29.04.2014

Zodiac signs according to date of birth

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Description: This map is justifiably considered by many scholars to be the finest cartographic production of its age.
As royal cosmographer, it was Riberoa€™s duty to revise the patron real [padron general], the standard or official map, as new data was brought back by the pilots from their voyages of discovery. In 1524 Ribero was also a member of the Conference of Badajos that was assembled to settle the dispute as to whether the Philippine Islands lay within the part of the world allotted by the Treaty of Tordesillas to Spain or to Portugal.
In 1526 Ribero was a prominent member of the junta of pilots at Seville, under the presidency of Ferdinand Columbus.
The map shown here, the Propoganda map, is the one now in the Biblioteca Apostalica Vaticana, Vatican City.
Beginning on the northern part of the North American continent, on the coast of Tiera de Labrador [Greenland] a brief inscription reads: The English discovered this country.
Tierra de los Baccallos [Newfoundland], which is still a part of the mainland as on the map of Ruysch (#313), is thus described: The land of cod fish discovered by the Corte Reals and where they were lost. Tiera De EstevA? Gomez commemorates the voyage made in 1525 by Estevan Gomez, the captain of the San Antonio, who deserted Magellan and returned to Spain. On his return voyage, Gomez saw the Bermuda Islands, which were rediscovered long after by Gates and Somers in 1610. Tiera De Garay, north of the Gulf of Mexico, was so named for Francis de Garay, the Governor of Jamaica, who in 1519 sent Pineda to find a strait through the land to the a€?South Seaa€? recently discovered by Balboa.
Nueva EspaA±a, or Mexico, has the following inscription: Nueva EspaA±a is thus called because it contains many things [of the kind found] in Spain.
The northern coast of Brazil has this inscription: All over this coast, from Rio dulce to the Cape of San Roque, nothing of account has been found. Tiera Del Brazil has this legend: Here, the only thing of value is the brazil [dyewood], which costs only the trouble of cutting and carrying it to the vessels, which the Indians do for very little.
The La Plata region of South America was first explored by Juan de Solis, who, in 1512, succeeded Vespucci as Pilot Major. The following inscription on Tiera De Patagones, or the Country of the Patagonians, discloses that Ribero was familiar with the description of that country which was brought back to Spain in 1522 by the survivors of the Magellan expedition: Those who inhabit that land where Fernam de Magellan found the strait, are men of large bodies, almost giants, covered with skins of beasts. As can be seen there are a multitude of place-names on the coasts of all of the continents.
Further north, on the west coast of the modern day United States, but relating to the Atlantic coast, the inscription reads as follows: Everywhere on this northern coast the Indians are taller than those of Santo Domingo and other islands. In accordance with the recommendations of the Spanish members of the Conference at Badajos that all Spanish maps should thereafter locate the Line of Demarcation, Ribero drew such a line 370 leagues west of San Antonio, the westernmost of the Cape Verde Islands, using it as the initial meridian.
The route or track taken by the famous Magellan expedition in 1519-20 is marked on Riberoa€™s map by drawings of his first two ships, the Victoria and the Trinidad.
As mentioned earlier, several of Riberoa€™s famous large planispheres, impressively executed in the style of nautical charts, as well as a plan of the western hemisphere, have been preserved and are found today in the libraries of Mantua (the 1525 map), the Vatican (1529), Weimar (1527 and 1529), and WolfenbA?ttel (1532). Typical of Riberoa€™s world maps is their decoration, which depicted quadrants, astrolabes (bottom left and right) and text providing the rules of navigation and information about various countries.
On the Propoganda map, specifically, there are Indians, monkeys, opossums, rheas and parrots which were becoming familiar on the South American scene; but Ribero also adds deer, a jaguar, a possible bear, a dragon, some birds and a number of small animals that are difficult to interpret, but, according to Wilma George, give the impression of some of the South American rodents such as the mara, chinchilla and viscacha. This detail of the Pacific Ocean on the Vaticana€™s a€?Propogandaa€? edition of 1529 shows a quadrant (lower left) and circular figure for finding solar declination (dominating the central Pacific), both with accompanying instructions. Detail: Eastern Hemisphere from the 1529 Propoganda or Second Borgian edition of Riberoa€™s map.
In 1524 Ribero was also a member of the Conference of Badajos that was assembled to settle the dispute as to whether the Philippine Islands lay within the part of the world allotted by the Treaty of Tordesillas to Spain or to Portugal.A  This conference dissolved without agreement, but Spain retained control of both groups of islands until 1528, when Charles V sold his claim to the Spice [Moluccan] Islands to Portugal as part of the Treaty of Saragossa. Tiera De Garay, north of the Gulf of Mexico, was so named for Francis de Garay, the Governor of Jamaica, who in 1519 sent Pineda to find a strait through the land to the a€?South Seaa€? recently discovered by Balboa.A  Pineda sailed along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico as far west as the river Panuco, discovering a large river, the R. As mentioned earlier, several of Riberoa€™s famous large planispheres, impressively executed in the style of nautical charts, as well as a plan of the western hemisphere, have been preserved and are found today in the libraries of Mantua (the 1525 map), the Vatican (1529), Weimar (1527 and 1529), and WolfenbA?ttel (1532).A  Fragments of a world map produced in 1530, probably for a member of the important Augsburg merchant dynasty the House of Welser, are preserved in the Studienbibliothek, Dillingen on the Danube. What are some other things that might be interesting for her to look back on and know about the day of her birth or signifigant things that are happening in our present time.
