contains a description of the map of the world, together with an enumeration of the oceans and of the more important bays and islands.
In the eighth and last Book of the Geographia, Ptolemy returned to the business of discussing the principles of cartography, mathematical, geographical and astronomical methods of observation, and, in some cases (manuscript or printed copies) there follow short legends for each of the special maps - ten for Europe, four for Africa and twelve for Asia - mentioning the countries laid down on each plate, describing the limits, and enumerating the tribes of each country and its most important towns.
Those scholars who have argued that Ptolemya€™s original text contained no maps have neglected careful study of this Book.
The obvious way to avoid crowding, Ptolemy said, is to make separate maps of the most populous regions or sectional maps combining densely populated areas with countries containing few inhabitants, if such a combination is feasible. The illustration above gives a diagram of the parts of the known world embraced by each special map found in Ptolemya€™s Geographia. While there is little doubt still lingering that Ptolemya€™s text was originally illustrated by maps, it is not altogether certain that the maps found today in existing copies of the Geographia are indeed similar to those of the original series of maps, since the latter have not survived for comparison. To further confound the issue, all of the other manuscript copies of the Geographia that are accompanied by maps differ one from another, presenting two basic versions. The other version, B, contains sixty-four maps distributed throughout the text, vice collected together in one place. Over and above these maps, those manuscripts with maps, both A- and B-versions, are additionally illustrated with a universal map of the entire known world at Ptolemya€™s time, either on one sheet or four sheets; only very rarely are both world maps found together. As with modern maps, Ptolemaic maps are oriented so that North would be at the top and East at the right, because better known localities of the world were to be found in the northern latitudes, and on a flat map they would be easier to study if they were in the upper right-had corner. Displayed on the left-had margin of these world maps are seven Clima [Klima] and Parallel Zones.
Overall Ptolemya€™s world-picture extended northward from the equator a distance of 31,500 stades [one mile = 9 to 10 stades; there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade] to 63A° N at Thule, and southward to a part of Ethiopia named Agysimba and Cape Prasum at 16A° S latitude, or the same distance south as Meroe was north.
It has been repeatedly pointed out that the distances set down by Ptolemy in his tables for the Mediterranean countries, the virtual center of the habitable world, are erroneous beyond reason, considering the fact that Roman Itineraries were accessible.
The geographical errors made by Ptolemy in his text and maps constitute the principle topic of many scholarly dissertations.
Paradoxically, Ptolemya€™s eastward extension of Asia, reducing the length of the unknown part of the world, coupled with his estimate of the circumference of the earth, was his greatest contribution to history if not cartography. Ptolemy provides a descriptive summary in his text in which he tells us that the habitable part of the earth is bounded on the south by the unknown land which encloses the Indian Sea and that it encompasses Ethiopia south of Libya, called Agisymba. The southern limit of the habitable world had been fixed by Eratosthenes (#112) and Strabo (#115) at the parallel through the eastern extremity of Africa, Cape Guardafiri, the cinnamon-producing country and the country of the SembritA¦ [Senaai]. Ptolemy records, following Marinus, the penetration of Roman expeditions to the land of the Ethiopians and to Agisymba, a region of the Sudan beyond the Sahara desert, perhaps the basin of Lake Chad, and he supplied other new information regarding the interior of North Africa.
The eastern coast of Africa was better known than the western, having been visited by Greek and Roman traders as far as Rhapta [Rhaptum Promontory opposite Zanzibar?] which Ptolemy placed at about 7A° S. According to Greek tradition, an extension of 20A° in the width of the habitable world called for a proportionate increase in its length.
Ptolemya€™s knowledge of the vast region from Sarmatia to China was, however, better than that of previous map makers.
Many faults appear in Ptolemya€™s picture of southern Asia, although for more than a century commercial relations between western India and Alexandria had been flourishing. Even the more familiar territory of the Mediterranean basin demonstrated that insufficient contemporary knowledge was available and Ptolemy erred in many important cartographical details.
Map on grid system, in Ptolemy, La geographia, 1561-64, 26 x 14 cm, a€?Oxford University Byw.
However, Ptolemy was apparently the first of the ancient geographers to have a fair conception of the relations between the Tanais, usually considered the northern boundary between Europe and Asia, and the Rha [Volga], which he said flowed into the Caspian Sea. In spite of the egregious errors on all of Ptolemya€™s maps, his atlas was indeed an unsurpassed masterpiece for almost 1,500 years. During the intellectual narrow-mindedness of the Middle Ages even Ptolemy and his methods of map construction were forgotten, at least in the west. The presently known version of Ptolemya€™s works began to surface when the Byzantine monk Maximos Planudes (1260 - 1310) succeeded in finding and purchasing a manuscript copy of the Geographia. Another scholar of the Byzantine age is known to have been interested in Ptolemya€™s Geographia - the noted polyhistor Nikephoras Gregoras (1295 - c.
In 1400 a Greek manuscript copy of the A-version (twenty-six maps) was obtained from Constantinople by the Florentine patron of letters, Palla Strozzi, who persuaded Emmanual Chrysoloras, a Byzantine scholar, to translate the text into Latin.
Again, the original manuscript of Angelusa€™ translation and the first maps of Ptolemy in the Latin language have not survived, but a manuscript copy, dated 1427, prepared under the direction of Cardinal Fillastre, can be found in the library at Nancy, France (thus known as the Nancy Codex). In manuscript form, four other cartographers are significant in editing and influencing the evolution of Ptolemya€™s atlas. After the discovery of copper-plate and wood-engraving, Ptolemya€™s atlas became one of the first great works for the reproduction of which these arts were employed. It is the moment when the centre of the Moon is closest to the centre of the Earth's shadow (the shadow the Earth casts due to the Sun being behind it).
But viewed from the side, we can see that they're not all at exactly the same height, so are not truly aligned in 3D.
The large dark circle is the Earth's Umbra, which is the darkest part of the shadow the Earth casts due to the Sun being behind it. Due to its angle (declination to the ecliptic), the Moon first aligns with the centre of the Earth by longitude, as viewed from a right angle above the ecliptic (Full Moon position) and shortly afterwards reaches the point where the maximum amount of Moon is in the shadow (Maximum Eclipse position, shown in the diagram as the middle one of the five Moons).
