30.07.2015

What is low life path of exile

Peering down into a vast cosmic maelstrom of gas and dust, the central star in this image of NGC 6853, also known as the Dumbbell Nebula, produced this gigantic bubble of material by shedding its outer layers.
Scattered like diamond chips across the Cosmos, stars look deceptively serene to earthbound observers. A star, like our Sun, begins its life as a vast cloud of gas and dust drifting among the apparently empty spaces between the stars. For example, the cloud of dust and gas that formed our Sun must have included material from a previous generation star that blew itself apart. For billions of years interstellar clouds wander more or less aimlessly between their starry relatives until they receive a gravitational nudge, possibly from a nearby exploding star or the close passing of another galaxy. Stellar womb- am artist's impression of the central region inside an interstellar cloud where gravity is forging new stars. When fusion commences, hydrogen is converted into the next heaviest element (helium) and a tremendous amount of energy is released in the form of photons. Although, most of a star's volume is comprised of hydrogen, hydrogen can only be fused into helium at its core and all stars eventually deplete their central store of hydrogen.
For example, although our Sun is supremely important to our existence, it is only an average star, about halfway through its 10 billion year life-cycle.
Our local star has sufficient mass in its core to fuse 700 million tons of hydrogen into 695 million tons of helium each second for 10 billion years. As the core collapses, the pressure and temperature within it will increase until the helium begins to fuse into the next heaviest elements, carbon and oxygen- two of the most important elements required for life as we know it. Gravity eventually balances this expansion, but only after the star has swollen to the orbit of Venus or possibly even farther out.
Red Giant Sun - In about 5 billion years our Sun will swell and possibly consume the Earth. As was the case with hydrogen, the amount of helium in the core will eventually become exhausted. When thermonuclear reactions within the shell of helium commences, the outward radiation pressure will exceed the inward pull of gravity and the surface of star will expand once again returning the star to its Red Giant size. The ejected gas will begin to visibly glow in harlequin colors as it is ionized by invisible ultraviolet radiation still being released from the star's hot core.
The Universe is filled with spectacular cosmic displays, but few match the wonder of a planetary nebula. About 4,000 years ago an elderly, bloated giant red star, located toward the northern constellation of Vulpecula, gave its last gasp and shed its outer skin exposing its still pulsating heart. Telescopes back then lacked the color definition and clarity of even the most inexpensive instruments available today.
Our galaxy contains over 200 billion stars but only about 3,000 are surrounded by a planetary nebula. Planetary nebulae come is a variety of shapes, no two are exactly identical and this has been a source of ongoing study by astronomers.
Perhaps the best explanation for the structures seen within and surrounding the Dumbbell come from a 2008 investigation. It's also amazing what scientists can learn from studying the colors released by stars, emitted or reflected by nebula. The creation of even ordinary stars requires the release of incredible energy, millions of times more powerful than every warhead and bomb in the world's combined nuclear arsenals. Sometimes we come to a crossroad in life where we need to stop, take a moment and choose life’s future path. Slightly-raised flower beds give a more effective display of the plants and, if cut out of grass, provide a decent clean sharp edge. Turn the soil slightly forward each time, gradually increasing the width and depth of the trench.
Depending on the time of year, the flower bed design can be left rough to break down of its own accord or, if required for immediate use, the soil can be broken up and trodden thoroughly.
After these have been planted it will be found that it is no longer possible to stagger the plants; that is putting one plant opposite each gap formed between the plants in the row in front.
One of the most indispensible tools in the garden is a 6 ft lathe marked off in feet and sub-divided into six inches, with six separate inches marked at one end.
When initially making a new square or rectangular bed then the sides and the corners must be exact right angles and here a little mathematical formula comes in handy.
Starting off from the base A and putting in a peg, measure along 3 ft and put in another peg.