If the Duchess of Cambridge gives birth today, then the child’s birthday will fall under the zodiac sign of Cancer, but if born very late this evening or tomorrow, it will be a Leo.
Thanks for stopping by our post about Birth Zodiac Signs, please come back as we update daily with new articles, videos, and blog listings. In astronomy, Zodiac is a terminology used to describe the ring of constellations that comprise the path of the Sun across the sky over the course of the year. There is a lot of harmony in this relationship owing to the fact that Fire is ambitious and energy driven while Air is intellectual and playful.
The enthusiasm in Fire and the passion in Water have great prospects of growing compassion between the two but there are bound to be emotional clashes due to many opposite characteristics in both the elements. The work is written in Turkish with large naskhi script in black ink on 90 leaves of delicate finished (aharlA±) paper. This work was made for the Treasury of Sultan Murad III, and the quality of its paintings, its binding and its calligraphy make it one of the greatest works of Ottoman art created for a sultan. A contemporary copy of an illustrated cosmography, and perhaps the earliest to survive of the great geographer Ibn al-Wardi (d. The work has also been attributed to an earlier author, Zayn al-Din Abu Hafs a€?Umar Ibn al-Muzaffar Ibn al-Wardi, who died in 1348 AD, but according to the 1479 and 1487 copies of the Kharidat, this author would pre-date the original work. Though the identity of the author is still uncertain, at the very least the physical evidence of our copy would indicate either that it is a very early edition of the later Ibn al-Wardi, perhaps copied within a few years of the original, or that it is an edition of the earlier author, completed within less than a century of his death.
Islamic sacred geography differs from the Ptolemaic tradition in that it does not employ cartographic grids, or longitude and latitude scales; as a rule, these used Mecca and the Kaa€?ba as the center of the world. Between the 12th and 16th centuries, the study of Islamic geography often extended to include cosmology, cosmogony, astrology and similar subjects, rather than the production of purely geographical works that were characteristic of earlier periods.
In addition to the two dated copies mentioned earlier, further copies of the Kharidat al-`Ajaa€™ib include one in the Vatican Library dating to the 18th century, one of a similar date (1778 AD) in the National Library of the Czech Republic, as well as one in the Library of Congress, which is undated.
The following excerpts are taken out of a work older then 968 when Cairo became the capital. The land of the Zinji lies opposite to that of Sind; between the two intervenes the breadth of the Sea of Persia.
Aden, nice town, where the ships of India and China come, one finds there all the products of the eastern countries, brought there from different places, silk, arms, kaimoukt (kind of leader) , musk, aoud (aloes wood), several aromatics, ivory, ebony, clothes of grass, estimated higher is value then those of silk, lead, pearls, precious stones, the zoubad (civet) and amber. Concerning the lands in the southern hemisphere; they start with the lands of the Sudan or the Blacks, which extends up to the extremity of the Mogreb or Africa, towards the big sea, there are many deserts there where there is nobody.
The Zindges; their country is the biggest of the countries the Blacks live in, at one side it touches Abyssinie. The island of Camar or the island of the Moon, very long and very large, one says 4 months walking east to west; there is a town called Han, where the king resides. There you do not see anymore the pole star, or the big bear, and the waves are big as mountains. He calls the area south of the sources of the Nile: Rub'a al-Kharab, one of the richest regions in the world. He describes Zanzibar as peopled by idolaters who boasted no code of writing (meaning no revealed religion) but were accustomed to being harangued (meaning they get speeches) by leaders of society in the marked places. One finds at Sofala a big amount of gold, in very pure nuggets and each nugget (tibra) can be 2 to 3 mithcals. Oriented with the South at the top, it shows the known world as a sphere surrounded by the Encircling Sea, which is enclosed by mountains. An important cosmography composed for the Mamluk na'ib of Aleppo Shahin, Arabic manuscript on paper, 178ff.
A A  The land of the Zinji lies opposite to that of Sind; between the two intervenes the breadth of the Sea of Persia. A A A  The Zinji are extremely numerous, through deficient in the means of carrying on war.
A A A  Concerning the lands in the southern hemisphere; they start with the lands of the Sudan or the Blacks, which extends up to the extremity of the Mogreb or Africa, towards the big sea, there are many deserts there where there is nobody.