For these, the time of Maximum Eclipse is defined as the time the centre of the Moon's shadow (which sweeps across the Earth during the eclipse) is closest to aligning with the centre of the Earth. Whoever wants to be clever must not be content with what any one else has done, but must do something of his own and then pretend it was the best ever accomplished. And though the difference between astrology and astronomy was occasionally blurred to him he had an aversion to astrology.
I have written a biography of Frederick the Wise, the first full treatment available in English. The confusion occurs because a time long ago when people forgot they were different they named the constellations and the signs the same names.
The equinoxes are formed by the intersection points of these two circles and the Solstices are where the two circles are farthest apart. Again the confusion occurs because there was a time when the precessional cycle was forgotten and the signs and constellations were named the same names.
For example, the zero Capricorn point marks the Winter Solstice where the Sun currently rises and sets between the constellation of the Archer and the Scorpion. As each sign moves through each constellation, the sign and the constellation create a natural synthesis of their individual mysteries that automatically expresses in the Great Below or in our Earth based reality. Currently the sign or season of Sagittarius (or 30 days before the Winter Solstice) is overlaying the constellation of the Scorpion.
These are entirely two separate mechanisms that are different but that do interact with each other.
And the constellation of the Twins is occupied by the sign or season of Cancer and even a couple of degrees of Leo. This means the sign of Capricorn has almost entirely left the constellation of the Goatfish.
This is especially important now at this great turning of the wheel of time Shamanic Astrology refers to as the Turning Of The Ages. When the Sun reaches the points where they are furthest apart we have either the longest day or the shortest day of the year. They do not move, they are the constant backdrop that the seasonal points or signs move through. They have never been the same and never will be the same even when zero Aries returns to the constellation we now also call Aries in 24000 some years. This is what causes the Turning of the Ages powerfully evident now that the Solstices are aligned along the Galactic Plane and the Equinoxes are aligned along the Galactic Poles. The constellation is marked by the noticeable triangle to the west of the Pleiades, 6° north of the ecliptic, 20° north of the celestial equator, and 20° due south from gamma Andromedae (Mirach). This was the weapon protecting the kingdom against the Seven Evil Spirits, or Tempest Powers. It was about this time, when it was sought to reconstruct the constellations on Bible lines, that Aries was said to represent Abraham’s Ram caught in the thicket; as also Saint Peter, the bishop of the early church, with Triangulum as his Mitre. For example, Spring is when things are growing very fast, (Aries energy), and when we get to end of April May (Taurus energy) the plants are slowing in growth and the sun literally slows its progress from due east to its northern most rise at Summer Solstice.
The Celts had 8 major seasonal experiences working with the Cross-Quarter or half point way between the Equinoxes and Solstices. Also, the 13 moons corroborates 13 signs, which it is clear that the sun does move through.
The signs have there specific energy as do the constellations and it is the interaction of the two that influence growth and change. You are correct in saying Mars is currently (March of 2010) in the constellation of the Crab also known by the name of Cancer. The confusion come from a time when the constellations and signs were named the same thing. Shamanic Astrology also recognizes that this is one of the great reasons why myth and symbol change over time because they are two separate mechanisms that interact together. So when you go out and look at Mars over the next month you could imagine that is where the Sun is rising 30 days after the Summer Solstice marking that season and the season happens to be named Leo and the constellation is the Crab. Actually the signs are more descriptive of the seasons than the are of the constellations so using the alternative for the constellations as I mentioned in the previous post such as The Virgin Priestess for the constellation that is currently called Virgo or the Scales for the constellation that is currently called Libra is a much easier shift.
The Tropical Zodiac, also known as the Natural or Movable Zodiac, is based on the Equinoxes and the Solstices, marking the seasonal changes, and divides the ecliptic into 360 equal degrees, divided into 12 equal signs of 30 degrees each. For example, the solstices and equinoxes in the sidereal system now do not coincide with actual physical lengths of daylight, due to precession.


For example, on on October 24, 1997, the Sun would have been found in the Constellation of Virgo, the Tropical Sign of Scorpio, and the Sidereal Sign of Libra.
This is a great clarification bringing to mind that even the zodiacal constellations we have now haven’t always been divided up in the same way they are in the current time. Shamanic Astrology is grounded in our direct experience as Northern Hemisphere dwellers and we recognize it would take living in the Southern Hemisphere for an extended period of time to gain the direct experience of the archetypal energies at work there.
Each Moon phase relates to times that are good for fishing and planting, or when the tides and currents are dangerous etc…of course that experience would not translate to the Southwest desert where I live as the climate is so completely different and tides are not an issue. It is correct that the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere are opposite the ones in the Southern Hemisphere and this is something we have pondered in the Shamanic Astrology paradigm. In that sense there are qualities of each within the other that resonate with that polarity. Not so much in an effort to start practicing in these areas in any deep way but because of the striking amount of shared info and presuppositions.
He composed a Table of Reigns, a chronological list of Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman sovereigns dating from Nabonasar to Antoninus Pius, a biographical history of kingship.
He was interested in the earth, all of it, not just the habitable part, and tried to fit it into a scheme of the universe where it belonged.
Marinus had given this matter considerable thought, rejecting all previously devised methods of obtaining congruity on a flat map; yet, according to Ptolemy he had finally selected the least satisfactory method of solving the problem. There is also an introduction to data collection, evaluation, preparations for drawing, how and in what order to mark boundaries, and how to use the appended tables.
When traveling overland it is usually necessary to diverge from a straight line course in order to avoid inevitable land-barriers; and at sea, where winds are changeable, the speed of a vessel varies considerably, making it difficult to estimate over-water distances with any degree of accuracy.
The Indian Ocean, which is assumed to be bordered on the south by an unknown continent, uniting southern Africa with eastern Asia, is stated to be the largest sea surrounded by land. It is these legends which, in some editions, have been placed on the reverse of the maps, and they appear to have been originally intended for that purpose. In Chapter Two Ptolemy said, a€?It remains for us to show how we set down all places, so that when we divide one map into several maps we may be able to accurately locate all of the well-known places through the employment of easily understood and exact measurements.a€? On the other hand, some scholars even go so far as to say that maps were already drawn before certain portions of the text was addressed, so that they could be used as models for the completion of other portions of the text. For instance, in a single map embracing the entire earth, he said, there is a tendency to sacrifice proportion, that is, scale, in order to get everything on the map.