With this little formula you can true up or make any rectangular flower bed design by using your lathe and a piece of string or a garden line. Guessing how to draw out an oval bed is not easy, but here again with three pegs and a piece of string you can easily make a bed to the desired shape and size. A typical star like our own Sun (technically a yellow dwarf star), then, is fuelled by nuclear fusion, the conversion of hydrogen (the simplest atom, with a nucleus consisting of just one proton) into helium (the second simplest, with two protons and two neutrons in its nucleus). The Sun’s own gravity traps and squeezes this ultra-hot gas into a confined space, thus generating enough heat for the fusion reaction to take place. Already about 4.5 - 5 billion years old, when the Sun’s hydrogen fuel starts to run out (in an estimated further 5 billion years or so), its main sequence comes to an end, and it starts to cool down and collapse under its own gravity.
Eventually, the outer layers blow off completely and the core settles down into a white dwarf star, a small cinder about the size of the Earth composed mainly of carbon and oxygen. However, a star significantly larger than our Sun is hotter and burns up its fuel more quickly and generally has a shorter but more dramatic life. Larger stars are much hotter and the higher temperatures within such a star are sufficient to fuse even helium. Even larger stars continue in further rounds of nuclear fusion, each of successively increased violence and shorter duration, as carbon fuses into neon, neon into magnesium and oxygen, then to silicon and finally iron. The iron in the star’s core is very resistent to further fusing, however high the temperatures, and the heat from its nuclear fusion is no longer sufficient to support it against its own crushing gravity and it will suddenly and catastrophically collapse.


This rapid collapse results in a massive rebound when the core reaches the density of an atomic nucleus, like a ball bouncing off a brick wall, resulting in ultra-hot shock-waves which are imparted to the rest of the star. The conditions in the blast of a supernova are even hotter and more violent than in the core of the old star and this finally allows elements even heavier than iron to be created, such as radioactive versions of cobalt, aluminum, titanium, etc. When a star explodes as a supernova, most of its matter is blown away into space to form a nebula (such as the Crab Nebula).
A neutron star is typically between 1.4 and 4 times as massive as our own Sun, but is squeezed into a volume only about twenty kilometres in diameter, and so has an extremely high density. Because neutron stars retain the angular momentum of the original much larger star, they usually rotate at very high speed (as fast as several hundred times per second in a newly formed neutron star), in the same way as an ice skater spins faster as she tucks in her arms. A particular type of large neutron star known as a magnetar has a particularly powerful magnetic field (up to a hundred trillion times the strength of the Earth's magnetic field), which powers the emission of copious amounts of high-energy electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-rays and gamma rays, as it decays over a period of around 10,000 years.
Located about 1,200 light-years from Earth, gas within the Dumbbell glows in visible light when it is struck by invisible ultraviolet radiation still being emitted by the central star. These clouds of sparse material are truly immense and often span hundreds or thousands of light years in all directions. Significantly, once the cloud is pushed, events take on a life of their own and the material begins to contract inward under its own massive weight.
As the photons rush from the core of the cloud, they push back on the inward pressure of gravity, which is still trying to compress the cloud, until an equilibrium is achieved and the cloud's collapse ceases. A huge amount of radiation will be released when this occurs - more than the amount released by the fusion of hydrogen. In the case of our Sun, the planet Mercury will be absorbed along with Venus and Earth may be engulfed or thrown from its current orbit in the process.
When this happens, gravity will cause the surface of the star to suddenly shrink as it simultaneously exerts enormous pressure on the carbon and oxygen core. So called due to their spherical shape, these far off smoke rings have little to do with planets. Planetary nebulae are usually no larger than a light-year in diameter which is actually enormous if you consider a light-year is almost 6 trillion miles in length. The researchers proposed the existence of a jet spawned by an accretion disk, fed by material from a small stellar companion, surrounding the nebula's parent star.
Even after its birth, the fury of a star can only be tamed by the relentless force of gravity. Like stellar factories, stars transmute the building blocks of everything that surrounds us and in their deaths release a precious cargo of stellar material which may eventually find its way into creatures such as we, ourselves. As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.Click here to learn more. As the core runs out of hydrogen and then helium, the core contacts and the outer layers expand, cool, and become less bright. So, assuming there is no need to lift the turf, this can be dug in and chopped up as the job proceeds.