A  The island of Camar or the island of the Moon, very long and very large, one says 4 months walking east to west; there is a town called Han, where the king resides. A A A  He describes Zanzibar as peopled by idolaters who boasted no code of writing (meaning no revealed religion) but were accustomed to being harangued (meaning they get speeches) by leaders of society in the marked places. A A A  One finds at Sofala a big amount of gold, in very pure nuggets and each nugget (tibra) can be 2 to 3 mithcals.
Oriented with North at the top, the world map contains a wind rose with eight divisions, the center of which is situated on the western shores of the Mar Capara [Caspian Sea] the northern division is marked with a star and the eastern division is marked by a cross.
While no color copy, or color photograph of this map has survived it is known that the map was produced in color with the seas left white, except for the Red Sea that is colored in vermillion. The continental landmass is surrounded by a large expanse of ocean which several times mentions Mari Oziano magno.
The influence of the Genoan and Catalonian nautical maps is marked particularly by the detailed indications of the then recently discovered islands in the Atlantic, the Canaries and the Azores.
In Asia, most of the regional notations are consistent with Mongolian domination, a crown with the notes Medru, Calcar, Monza sede di sedre [the Mangi of northern China], and Bogar Tartarorum [the Great Bulgarian or Golden Horde]. As for the calendar appended to the world map, it shows the figure of a child whose body parts correspond to the twelve signs of the Zodiac, a classic representation of a miniature Adam. This map contains areas of Asia with names used in the Mongol dynasty; some rivers and cities have similar names as those in a€?The Travels of Marco Poloa€?, and it shows that before the map was drawn the cartographer had referred to the maps made by Chinese Yuan scholars.
What requires special notice is there can be seen a remark on the V-shaped land on the upper left of the de Virga map that says: a€?the known furthest extreme of the worlda€?.
The latter de Virga world map has been missing since 1932, when its owner withdrew it just days before an auction to be held by Gilhofer & Ranschburg in Lucerne, Switzerland, according to the cartographic historian Albert DA?rst, who describes the map minutely in a 1996 article in the journal Cartographica Helvetica. Thompson, a psychologist who serves as director of the Multicultural Discovery Project at the University of Hawaii, supposes that de Virga lacked precedents for expressing medieval European surveys of the Americas on a planisphere and thus depicted the New World in an odd configuration a€” to the north and west. A sketch of the northern section of de Virgaa€™s world map reveals the legacy of a survey by Nicholas of Lynn, according to Gunnar Thompson. Thompson is not the first to argue that pre-Columbian American discovery by the Norse and others resulted in early cartographical representations of the Americas.
Unlike the case of the so-called Vinland Map (#243), there was no reason to dispute the authenticity of de Virgaa€™s world map when it emerged from oblivion in 1912, and there is no reason to dispute it now. De Virgaa€™s African outline is startlingly advanced compared with the works of his contemporaries in Venice and elsewhere. Juxtaposing de Virgaa€™s world map with a 1511 Venetian edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (compiled by Bernardus Sylvanus with maps by Andreas Matheus Aquavivus) underscores the realism of the former.
Although the map also depicts a somewhat foreshortened coastline from the Algarve to Brittany, the coast is at least recognizable past the English Channel and beyond the Scheldt, up the west coast of Danish Jutland. The Danish king exacted payments from ships on their way to and from the Baltic toward the Hanse cities (a medieval alliance of cities that controlled trade between the eastern and western sides of northern Europe). Although inaccurate by modem standards, de Virgaa€™s delineations of the Baltic Sea and Scandinavian Peninsula fairly represent contemporary Hanse knowledge. His map adequately depicts the western part of the Baltic with an arm dipping south, as well as the eastward-tending inner Baltic with the Finnish Bay and a north coast comprised of Finland and southeast Sweden combined with Danish Scania.
Nevertheless, many Hanse would have heard about or experienced a part of this cold arm reaching north into the unfamiliar regions just a little past the Scanian peninsula. Logically, the land mass in the mapa€™s northwest corner, featuring a crown and the name Norveca (repeated in three more places, probably to indicate the three major Norwegian towns) would then represent his concept of southwest Sweden detached from Danish Scania and of southern Norway from its join with Sweden at least as far north and west as Bergen.
Showing the rather wide southern end of Norway in this manner would also be in keeping with Hanse information.
Although he clearly did not know the shape of Norway, de Virga would have been aware of the countrya€™s existence. It is tempting to assume that medieval churchmen who had spent time in the Far North contributed to Romea€™s knowledge of this remote region and that this knowledge long had been diffused through various channels of culture and learning. Whereas modern scholars are able to fit topographical descriptions or information from travel accounts into an existing geographic image, such visual aids did not exist during the Middle Ages. Thompson and other writers support their claims about pre-Columbian European cartographic awareness of the Americas by calling into service the supposed 1360 voyage of Nicholas of Lynn, as well as an Arabic mention of Greater Ireland.