If several regional maps are made to supplement the general world map, they need not a€?measure the same distance between the circlesa€?, that is, be drawn to the same scale, provided the correct relation between distance and direction is preserved. It demonstrates how Ptolemya€™s world had been systematically divided into twenty-six regions, each of which is mapped on a separate sheet. The reason for this doubt lies in the question of authorship of the maps which accompany extant copies. According to map historian Leo Bagrow, one version, A, contains twenty-six large maps included in the eighth Book of the text, each folded in half and, on the back, having a statement of the region portrayed, its bounds and a list of principle towns. In some manuscripts of the B-version, and in those without maps, the texts from the backs of the maps are combined together in a special edition, divided into chapters numbered 3-28. Of the Greek manuscripts of the Geographia, as a whole or in part, known today, eleven of the A-version and five of the B-version have maps.
The meridians are spaced from each other a€?the third part of an equinoctial hour, that is, through five of the divisions marked on the equatora€?. In Ptolemya€™s time, the latitude, or distance from the equator, was generally astronomically calculated from the length of the longest and the shortest day.
The numbers on the right of the Clima give the number of hours in the longest day at different latitudes, increasing from 12 hours at the equator to 24 hours at the Arctic Circle. The a€?breadtha€? of the habitable world according to Ptolemy then equates to 39,500 stades [3,950 miles]. The earth was only 18,000 miles around at the equator; Poseidonius had stated it, Strabo substantiated it, and Ptolemy perpetuated it on his maps.
Of these, the Indicum Mare [Indian Ocean] is the largest, Our Sea [the Mediterranean] is the next and the Hyrcanian [Caspian] is the smallest. This parallel also passed through Taprobane usually considered the southernmost part of Asia. As to the source of the Nile, both Greeks and Romans had tried to locate it, but without success. Ptolemy extended the west coast of Africa with a free hand, and even though he reduced the bulge made by Marinus more than half, it was still way out of control. He shows, for the first time, a fairly clear idea of the great north-south dividing range of mountains of Central Asia, which he called Imaus, but he placed it nearly 40A° too far east and made it divide Scythia into two parts: Scythia Intra Imaum and Scythia Extra Imaum Montem [Within Imaus and Beyond Imaus].
His Mediterranean is about 20A° too long, and even after correcting his lineal value of a degree it was still about 500 geographical miles too long. Ptolemy was also the first geographer, excepting Alexander the Great, to return to the correct view advanced by Herodotus and Aristotle, that the Caspian was an inland sea without communication with the ocean (the Christian medieval cartographers were a long time in returning to this representation of the Caspian).
Its wealth of detail still constitutes one of the most important sources of information for the historian and student of ancient geography. Many of the legends and conventional signs that he used are still employed by cartographers with only slight modifications. Ptolemya€™s works were, however, thriving and contributing valuable insight to knowledgeable Arabs and those having access and understanding of the Arab or Greek language (it was only in the Islamic states and in these languages that the works of the Alexandrian scientist were preserved (see monographs #212, #213, #214-17, lbn Said, al-lstakhri, Ibn Hauqal, al-Kashgari, etc. Very few scholars, let alone other literate persons in Western Europe were familiar with the Greek language at this time, therefore this translation was a great stimulus to a€?popularizinga€? Ptolemy.
Curiously enough it was first printed at Vincenza in 1475 (the date printed of 1462 is in error) without maps! There's almost never a completely exact 3D alignment of the centres of the Sun, Moon and Earth, but when they're close enough to one that the Moon passes through the Earth's shadow, instead of going above or below it, we get a lunar eclipse. Behind the centre of that shadow is the centre of the Earth, and behind that the centre of the Sun. I think it should be understood that this is so: it's cold outside and warm behind the stove. However, they are not the same as the signs describe the seasons or months of the year and are measured from the Solstice and Equinox points. From the Shamanic Astrology perspective it is not Either Or but rather both systems are part of our evolutionary process. They represent a seasonal energy that is determined by our experience of the Sun at different times of the year. 6500 years ago the Winter Solstice Sun was rising between the Fish and the Waterbearer and has been slowly moving one degree every 72 years to its current position between the Archer and the Scorpion. We have seen evidence of this because different ages have different myths and symbols that define them, i.e.
Part of our collective remembering now is around the significance and meaning of the movement of the signs through the zodiacal constellations. At the season of Summer Solstice, the Sun (at zero Cancer) is rising on the boundary between the constellation of the Bull and the Twins. Therefore, as we remember more of these mysteries we are actively engaging a more current and conscious relationship with the Sky as it relates to the Earth. The Equinoxes and Solstices are formed by the relationship of the Celestial Equator and the Ecliptic.
This is a very real experience on our planet and varies based on where you live on the planet. And as you mentioned the Spring Equinox or the zero Aries point is rising in the constellation of the fish also known as Pisces.
These alignments take place approximately every 6500 years and return to the alignment we have now approximately every 26,000 years. Twelve 30 degree segments is the closest way to divide up the 360 degree circle evenly giving us our Months (or Moonths). Different locations will have different variations on their seasonal experience but for the most in the Northern Hemisphere it is possible to detect the differences from month to month. My feeling is the answer is based on our experience and the evolution of our understanding of the archetypal nature of the signs. However, the Sign or Season of Cancer as calculated by the tropical system begins at the Summer Solstice or the Zero Cancer point in the tropical system…this is also system used by astronomers and it marks the seasonal calendar.
So again, if we separate the constellations from the signs it is correct to say Mars is located in the constellation of the Crab.
As I mentioned before, over 26,000 years every season (or sign) will be with every constellation…indicating the changing ages, growth and evolution that happen when the signs interact with the constellations resulting in new understanding, insights and awareness.