Don’t be at all worried if you finish up at the edge with a trench nearly the depth of your spade, this is as it should be. If it is to be used for summer and spring bedding, lightly dust with hydrated lime before raking. For circular and oval flower beds you start planting at the edge; in other words you put your border in first. After the two outer circles have been planted all the other plants are just put in equidistant from one another with no attempt at making a circle or any other figure. Having decided on the size and shape of the ellipse, put in pegs at A and B and loop a piece of string or garden line over the two pegs tying the ends together. The distance from the straight line A—B to C will be half the width of the bed and this is where you make the adjustment to suit the shape of the flower bed. A protostar is formed when gravity causes the dust and gas of a nebula to clump together in a process called accretion. The process remains in equilibrium as long as it retains enough fuel to create this heat- and light-producing outward energy which counteracts the inward pressure of its gravity (known as hydrostatic equilibrium). However, energy from the collapse then heats up the core even more, until it is hot enough to start burning helium and, under the extra heat of the helium burning, its outer layers expand briefly (for a “mere” 100 million years) into a massive red giant star. Over a very long stretch of time, white dwarfs will eventually fade into black dwarfs, and this is the ultimate fate of about 97% of stars in our galaxy. A star of ten solar masses, for example, would burn fuel at about a thousand times the rate of the Sun, and would exhaust its hydrogen fuel in less than 100 million years (compared to the Sun’s 10 billion year lifetime). The helium then becomes the star’s raw fuel, and it goes on to release ever higher levels of energy as the helium is fused into carbon and oxygen, while the outer layer of hydrogen actually cools and expands significantly in the star’s red giant phase. So, although a star the size of our own Sun does not progress very far along this path, a larger star continues though a chain of transmutations to progressively heavier nuclei. The final collapse of a massive star under its own gravity happens incredibly quickly: in a thousandth of a second it can shrink from thousands of kilometres across to a ball of ultra-condensed matter just a few kilometres across. In this way, the star ulimately ends its life in a cataclysmic explosion known as a supernova, and for a few short weeks it burns as brightly as several billion suns, briefly outshining the star's entire home galaxy.
In the process of its explosion, a supernova blows out into space a nebula of debris containing a mix of all of the naturally-occurring elements, in proportions which agree closely with those calculated to exist on earth.
The ultra-dense remnants of the imploding core which are left behind are known as a neutron star, as its electrons and protons are crushed together in the huge gravity to form neutrons. Given that, as Sir Isaac Newton pointed out as long ago as the 17th Century, gravity is subject to an inverse-square law (so that as the distance from the source decreases, gravity increases by the square of that amount), the gravitational pull of a small, dense neutron star is much greater than that around a normal star of many times its size. In some cases, their intense magnetic fields sweep regular pulses of radio waves across the universe, for which they are known as pulsars. Even though they contain fewer atoms than the best vacuum on Earth, the total amount of material in an interstellar cloud, also known as its mass, is truly astronomical. As the dust particles and gas molecules move toward the cloud's center, they inevitably begin bumping into each other.


Eventually the photons escape into space as visible light and other forms of invisible radiation and the star is born. Since the star has the same amount of material, its heat will be spread over a larger surface area and thus it will be cooler, take on a reddish hue and become a star that is called Red Giant.
However, in a star like our Sun, core temperatures will never become sufficient to trigger the fusion of carbon and oxygen into the next heavier elements.
Essentially enormous bubbles of gas and dust, planetaries represent the final gasps of stars similar to our Sun. Because a planetary's bubble of gas is constantly expanding, the Dumbbell will only remain visible for around 10,000 years like most other planetary nebulae. Over time, precession, similar to the wobble seen in a spinning top, causes the jet to slew in different directions. The one thing we must never forget though, when choosing whether to take the high road or the low road, is that life is what we make of it.