Gunnar Thompsona€™s theory regarding the de Virga mapa€™s Norveca rests on his conviction that the cartographical record of American discovery reaches back through the Middle Ages. The map was re-discovered in a second-hand bookshop in 1911 in A ibenik, Croatia by Albert Figdor, an art collector. When Figdor died on 22 January 1927, his magnificent collections became the property of his niece Margarete Becker-Walz, the wife of a prominent Heidelberg lawyer. Father Fischer was the only scholar in Becker-Walza€™s part of Europe who combined a belief in medieval cartographic manifestations of the Norse discovery of America with sufficient scholarly stature to allow an approach to the map's owner.
That year brought an opportunity to revive his interest when he was asked to comment on a manuscript atlas about to be auctioned by Gilhofer & Ranschburg a€” an atlas he had been allowed to keep at Stella Matutina for the purposes of study.
If Becker-Walz withdrew the map from the auction on Fischera€™s advice and withdraw it she did a€” neither of them would have had much opportunity to proceed further.
For Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband, as Jews living in Heidelberg, the situation would have turned ugly sooner. After Germanya€™s surrender in 1945, Nazi loot was found stored all over the former Third Reich in town offices, houses used as billets, officersa€™ clubs, and cattle barns.
This map by the Venetian cartographer, Albertin de Virga, shows Marco Poloa€™s a€?Southern Continenta€? southeast of Asia.
DESCRIPTION: It was Martin Behaim of Nuremberg (1459-1507), who, in so far as we have knowledge, constructed one of the first modern terrestrial globes, and it may, indeed, be said of his a€?Erdapfel,a€? as he called it, that it is the oldest terrestrial globe extant.
In the year 1490 he returned for a visit to his native city, Nuremberg, and there is reason for believing that on this occasion he was received with much honor by his fellow townsmen.
The manufacture of a hollow globe or sphere can hardly have presented any difficulty at Nuremberg, where the traditions of the workshop of Johann MA?ller (Regiomontanus), who turned out celestial spheres, were still alive.
The mould or matrix of loam was prepared by a craftsman bearing the curious name of Glockengiesser, a bell-founder. The important duty of transferring the map to the surface of the globe and illuminating it was entrusted to Glockenthon (and possibly Erhard Etzlaub). For over a hundred years the globe stood in one of the upper reception rooms of the town hall, but in the beginning of the 16th century it was claimed by and surrendered to Baron Behaim. The globe, in its pristine condition, with its bright colors and numerous miniatures, must have delighted the eyes of a beholder.
At the request of the wise and venerable magistrates of the noble imperial city of Nuremberg, who govern it at present, namely, Gabriel Nutzel, P. The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver. 1,431 years after the birth of our dear Lord, when there reigned in Portugal the Infant Don Pedro, the infant Don Henry, the King of Portugala€™s brother, had fitted out two vessels and found with all that was needed for two years, in order to find out what was beyond the St. In the year 734 of Christ when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen of Africa, the above island Antilia called Septa Citade [Seven Cities] was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. Through the inspiration of Behaim the construction of globes in the city of Nuremberg became a new industry to which the art activities of the city greatly contributed. The longitudinal extent of the old world accepted by Ptolemy was approximately 177 degrees to the eastern shore of the Magnus Sinus, plus an unspecified number of degrees for the remaining extent of China. The new knowledge displayed is confined to Africa, or rather to the western coast for the names on the east coast, save for those taken from Ptolemy, are fanciful.
Sources: Behaim informs us in one of the legends of his globe that his work is based upon Ptolemya€™s Cosmography, for the one part, and upon the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, and the explorations carried on by the order of King John of Portugal, for the remainder. Ptolemy (#119): Behaim has been guided by the opinion of the a€?orthodox a€? geographers of his time and has consequently copied the greater part of the outline of the map of the world designed by the great Alexandrian.
Isidore of Seville (#205), or one of his numerous copyists, is the authority for placing the islands of Argyra, Chryse and Tylos far to the east, to the south of Zipangu [Japan].
Marco Polo: One cannot fail to be struck by the extent to which the author of the globe is indebted to the greatest among medieval travelers.
A comparison of this sketch with Behaima€™s globe, or indeed with other maps of the period, even including SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1520 (#328), shows clearly that a much nearer approach to a correct representation to the actual countries of Eastern Asia could have been secured had these early cartographers taken the trouble to consult the account which Marco Polo gave of his travels.
The only contemporary map upon which the delineation of Eastern Asia including the place names is almost identical with that given on Behaima€™s globe is by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310), and was published in 1507.
According to Marco Poloa€™s records, the longitudinal extent of the Old World, from Lisbon to the east coast of China, is approximately 142A°.
Paolo Tosconelli in 1474 (#252), on the other hand, gives the old world a longitudinal extension of 230A° thus narrowing the width of the Atlantic to 130A°. Toscanelli may be deserving of credit, for having been the first to draw a graduated map of the great Western Ocean, but when we find that he rejected Ptolemya€™s critique of the exaggerated extent given by Marinus of Tyre to the route followed by the caravans in their visits to Sera, and failed to identify Ptolemya€™s Serica with the Cathaia of Marco Polo, as had been done before him by Fra Mauro, we are not able to rank him as high as a critical cartographer as he undoubtedly ranks as an astronomer. Sir John Mandeville: Jean de Bourgogne, a learned physician of Liege, declared on his death-bed (in 1475) that his real name was Jean de Mandeville, but that having killed a nobleman he had been obliged to flee England, his native country, and live in concealment.