In fact, their is a precedence for this through Rudolph Steiner’s work in Anthroposophy as they already use the constellation names of The Scales and Virgin Priestess etc. This is a geometric system of measurement and location, albeit clothed in mythological narrative. This zodiac is purportedly based on the 12 zodiacal constellations, but like the tropical system is a geometrical abstraction based on symbolism, even though it holds that the first degree of Aries does not precess (hence Fixed Zodiac). In fact, in the jyotish system based on the sidereal zodiac (where the 1st degree of Aries is marked by the Sun rising conjunct a certain star in the Ram), the astrologers generally prefer to use the lunar mansions rather than the zodiacal signs. I say this because in many languages, the names for the constellations and for the signs are often identical.
It is also interesting to note that the Sun as it approaches the seasonal gates regardless of what season is going through a similar process.
I was surprised at how much understanding Vajrayana can help in understanding certain Western magical practices and vice versa. Little is known personally of this pivotal man aside from the general period during which he was active ca. His Analemma was mathematical description of a sphere projected on a plane, subsequently known as an a€?orthographic projection,a€? which greatly simplified the study of gnomonics. He was also interested in the relationships between the earth and the sun, the earth and the moon, in scientific cause and effect of climate; and above all, he was concerned with a scientifically accurate portrayal of the spherical earth in a convenient readable form. These Byzantine copies of the Geographia are comprised of eight a€?Booksa€? which Ptolemy introduces by supplying two very influential definitions - that of chorography and geography.
Marinus had laid out a grid of strait lines equidistant from one another for both his parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Because while Ptolemy employs his conical projection in his first general world map, for the remaining twenty-six special regional maps he uses the rectangular projection of Marinus with due observance of the ratio between the longitude and latitude at the base of the map. Books II-VI and the first four chapters of Book VII are devoted to a complete catalogue of some 8,000 inhabited localities laid down in the twenty-six special maps of the geography. Nevertheless Ptolemy concluded that the most reliable way of determining distances was by astronomical observation, and by no other method could one expect to fix positions accurately.
In addition, a description of a projection of the inhabited hemisphere on a plane, by which it could retain its circular outline, or globular aspect is also given. The better known regions have many place-names, while the lesser known have few, and, unless the map is carefully drawn, it will have some crowded, illegible areas, and some where distances are unduly extended. Ptolemy repeated that it would be not too far from the truth if instead of circles we draw straight lines for meridians and parallels. Generally these sheets are of about the same size, but the scales vary according to the space required for the legends. Did Ptolemy actually design and construct the maps himself, were they made by a draftsman working under his supervision, or were they added, perhaps as late as 1450, by an energetic editor who thought the text needed some graphic emendation? The geographical coordinates of these towns are given, not in degrees, but in time; the longitude is expressed in hours and minutes corresponding to the distance from the meridian of Alexandria (one hour = 15 degrees, one minute = 15 minutes of a degree), and the latitude is expressed in terms of the length of the longest day, in hours and minutes (the greater the distance from the equator, the longer the day in summer). Some of the manuscripts without maps contain references to accompanying maps, since lost, and in others, spaces have been left for maps to be inserted. In other words, the total span of twelve hours, representing the length of the habitable world, was to be partitioned by a series of thirty-six meridians spaced five degrees apart at the equator and converging at the North Pole. The earth was accordingly divided into a number of zones, parallel to the equator and within which these days had a certain length, for instance of 12 -13, or 15 -16 hours. Ptolemy a€?correcteda€? this length to 180A° (9,000 miles), still 50A° (2,500 miles) too long, an error arising from using the Fortunate Islands as his prime meridian which he placed about seven degrees (350 miles) too far to the east. It is very unlikely, in view of the secrecy attached to all maps and surveys of the Roman Empire. This a€?shorter distancea€? that a mariner would have to travel west from the shores of Spain in order to reach the rich trading centers of Asia may have contributed to Columbusa€™ belief, or that of his royal sponsors, that they could compete with their rival neighbors, Portugal, in the newly opened sea-trade with India by sailing west. The Emperor Nero had sent an expedition into Upper Egypt, and it had penetrated as far as the White Nile, about 9A° N latitude. On the same approximate parallel he located the region called Agisymba, inhabited by Ethiopians and abounding in rhinoceri, supposedly discovered by Julius Maternus, a Roman general. A more obvious area to stretch the length of the world was in eastern Asia where there was every likelihood of additional territory yet unexplored. Asia and Africa are extended considerably to the east and south, far more so than on any previous maps, but not without cause.
His Mare Nostrum, from Marseilles to the opposite point on the coast of Africa, is 11A° of latitude instead of the actual 6.5A°. This is especially true in the study of the earliest tribes that encompassed the Roman Empire in the first century of the Christian era, who were at that time barbarians, but who later bore the burden of civilization in Europe. He originated the practice of orienting maps so that North is at the top and East to the right, a custom so universal today that many people are lost when they try to read a map oriented any other way. Planudes constructed a map based upon the instructions found in Ptolemya€™s eight books and subsequently, through Athanasios, Patriarch of Alexandria, had a copy of the Geographia, with maps made for Emperor Andronicus III.
He is also credited with the four-page world map found in some manuscripts, chiefly the B-version. When Chrysoloras was unable to complete the translation, it was finished by one of his students, Jacobus Angelus of Scarparia, between 1406 and 1410. In all, seven editions were printed in the 15th century, of which six were provided with large maps in folio, and thirty-three in the following century (a selected list taken from Tooley accompanies this monograph). Note that these longitudes only take a two-dimensional picture into account, imagining the solar system on a flat plane viewed from above the Earth, as shown on any traditional astrology chart.
He's very much deluded, for he's easily affected by signs in the sky and he's deceived by his own thoughts. Second, when a child is born, the rays of all the signs above the horizon or of all the planets or stars are said to reach that child. The zodiacal constellations are the back drop the signs or seasons move through and are found along the ecliptic or the path the planets track through the sky.
The polarization between tropical and sidereal creates further separation where as understanding that both the tropical or seasonal signs and the sidereal or constellations interact and when we understand that interaction greater wholeness is possible. Our current system uses the Spring Equinox or Zero Aries to begin the division of the circle into 12 segments or 12 signs of 30 degrees each covering the 360 degrees of the circle. That is why in Shamanic Astrology we do not call the constellations by the sign names but rather what they depict.