Add rotted manure, old potting soil or compost and, as the job proceeds, turn the soil to the centre to create a trench so that after the first spadeful or two you are digging round and round. The extra deep trench at the edge of the bed will allow you to rake down any debris, stones, clods of soil or roots which can then be easily collected. For example, supposing you are planting up a circular flower bed with lobelia and antirrhinums. Depending on the occupants of the bed, a ‘dot’ (taller-growing plant) is selected for the centre. The tightness or slackness of this loop will decide on the type of elliptical bed that you make. The greater the distance the more tubby will be the bed and the smaller the distance from the line A—B to C will give you a much narrower flower bed design. As gravity continues to pull ever more matter inward towards the core, its temperature, pressure and density increases. This 0.7% coefficient, which is essentially due to the extent to which the strong nuclear force is able to overcome the electrical repulsion in the atoms, turns out to be a critical one in determining the life-cycle of stars and the development of the variety of atoms we see in the universe around us. The matter which makes up white and black dwarfs is largely composed of, and supported by, electron-degenerate matter, in which the atoms making up the star are prevented from further collapse by the effective pressure of their electrons, due to the Pauli Exclusion Principle (which states that no two electrons can occupy identical states, even under the pressure of a collapsing star of several solar masses). A star 20 times the mass of our Sun would burn its fuel 36,000 times faster than the Sun, and might live only a few million years in total. Eventually, a star of sufficient initial mass becomes a red supergiant, which has a core layered like an onion, with a broad shell of hydrogen on the outside, surrounding a shell of helium, and then successively denser shells of carbon, then neon, then oxygen, then silicon, and finally a core of white-hot iron.
For example, the supernova whose remnants we see today as the Crab Nebula, was recorded by Chinese astronomers in the year 1054 as visible to the naked eye for several months, even in the daytime, and bright enough to read by at night, despite its being about 6,500 light years away. The variety of atoms in the dusty cloud from which our own Sun (and the Earth itself) were formed 4.5 billion years ago were essentially the ashes of generations of earlier stars having run through their entire life-cycles. In 1935, the young Indian-American astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar established that there is in fact a limit, known as the Chandrasekhar limit, of about 1.4 solar masses above which a star must continue to collapse under its own gravity into a neutron star rather than settling down into a white dwarf (a similar discovery was made around the same time by the Russian scientist Lev Davidovich Landau).
In fact, the gravitational force on a massively dense neutron star is about a million million times fiercer than on the Earth, and a projectile would need to attain almost half the speed of light in order to escape its gravity. We know of about 2,000 neutron stars in our own Milky Way galaxy, the majority of which were detected as radio pulsars. Most of the stuff in one of these clouds is hydrogen, the simplest and most abundant element in the Universe, but they also contain other, more complex, elements, too. Compared to the life of a star, which stretches into billions of years, a planetary nebula only exists for the twinkling of an eye and that helps explain their rarity. Plant circular, oval and triangular beds this way and after planting, run over the whole surface with a small Dutch hoe. If a critical temperature in the core of a protostar is reached, then nuclear fusion begins and a star is born. The visible light of a supernova, though, represents only about 1% of the released energy, the vast majority being in the form of ultraviolet light, x-rays, gamma rays and, particularly, neutrinos.
Supernovas are therefore ultimately responsible for providing the mix of atoms on Earth, and the building blocks for the intricate chemistry of life.
Under conditions of such powerful gravity, Sir Isaac Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation (which generally works well enough in our own Solar System) becomes redundant, and the more sophisticated model of Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity is needed.
Its fate is determined by the original mass of the star; it will become either a black dwarf, neutron star, or black hole.
To ‘true’ up the flower bed edging use a half-moon edging iron and then, to neaten off the job, turn the rake with the head downwards and go around with the back of the rake to the turf edge gently tamping down. If the critical temperature is not reached, however, it ends up as a brown dwarf, or dead star, and never attains star status.
Most of these building blocks (carbon, oxygen, iron, etc) were therefore not produced in the the Big Bang at the start of the universe - at the time the very first stars were being formed, their composition would have been about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium with just traces of the next heaviest element, lithium - but much later in the centre of stars and their supernova explosions. Thus, clocks on a neutron star would run 10 - 20% slower than those on Earth, and any light from its surface would be so strongly curved that, viewed from afar, part of the back of the neutron star would be visible as well. However, the amount of energy produced by a star is billions of times greater than any man-made nuclear weapon. Most flower beds are left far too puffy with the result that the plants suffer as the soil settles.) Then decide on the distance to allow between plants and rows and mark out the positions of the first two rows using your trowel or measuring rod following the curve of the bed. It is in this respect that people talk of humans as being composed of “stardust” (or, for the less romantically inclined, nuclear waste).



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