Portolano Charts (#251): These nautical [sailing direction] charts were widely distributed in Behaima€™s time, and the fact that the Baltic Sea (Ptolemya€™s Mare Germanicum) appears on the globe as Das mer von alemagna, instead of Das teutsche Mer, is proof conclusive that one of these popular charts was consulted when designing the globe or preparing the map which served for its prototype.
But while improving Ptolemya€™s northern Europe with the aid of a portolano chart, he blindly followed the Greek cartographer in his delineation of the contours of the Mediterranean, and this notwithstanding the fact that the superiority of these portolano charts had not only long since been recognized by all seamen who had them in daily use, but also by the compilers of a number of famous maps of the world, including the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235), which the King of Aragon presented to Charles V. Portuguese Sources: When Behaim, in the spring of 1490, left Lisbon for his native Nuremberg, Bartolomeu Diaz had been back from his famous voyage round the Cape for over twelve months, numerous commercial and scientific expeditions had improved the rough surveys made by the first explorers along the Guinea coast, factories had been established at Arguim, S. There is no doubt that the early Portuguese navigators brought home excellent charts of their voyages. Behaim, of course, enjoyed many opportunities for examining the charts brought home by seamen not only, but also other curious maps, whose existence has been recorded although the maps themselves have long since disappeared.
In addition to maps and charts a person of Behaima€™s social position and connections might readily have had access to the reports of contemporary explorers. Miscellaneous Sources: Foremost amongst these rank the maps in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy (1482), of which Domunus Nicolaus, a German residing in Italy, was the author. Bartolomeo of Florence, who is said to have traveled for 24 years in the East (1401-1424), but whose name and reputation are other vise unknown, is quoted at length on the spice trade. Behaim had access, likewise, to valuable collections of books and maps, most important among which was the library of the famous Johann MA?ller of KA¶nigsberg (Monteregio), who at the time of his death was engaged upon a revised edition of Ptolemy, which he intended to illustrate with modern maps, including one of the entire world. But long before WaldseemA?ller and Behaim, the same old map must have been accessible to Dom. Be it known that on this Apple [Globe] here present is laid out the whole world according to its length and breadth in accordance with the art geometry, namely, the one part as described by Ptolemy in his book called Cosmographia Ptolemaei and the remainder from what the Knight Marco Polo of Venice caused to be written down in 1250. The ocean on Behaima€™s globe surrounds the continental mass of land, though covered around the North Pole with many large islands, so that in order to proceed from Iceland direct to the north coast of Asia it is necessary to pass through a narrow strait. The North Sea, the Oceanus Germanicus of Ptolemy, is described as das engelis mere [the English Sea], for by that name it was known to the sailors of Scandinavia and of northern Germany. Be it known that the sea called Ocean, between the Cape Verde Islands and the mainland, runs swiftly to the south; when Hercules had arrived here with his ships and saw the declivity (current) of the sea he turned back, and set up a column, the inscription upon which proves that Hercules got no further. The Pillars of Hercules originally stood on the island of Gades [Cadiz], outside the Straits of Gibraltar, but in proportion as geographical knowledge extended so were these columns pushed ahead.
On a Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246), there are two small islands off Cape Verde described as Illa de cades: asi posa ercules does colones [Cades Island where Hercules set up two columns], and on Fra Mauroa€™s famous map of 1459 (#249) a legend to the south of Cabo rosso tells us that he had heard from many that a column stood there with an inscription stating that it was impossible to navigate beyond. Diogo Gomez, an old mariner, well known to Behaim, to whom he presented his account De prima inventione Guineae, tells us that JoA?o de Castro, on his homeward voyage in 1415, had to struggle against the current which swept round Cabo de Non, upon which Hercules had set up a column with the well-known legend, quis navigat ultra caput de Non revertetur aut non.
Gregory of Nyssa (died 395) already knew of the existence of this current, which he ascribed to the excessive evaporation caused by the great heat of the southern sun and the absence of evaporation in the cool north.