In 6500 years from now the Winter Solstice Sun will be rising and setting between the Virgin Priestess and the Lion. This star is currently located at about 10 degrees of the sign Sagittarius, and the Sun passes by here around the 2nd of December every year.
Again this approach recognizes the importance of both the constellations and the signs and how working with both is helping to restore balance between the Great Above and the Great Below as each magnificently reflects the other. Where the two intersect form the Equinoxes and where they are furthest apart form the two Solstices. In fact those constellations are along the ecliptic, for example the Sun moves through Ophiuchus for 16 days out of the year as we move into December. So really there is a third factor and that is the observer and what is being observed and how we are interacting with these mysteries because we inform the mysteries as much as they inform us.
However, Mars is also located in the area of the sky that occurs 30 days after the Summer Solstice and this is called the sign or season of Leo and has nothing to do with the constellation by the same name. The tropical system marks the symbolism of the solar year and the process of the Sun correlating to the natural world and its patterns. Celestial positions are calculated from the Vernal Point in the tropical ephemeris using an ayanamsa of around 23 degrees, usually Lahiri’s version, though there are a number of others in use (and at least 3 Lahiris that I know of).
For example, the Scorpion, or Scorpius as the astronomers call it, is seen as Maui’s fish hook in the Hawaiian traditions and in the Chinese traditions it is seen as the Azure Dragon. For example, at the Solstices the Sun is slowing down to reverse direction according to where it is rising and setting along the horizon.
Aries focuses on the relationship to self and Libra on the relationship to other but for both to be functional they do include qualities of the other. His work entitled PlanisphA¦rium [the Planisphere], described a sphere projected on the equator, the eye being at the pole, a projection later known as a€?stereographica€?.
More than any one of the ancients, Claudius Ptolemy succeeded in establishing the elements and form of scientific cartography. He defines chorography as being selective and regional in approach, a€?even dealing with the smallest conceivable localities, such as harbors, farms, villages, river courses, and the likea€?. Its position under the heavens is extremely important, for in order to describe any given part of the world one must know under what parallel of the celestial sphere it is located. He seems to have studied and made astronomical observations in Tyre, the oldest and largest city of Phoenicia, which, even at that late date, maintained important commercial relations with remote parts of the world. This was contrary to both truth and appearance, and the resulting map was badly distorted with respect to distance and direction, for if the eye is fixed on the center of the quadrant of the sphere which we take to be our inhabited world, it is readily seen that the meridians curve toward the North Pole and that the parallels, though they are equally spaced on the sphere, give the impression of being closer together near the poles. Traditional information regarding distances should be subordinated, especially the primitive sort, for tradition varies from time to time, and if it must enter into the making of maps at all, it is expedient to compare the records of the ancient past with newer records, a€?deciding what is credible and what is incrediblea€?.
It is remarkable that such questions never seemed to have occurred to Ptolemy, as: What is there to be found beyond Serica and Sinarum Situs?
Ptolemy himself never actually employed this manner of projection, which has since, through more or less modified, been preferred by geographers for maps representing one of the hemispheres. Some map makers have a tendency to exaggerate the size of Europe because it is most populous, and to contract the length of Asia because little is known about the eastern part of it.
As for his own policy, he said, a€?in the separate maps we shall show the meridians themselves not inclined and curved but at an equal distance one from another, and since the termini of the circles of latitude and of longitude of the habitable earth, when calculated over great distances do not make any remarkable excesses, so neither is there any great difference in any of our mapsa€?. As this diagram shows, each regional map would encompass, besides its own proper territory, some parts of the neighboring countries. Ptolemy does not state specifically in his text whether he personally made any maps, and proponents of the theory that Ptolemy made no maps for this Geographia base their case on the notation in two of the existing manuscript copies, that a cartographer named AgathodA¦mon of Alexandria was the author of the accompanying map(s). It is no less difficult, also, to determine when the maps of the two versions (A and B) were made. The meridians in the southern hemisphere are extended from the equator at the same angle as those above it, but instead of converging at the South Pole they terminated at the parallel 8A° 25a€™ below the equator. The concept of the division of the earth into zones began as early as the sixth century B.C.
While Ptolemya€™s map is based upon the theory that the earth is round, it bares repeating that it is to his credit that he depicts only that half of its surface which was then known, with very little attempt to speculate on or a€?fill-ina€? the unknown parts with his imagination. More specifically, Ptolemya€™s knowledge concerning the fringes of the habitable world and civilization was broader than earlier writers, such as Strabo (#115), but in some respects it was a little confused. With Thule as the northern limit of Ptolemya€™s habitable world, he thus extended the breadth of this world from less than 60A° (Eratosthenes and Strabo) to nearly 80A°.
The silk trade with China had produced rumors of vast regions east of the Pamir and Tian Shan, hitherto the Greek limits of Asia. These distortions represented an actual extension of geographical knowledge and are doubtless based on exaggerated reports of distances traveled.


80) containing sailing directions from the Red Sea to the Indus and Malabar, indicated that the coast from Barygaza [Baroch] had a general southerly trend down to and far beyond Cape Korami [Comorin], and suggested a peninsula in southern India. While Ptolemy's map is based upon the theory that the earth is round, it bares repeating that it is to his credit that he depicts only that half of its surface which was then known, with very little attempt to speculate on or a€?fill-ina€? the unknown parts with his imagination. To be sure, there are other geographical fragments, individual maps and charts, isolated examples of the best in Greek, Roman, and Arabic cartography, but Ptolemya€™s Geographia is the only extant geographical atlas which has come down to us from the ancients.
His map projections, the conical and modified spherical, as well as the orthographic and stereographic systems developed in the Almagest, are still in use.
This particular copy has not been recovered, however another copy attributed to Planudes is preserved, in part, in the monastery of Vatopedi on Mount Athos. It was also during this time, the 14th century, that the twenty-six maps of the A-version were divided up into sixty-four. This oldest Latin translation of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (confusingly and arbitrarily titled Cosmographia by Angelus) was at first disseminated in numerous, often splendidly decorated manuscript copies. A re-issue of the preceding, but with a new title-page, an account of the New World by Marcus Beneventanus, and a new map of the world by Ruysch, Nova Tabula. The most important edition of Ptolemy, containing the 27 maps of the ancient world and 20 maps based on contemporary knowledge, under the superintendence of Martin WaldseemA?ller. Maps, with the exception of Asia V, printed from the same blocks as 1522 edition, and like them almost unaltered copies on a reduced scale of the maps of the 1513 edition.
The Moon is blue and white in the diagram, showing in five positions how it will move past the Earth during that lunar eclipse, from bottom right to top left. Note his derision in 1539 of Copernicus, the now iconic astronomer who had postulated the earth and planets moved around the sun. The signs, or seasons of the year are slowly moving through all the constellations, precessing one degree every 72 years. The shift of the Spring Equinox moving into the constellation of the Ram coincided with the shift in how that constellation was viewed.
These ages are marked by the movement of the Spring Equinox of zero Aries into those constellations. 13,000 years ago the Sun would have been passing by the fixed star Aldebaran in the exact opposite part of the sky on December 2nd. In fact, one of the brightest fixed stars in this constellation, the fixed star Zuben Algenubi, is currently marking 15 Scorpio. These are the reference points astronomers have named zero Aries and zero Libra for the Equinoxes and the Solstices are zero Capricorn and zero Cancer. The movement of the seasons or signs has always been and will always be as long as Earth remains in its current orbit with its current tilt and wobble. The sign of Leo is where the Sun rises 30 days after the Summer Solstice and this is currently located in the constellation of the Crab. Most of the current mythology connected to the zodiacal constellations comes from the Greeks but every culture on the planet has had their own perception of the constellations (like the Jyotish system from India) so what you are bringing us is a great reminder that these mysteries are also dependent on how we are perceiving them at any given time from a cultural, locational, mythological, astronomical perspective as well as our own personal experience.
It seems that in dominant Western systems Kabbalah, Tarot and Astrology are so interdependent that you really cant keep going, even with just reading about it without having a working understanding of each. 90 to 168 (during the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius) and that he lived in, or near, Alexandria Egypt. This he did through his second great treatise, Geographike Syntaxis, called by him, a€?the geographical guide to the making of mapsa€?, and, in later centuries, shortened to simply Geographia, or (incorrectly) Cosmographia. Geography, he said, differs from chorography in that it deals with a€?a representation in picture of the whole known world together with the phenomena that are contained thereina€?. Otherwise how can one determine the length of its days and nights, the stars which are fixed overhead, the stars which appear nightly over the horizon and the stars which never rise above the horizon at all. This a€?tutora€™ of Ptolemy had read nearly all of the historians before him and had corrected many of their errors (presumable errors relating to the location of places as contained in travelersa€™ itineraries).
Ptolemy was well aware that it would be desirable to retain a semblance of spherical proportions on his flat map, but at the same time he decided to be practical about it. With one exception (an Italian translation by Berlinghieri), every editor of Ptolemya€™s Geographia has published, not the original maps, but a modification of them by Nicolaus Germanus (Donis), who, with praiseworthy exactness and without any further alterations, reproduced the originals, on a projection with rectilinear, equidistant parallels and meridians converging towards the poles. It is an exception when geographical or descriptive remarks are added to this bare enumeration of names.
Therefore if a geographer were obliged to fall back on the reports of travelers, he should exercise some discrimination in his choice of authorities. What could be found to the north of Thule, or to the south of Agysimba and Cape Prasum: Where would you arrive if you sailed westward from the Fortunate Islands? And some cartographers surround the earth on all sides with an ocean that, according to Ptolemy are a€?making a fallacious description, and an unfinished and foolish picturea€?.
But, as is also usual in modern atlases, these neighboring areas of the map are only roughly sketched, while the principle area is shown in full detail. From these same manuscripts it is stated that a€?he drew them according to the instructions in the eight books of Claudius Ptolemya€?. Certain indications point to the Byzantine period, with the exception of AgathodA¦mona€™s single-sheet world map. And it is highly probable that Ptolemy the astronomer, who is usually discredited by later geographers because of his methods and the kinds of information he compiled, had no more standing among some of his influential contemporaries than he would today in the most approved geographical circles of the civilized world. The only good reason for discussing a few of the glaring faults of the Geographia is that it was the canonical work on the subject for more than 1400 years.
In the northern regions, for example, he had been ill-advised with regard to Ireland, and positioned it further north than any part of Wales; likewise, Scotland was twisted around so that its length ran nearly east and west. Ptolemy stated that the Nile arose from two streams, the outlets of two lakes a little south of the equator, which was closer to the truth than any previous conception until the discovery of the Victoria and Albert Nyanza in modern times. All such information was of doubtful origin, and in laying down the coastline of Eastern Asia, Ptolemy ran the line roughly north and south. Ptolemy, apparently following Marinus, ignored this document, or else never saw it because the shape of his India is unduly broadened and foreshortened. Leaving the habitable world from the Strait at the Pillars of Hercules to the Gulf of Issus, it passed through Caralis in Sardinia and Lilybaeum in Sicily (30A° 12a€™ and 37A° 50a€™ N). Ptolemy stated that the Nile arose from two streams, the outlets of two lakes a little south of the equator, which was closer to the truth than any previous conception, or any later one until the discovery of the Victoria and Albert Nyanza in modern times. There is nothing in the literature to indicate that any other such systematic collection of maps was ever compiled, with the exception of the maps of Marinus, about which almost nothing is known, save what Ptolemy has mentioned. The listing of place-names, either in geographical or alphabetical order, with the latitude and longitude of each place to guide the search, is not so different from the modern system of letters and numerals employed to help the reader, a little convenience that is standard on modern maps and Ptolemaic in origin.
Four new mapsa€”France, Italy, Spain and Palestinea€”being based on contemporary knowledge. The map of the world is the first to show contemporary discoveries, and the first map to bear the name of its engraver, Johannes Schnitzer de Armssheim.
The other 6 mapsa€”northern Europe, Spain, France, Poland, Italy and the Holy Landa€”are based on contemporary knowledge.