Behaima€™s Sinus arabicus corresponds to our Gulf of Aden, and this gulf as well as the das rod mer [the Red Sea], is, of course, colored red. Iceland: The story of the Icelanders selling their dogs and giving away their children is a fable invented by English and Hanseatic pirates and merchants, who kidnapped children, and even adults, and sold them into slavery. Item, in Iceland are to be found men eighty years of age who have never eaten bread, for corn does not grow there, and instead of bread they eat dried fish. Insula de Brazil: The imaginary Jnfula de prazil, to the west of Ireland, appears for the first time on Dulcerta€™s chart (1339). Antilia: An imaginary island of Antilia (also spelled, Antillia ) has found a place upon the charts since the 14th century and was at an early date identified by the Portuguese with the equally imaginary Ilha de sete cidades [the island of the seven cities] where the Archbishop of Oporto with his six bishops is imagined to have fled after the final defeat of King Roderick of the Visigoths on the Guadalete in 711 and the capture of Merida in 712 by the Arabs. The historian Galvao (1862) reports that in 1447 a Portuguese vessel, driven westward by a storm, actually arrived at the island, the inhabitants of which still spoke the Portuguese tongue; other voyages to this island in the time of Prince Henry are referred to in the Historie of Fernand Colombo. Antilia on the ancient maps is a huge island, quadrangular in shape, resembling in all respects the Zipangu of Behaima€™s globe. In the year 734 of Christ, when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen [Moors] of Africa, the above island Antilia, called Septe citade [Seven cities], was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops, and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain, by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods.
Scandinavia: This area is almost wholly copied from a map in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy published in 1482. Marco Polo in the 38th chapter of the third book states that the mariners had verily found in this Indian Ocean more than 12,700 inhabited islands, many of which yield precious stones, pearls and mountains of gold, whilst others abound in twelve kinds of spices and curious peoples, concerning whom much might be written. There he shall find accounts of the curious inhabitants, of the islands, the monsters of the ocean, the peculiar animals on the land and of the islands yielding spices and precious stones. Many noble things are said about this island in ancient histories, how they (the inhabitants) helped Alexander the Great and went with the Romans to Rome in the company of the Emperor Pompey.
The island Seilan, one of the best islands in the world, but it has lost in extent to the seas.
Item, in past times the great Emperor of Cathay sent an ambassador to this King of Seilan, asking for this ruby and offering to give much treasure for it.
The Three Holy Kings and Prester John: The three a€?holy kings a€? whose bones are exhibited to credulous visitors at Cologne Cathedral and whose memory is revived annually on Twelfth Day, were undoubtedly the King of Tarshish and the Isles, and the Kings of Sheba and Saba, of Psalm xxii. Closely connected with the legend of the Three Kings is the reported existence of a powerful Christian Prince, Presbyter or Prester John, in the center of Asia.
The Tarshish of the Psalmist must be sought in the East, in maritime India, and not at Tartessus in the West; Sheba was in Southern Arabia, and Saba on the authority of Marco Polo probably in Persia. On Behaima€™s globe the Three Kings are localized in Inner Asia, on the Indian Ocean and in East Africa (Saba).
On this mountain, the Mons victorialis (called Mount Gybeit by John of Marignola) the Three Kings watched for the appearance of the star which, according to Balaama€™s prophecy (Numbers xxiv. Below this we read Saba, which clearly stands for Shoa or Shewa, and to the west is a picture of this Prester John of Abassia with a kneeling figure in front of him.
In this country resides the mighty Emperor known as Master John, who is appointed governor of the three holy kings Caspar, Balthazar and Melchior in the land of the Moors.
Og to the west and Magog to the south of Tenduk are described by Marco Polo as being subject to the Prester. The country towards midnight is ruled by the Emperor Mangu, khan of Tartary, who is a wealthy man of the great Emperor, the Master John of India, the wife of the great King is likewise a Christian. All this land, sea and islands, countries and kings were given by the Three Holy Kings to the Emperor Presbyter John, and formerly they were all Christians, but at present not even 72 Christians are known to be among them. Mandeville, says that 72 provinces and kings were tributaries of Prester John, on the authority of an apocryphal letter supposed to have been sent to Manuel Commenus (1143-80), the Pope and others. Zipangu is the most noble and richest island in the east, full of spices and precious stones. Conclusion: Behaim is no doubt indebted to his globe, and to the survival of that globe, for the great reputation that he enjoys among posterity. But we may well ask whether greatness was not in a large measure thrust upon Behaim by injudicious panegyrists; and if, on a closer examination of his work, he does not quite come up to our expectations, they, at all events, must bear the greater part of the blame.
Maximilian, invincible King of the Romans, who, through his mother, is himself a Portuguese, intended to invite Your Majesty through my simple letter to search for the eastern coast of the very rich Cathay . Before embarking upon his journey, Magellan himself stated he knew that south of America there was a sound that led to the Southern Sea which Balboa had discovered in I5I3 at the Isthmus of Panama: he, Magellan, had seen the sound on a map by Martin Behaim.
No one has yet determined what connection the work of the Nuremberg scholar Behaim has with Magellana€™s great achievement. Martin Behaim has accordingly been repeatedly regarded in former times as the actual discoverer of the Magellan Straits and even of the whole of America.
Later, in I786, Otto, a German who then resided in the United States, described Behaim as the actual discoverer of America.
An outright struggle has been conducted for centuries concerning Behaima€™s claim to priority in the discovery of America (he himself had not the least idea of this strife). This certainly does not do away with Magellana€™s peculiar statement that he already had seen on a map the straits which he set out to sail along.
Magellana€™s conduct before his departure is depicted in greater detail in 1601 by the Spanish chronicler Herrera who, as Humboldt supposed, could use the notes made by Andrea de San Martin, the astronomer of the Magellan expedition. This report can certainly be assumed to be true, with the exception of Behaima€™s authorship.
Two years later the same SchA¶ner made a globe (Book IV, #328) which in a charming manner enriched the Behaim, globe of 1492 with the new discoveries in the western ocean.
The definite assertions in the pamphlet of 1508, of Johann SchA¶ner and others, that at their time the Portuguese had already discovered a sound south of America were certainly bona fide but are nevertheless incredible. That Magellana€™s a€?advance knowledgea€? of the straits which he was to discover was doubtful is also indicated by a notice made by Pigafetta to the effect that in the austral winter of 1520 the explorer wintered with his crew on the coast on 49A° 8' S. Thus one can today describe as well-established facts that the Magellan Straits are rightly called so, that prior to the Portuguese discoverer the hypotheses connected with Martin Behaima€™s name must be considered figments of imagination. Breusing, Zur Geschichte der Geographie, Regiomontanus, Martin Behaim und der Jacobstab, Zeitsch, der Gesellsch.
Humboldt, Examen Critique de la€™Histoire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent et des progres de la€™astronomie nautique dans les XVe et XVIe siecles, volume 1, pp. Detail of the Atlantic Ocean, Zipangu [Japan} on the left, real and mythical islands such as Antilia and St. The compilation of a printed mappamundi, which was used for the globe, naturally fell to the share of Behaim himself. The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.A  The legends, in the south German dialect of the period, are very numerous, and are of great interest to students of history and of historical geography. The large declination table incorporating a calendar and, uniquely among Riberoa€™s charts, illustrations of the signs of the zodiac and a wind rose.
Located immediately to the south of the fiercely contested and strategically important Molucca Islands and flanked with the standards of Castile and of Portugal, which fly from poles of unequal length placed at unequal distances from its top.


This is not something new since Ophiuchus (alongside with Orion and Spider) don’t count as astrological knowledge at all. Though I’d love to say its not too late, I couldnt find a book to keep such things in, and being way out in the country, no shops close enough for me to get to, to get some stuff like the right paint for the prints. Accordingly, when a person is born on a specific date and time of a year his individual personality is co-related to one of the 12 existing zodiac signs that correspond to that particular time of the year.
Both these qualities can give them huge success materialistically but since they strive on the same path to success there are bound to be differences. Air likes to be independent and loves freedom while Water needs constant attention and love.
Within are 55 miniatures depicting subjects in the text, some of them one to a page and some two. The type of paper used here, which is a style associated with 14th and 15th century Spain, and the style of calligraphy which points to a 14th century hand, suggest this copy was produced during the 14th or 15th century, and may thus indicate the earlier authorship.
The tradition is generally associated with 10th century scholars such as al-Balkhi, al-Istakhri, al-Muqaddasi, Ibn Hawqal, and the ninth century geographer Ibn Khurdadhbeh (d. These cosmological works seem to have been produced for the average lay reader as organized compendia of world knowledge, rather than critical scientific works, and relied heavily on earlier sources. 64r, shows the direction of prayer to qiblah [Mecca] from different countries, seen here in 35 sectors. Several inscriptions on the inside of the front doublure exist in a later maghribi hand; one of these refers to one unidentified individual by the name of Ibn al-Maa€™mun.
There are also several examples in the Chester Beatty Library, dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries; and several examples are cited in C. Others are his stories taken from Masa€™udi (without mentioning his name) in which the Zenj warriors ride on cattle.
It is said that their king goes forth to battle with three thousand followers, ridding on oxen. In the north there is a mountain who goes from one sea to the other, leaving two wholes through which the boats can pass, this town (Aden) is 4 days away from the Zendges. That island produces nardgil or coconuts, sugarcane, one makes there clothes of grass, as beautiful as from silk, one builds boats of 60 elbows long, that carry 200 men. Mecca, the focal point of all spatial references, is near the center of the Arabian Peninsula, which is embraced by the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the shape of a crescent moon to signify the unity of the celestial and terrestrial worlds, a unity of conjoined sacredness. While obviously these maps were produced after the European a€?early medievala€? period, they still reflect the medieval world view of the Arab cartographers.
The landmasses are colored in yellow, although the islands are in a variety of colors; the mountains are in a greenish-brown, the lakes in blue, and the rivers are colored brown.
The Holy Land, marked with the names of Jordan and Gorlan [Jerusalem], does not, as with many previous medieval maps, exactly occupy the center of the map.
Africa is decorated with the common representation of the Atlas Mountains, which spread over the northern part of Africa like a serpent, and by the Mountains of the Moon towards the south which surrounds twice the region where the Ylon [the river Nile] and several other rivers flow. There is also a plan for fortifications marked simply M[on]gol [Caracorum, in Greater Asia]. On the left is a table of 100 letters, alternating black and red, which allows the reader to calculate the date of Easter as either 2 April 1301 or 18 April 1400. It is known that he is also the author of a nautical map of the Mediterranean Sea, of the classical type, which has flowery ornamentation similar to this world map and signed in the same way: A.