Includes the Tabula Terra Nova, the first map specifically devoted to the delineation of the New World. Some time ago when I came from Torgau feeling quite weak, he said that I was fated to die then. Now, I ask, why is it that all stars don't affect that child equally if all reach him equally? Approximately every 26,000 years every sign will move through every constellation along the ecliptic. Aquarius is the Waterbearer, Pisces is the Fish, Aries is the Ram, Taurus is the Bull, Gemini is the Twins, Cancer is the Crab, Leo is the Lion, Virgo is the Virgin Priestess, Libra is the Scales, Scorpio is the Scorpion, and Sagittarius is the Archer. This is the zodiacal degree of the mid-way point or cross-quarter point between the Autumnal Equinox and Winter Solstice, meaning that the Sun is currently rising near Zuben Algenubi at the Samhain astrological cross-quarter on Nov 7 each year. In fact, Regulus the heart of the Lion is at 29 Leo 58 and will move into Virgo in 2012 as the signs move one degree every 72 years through the constellations taking nearly 26,000 years to make one circuit. Interestingly the archetypal signs for the Solstices are water and earth and are elements that move much slower than fire and air. Capricorn focuses on the community and Cancer focuses on the Family but neither can exist without reference to the other. During the second century, Alexandria was not only the richest city in the world, with regard to learned institutions and treasures of scholarship, but also the wealthiest commercial place on the earth. This work is actually the first general atlas of the world to have survived, rather than a a€?Geographya€? with a long textual introduction to the subject of cartography. As he proceeds to elaborate his definition of geography, it becomes apparent that Ptolemy conceived that the primary function of geography was a€?mapmakinga€?, and that, to him, geography was synonymous with cartography. He had, moreover, edited and revised his own geographic maps, of which at least two editions had been published before Ptolemy saw them. Finally, Ptolemy thought, about all one could do was to locate unfamiliar places as accurately as possible with reference to well-known places, in as much as it is advisable on a map of the entire world to assign a definite position to every known place, regardless of how little is known about it. The longitudes would be determined from the meridian of Alexandria, either at sunrise or sunset, calculating the difference in equinoctial hours between Alexandria and point two, whatever it might be. As mentioned earlier, the original text called for twenty-six regional or special maps, which in all extant manuscript copies bear a strong family resemblance and are laid down on the projection apparently used by Marinus in the form of isosceles trapezoids. However, this statement has never been dated and, confusingly, AgathodA¦mona€™s single-sheet world map employs a projection unlike any proposed by Ptolemya€™s text. But, again, when they were constructed - totally and faithfully copied from the originals, or constructed from Ptolemya€™s instructions but without benefit of original models - is significant in trying to determine the degree of similarity to their a€?prototypea€™ and the possibility of additions or corrections based upon more contemporary knowledge. Different from what is now accepted as the meaning, this word in ancient maps had a purely geographical, not a meteorological significance, although they also perceived that the climate of a region was somewhat related to its distance from the equator.
Similarly he showed the length of the Mediterranean as 62A°, whereas, in reality it is only 42A°.
Geographers of the 15th and 16th centuries relied on it so heavily, while ignoring the new discoveries of maritime explorers, that it actually exerted a powerful retarding influence on the progress of cartography.
Instead of continuing it to the Land of the LinA¦ [seacoast of China] he curved it around to the east and south, forming a great bay, Sinus Magnus [roughly the Gulf of Siam].
Carthage is positioned 1A° 20a€™ south of the parallel of Rhodes; actually it is one degree north of it. Corrected and amended by a succession of editors, this version also formed the basis upon which all of the editions of the 15th century are built.
The text is a metrical paraphrase by Francesco Berlinghieri, and is the first edition in Italian. The greatly increased number of a€?modern mapsa€? makes this in effect the first modern atlas.
Third, why does the effect occur outside of the uterus, at the very hour and minute when the infant comes out of the uterus, and not in the uterus? It is this movement of the signs, or seasons, through the constellations that is the mechanism of how myth and symbol change over time. The four cardinal points zero Capricorn, zero Aries, zero Cancer and zero Libra mark the Solstice and Equinox points when we experience the seasonal shifts depending on where we are on the planet. This is designed to help us remember that the constellations are different from the seasonal signs. 13,000 years ago the early December Sun rose near Aldebaran and the early June Sun rose near Antares exactly opposite of what is happening now. Remember the precession occurs at the rate of one degree every 72 years so the Sun rises within one degree either side of this star at the November cross-quarter for 144 years. Also, at the equator there are no more seasons since the sun is always perpendicular on Earth surfaces and both day and night are 12 hours long all year long (it`s like having the same astrological day all year). It was a place where seafaring people and caravans from all parts of the known world would use to congregate, thereby providing the opportunity to collect knowledge of far away lands and seas. Here for the first time are documented the duties and responsibilities of the mapmaker, his limitations, and the nature of the materials he was to work with. The final drafts were nearly free from defects and his text, which we know of only through Ptolemy, was so reliable in Ptolemya€™s estimation that a€?it would seem to be enough for us to describe the earth on which we dwell from his commentaries alone, without other investigations.a€? According to Ptolemy, the most significant feature of the maps of Marinus was the growth of the habitable world and the changed attitude toward the uninhabited parts. When such a conical surface is extended on a plane, a network with circular parallels and rectilinear, converging meridians arise.
Unlike Marinus who listed longitude on one page and latitude on another, Ptolemy began the tradition of listing the positional coordinates together and in a usable system that was practical to follow. Some of the other conspicuously modern conventions include the previously noted lack of ornamentation, his method of differentiating land and water, rivers and towns, by means of either hachures or different colors, and his use of a€?standardizeda€™ symbols all of which is accepted at first glance without a thought being given to the origin of the technique. This particular world map is usually found at the end of Book VII, preceded by three chapters containing some practical advice, a general description of all known areas of the world and the three principle seas (the Mediterranean, the Caspian and the Indian Ocean), with their bays and islands, and instructions for drawing a sphere and maps on a plane surface.
It is noteworthy here to point out that, regardless of when these existing manuscript reproductions were made, they somehow escaped the pictorial fancies such as sketches of animals, monsters, savages, ships, kings, etc.
The eastward extension of Asia is also exaggerated, measuring about 110A° from the coast of Syria to the outermost limits of China, instead of the true distance of about 85A°. The Geographia was both a keystone and a millstone, a pioneering effort that outlived its usefulness.
The northern coast of Germany beyond Denmark, Cimbrica Chersonese, is shown as the margin of the Northern Ocean, and running in a general east-west direction. Continuing it around to the south until it joined Terra Incognita at the southern limit of the habitable world, he made a lake of the Indicum Mare [Indian Ocean]. For the most part, the lands beyond the Ganges were not well known until a thousand years later when the brothers Polo first acquainted western Europe with the existence of a number of large islands in that part of the world. Byzantium is placed in the same latitude as Massilia, which made it more than two degrees north of its true position. It is also the only edition with maps printed on the original projection with equidistant parallels or meridians.
For example, zero Capricorn, marks the Winter Solstice point north of the Equator and the Summer Solstice point south of the Equator. This means the seasons are in the opposite constellations of what they were 13,000 years ago.
Also, beyond a certain longitude, sun rays never hits the earth in a perpendicular angle and is always oblique, and Earth doesn’t get the full power of the sun`s energy. It is interesting how the elements match the seasonal experience regardless of what season is being emphasized. In spite of such scant personal knowledge, Claudius Ptolemya€™s writings have had a greater influence on cartography, and on geography in general, than that of any other single figure in history. 141), a composition dealing with astronomy and mathematics, more commonly known by its hybrid Greco-Arabic title, the Almagest, in which he lays down the foundation of trigonometry and sets forth his view of the universe.
This single treatise remained the standard work on geographical theory throughout the Middle Ages, was not superseded as such with the 16th century, and constitutes one of the fundamental tenants of modern geodesy. Cartography is not an artistic endeavor according to the Greek scholar, but should be concerned with the relation of distance and direction, and with the important features of the eartha€™s surface that can be indicated by plain lines and simple notations (enough to indicate general features and fix positions). Marinus was a good man in Ptolemya€™s estimation but he lacked the critical eye and allowed himself to be led astray in his scientific investigations. Lest the proportions of certain parts of the mapped territory should be too much deformed, only the northern or the southern hemispheres should be laid down on the same map by this projection, which is consequently inconvenient for maps embracing the whole earth. This particular projection shown of the general map of the habitable world, the one believed to be employed by Ptolemy in his original general map, is laid down in the lazy mana€™s projection he talked about, the modified conic instead of the spherical projection that he recommended for a faithful delineation of the eartha€™s surface. Many scholars ascribe these three chapters to AgathodA¦mon, as the descriptive text for his map.
As can be seen from these world maps, Ptolemy divided the northern hemisphere into twenty-one parallels, noted, again, in the margin of this maps. To judge, therefore, from the map, Ptolemy discarded both the older Greek belief that the earth was surrounded by water, and Herodotusa€™ description of the Phoeniciana€™s circumnavigation of Africa.
And there were no good maps of the East Indian Archipelago until after the Portuguese voyages to the Indies. This particular error threw the whole Euxine Pontus [Black Sea], whose general form and dimensions were fairly well known, too far north by the same amount, over 100 miles.
Do you mean to suggest that the stars care about a little skin on the woman's belly when otherwise the sun gives life to every member? Similarly the story of Jesus, also known as the lamb of God, was sacrificed on the cross symbolically giving birth to the current age of the fish, coinciding with the movement of the Spring Equinox into the constellation of the Fish, (also known as the age of Pisces), about 2000 years ago. Zero Aries marks the Spring Equinox north of the equator, and the Autumnal Equinox south of the equator.
Having all those facts, seems that Western Astrology is applicable only on certain parts in the Northern H. Here he explains his belief that the earth is a stationary sphere, at the center of the universe, which revolves about it daily. According to Ptolemy, even Marinus had made mistakes, either because he had consulted a€?too many conflicting volumes, all disagreeing,a€? or because he had never completed the final revision of his map.
However, Ptolemy rigorously applies the conical projection only to the northern part of his map of the world.
The parallel bounding the southern limit of the habitable world is equidistant from the equator in a southerly direction as the parallel through Meroe is distant in a northerly direction. Yet this Ptolemaic theory was later mysteriously a€?re-interpreteda€? by Martin WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (see monograph #310 in Book IV) and again by Gerard Mercator in 1569 as a belief by Ptolemy in an all encircling great ocean.
Yet this Ptolemaic theory was later mysteriously a€?re-interpreteda€? by Martin WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (see monograph #310) and again by Gerard Mercator in 1569 as a belief by Ptolemy in an all encircling great ocean. While his proofs of the sphericity of the earth are still accepted today as valid, Ptolemy rejected the theory of the rotation of the earth about its axis as being absurd. To represent the known parts of the southern hemisphere on the same sheet, he describes an arc of a circle parallel to the equator, and at the same distance to the south of it, as Meroe [MA¦roe] is to the north, and then divides this arc in parts of the same number and size, as on the Parallel of Meroe.
That paradox notwithstanding, though, Ptolemya€™s depiction of a southern Afro-Asian continent and a land-locked Indian Ocean provided little comfort during the intervening 1,300 years to those early explorers, and later the Portuguese, in their attempts to find an all water route to India. However, Marinusa€™ treatise on geography, with its maps, should still be ranked among the most important of the lost documents of the ancients, if for no other reason than that it was the foundation upon which Claudius Ptolemy built.
The network is then obtained by joining the intersections to corresponding points on the equator. The twenty-one parallels are spaced at equal lineal intervals and each one is designated by (1) the number of equinoctial hours and fractional hours of daylight on the longest day of the year and (2) the number of degrees and minutes of arc north of the equator. For example, the first parallel of latitude north of the equator was distant from it a€?the fourth part of an houra€? and a€?distant from it geometrically about 4A°15a€™a€?. One other parallel is added south of the equator, identified with the Rhaptum promontory and Cattigara and about 8A° 25a€™ distant from a€?The Linea€?.
What about the other hundred who were born the same hour under the same sign and don't have any correspondence at all with such advancement?" [Luther’s Works, v.
All of the parallels north of the equator are located theoretically with the exception of three: Meroe, Syene and Rhodes. The first one, Clima I per Meroe, (so called because it passes through Meroe, near modern Shendi, a city of Africa at 17A° N latitude) was established traditionally as 1,000 miles below Alexandria and 300 miles from the torrid zone; it was also known as the royal seat and principal metropolis of Ethiopia [Africa].



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