According to some scholars this remark could not possibly be written by a European, because if one looks at the map it is easy to see the furthest part from Europe is not the V-shaped land, but China, so obviously this remark is originally from the ancient Chinese.
The Venetian cartographer Albertin de Virga does not loom large in medieval map literature: all we know of him is what we can learn from two of his maps. DA?rst notes renewed interest in the map after a recent claim by a researcher at the University of Hawaii, Gunnar Thompson, that de Virga indicated large parts of North and South America in the upper left section of the map, but DA?rst does not comment on Thompsona€™s theory. He contends that the continent labeled Norveca represents Americaa€™s east coast from Labrador to Florida, that the land northeast of Norway is Venezuela and Brazil, and that the island situated southeast of Asia delineates the coast of Peru. Nor is he the first to claim that an elusive medieval travel account of the Arctic, called Inventio Fortunatae (circa 1360), was written by Friar Nicholas of Lynn, who, according to Thompson, not only crossed to North America but also surveyed the lands well enough to later provide cartographical evidence.
On the contrary, there are very good reasons to wonder why we should disregard the mapmakera€™s own nomenclature, particularly given the evident care with which de Virga executed the task he had set himself.
De Virga appears to have had an unusual ability to calculate shapes and distances on the basis of second-hand information provided to him, most likely by sailors probing the African coasts and from reports by merchants familiar with the trans-Saharan gold route. Although the 1511 maps incorporate American discoveries, they indicate little knowledge of the Far North and are otherwise regressive, considering what de Virga knew a century earlier. Trouble comes after the Skaw (northernmost Jutland), where in order to enter the Baltic Sea a ship had to head south in the Kattegat (a strait separating Sweden and Denmark) before passing through a narrow sound separating the island of SjA¦lland from the Scanlan. The Scania herring trade was so important that this extra piece of Denmark would have been known to Venetian merchants, who flocked to the Flanders markets in order to trade with the Hanse bringing their cargo south. Such information would have been available to de Virga either from Hanse merchants or through Venetian merchants returning from trips to the North to buy salted herring, stockfish (wind-dried cod), and other commodities. The entire northern arm (now called the Bothnian Bay), beginning at about 60 degrees North, lay outside the Hanse merchantsa€™ scope, as it was devoid of significant trading centers. Perhaps de Virga, after hearing a description of this assumed northward passage into the unknown (rather than a closed bay), decided it must lie just to the west of Scania, rather than to the east where the waters were much more familiar to the Hanse. That the land mass called Norveca has nothing to do with either Greenland or North America should be abundantly clear from the nomenclature alone; it also is firmly connected to the world Albertin de Virga and his contemporaries already knew. As the center of the stockfish trade, Bergen had served as the chief Hanseatic port in Norway throughout the Middle Ages, and any Hanse skipper worth his salt would have known the route there. Anyone living in Venice around 1415 who had commercial ties or who was curious about geography would have known that Norway lay far to the north, that it dominated the stockfish trade, and that the country was mountainous and probably very large. In reality, information flowed primarily in the opposite direction from the 11th century onward.
Medieval readers must for themselves conceptualize distances and exotic locations, and as a result, their inventions wandered all over the map, both literally and figuratively.
In addition to the regular Ireland associated with the British Isles, the Arabic geographer Abu-Abd-Allah Mohammed al-Idrisi, 1099-1180, (#219) noted a Greater Ireland in the northwest Atlantic, supposedly a reference to known land on the American side. Others have expressed a similar belief, including those who believe the Vinland Map at Yale University is a genuine mid-15th century expression of Norse discovery in America.
At first, the Austrian authorities refused to allow the collections out of the country, but after much legal wrangling and string-pulling, the well-connected Frau Becker-Walz managed to auction off the bulk of Figdora€™s art works and furniture in 1930.
Why Margarete Becker-Walz withdrew the map at the last minute from such a distinguished antiquarian auction house is a matter of speculation. In 1932, besides being at the height of his reputation as a cartographic historian, he was no longer in von Wiesera€™s shadow. Given his close relations with the auction house at the time the de Virga map was being offered for sale, it is highly likely he would have seen Auction Catalog Number 8 with its photograph of the map. Arrests, boycotts of Jewish businesses, and dismissals from academic and other public positions began almost immediately after the Nazis came to power. Some of these stolen articles are slowly finding their way into the antiquarian market, and with luck we may again see de Virgaa€™s world map. The island-continent is called a€?Ca-paru or Great India.a€? The map was made between 1410 and 1414. He took advantage of the opportunities which were offered him for travel, though, according to both E.G. It was the suggestion of George Holzschuher, member of the City Council, and himself somewhat famed as a traveler, that eventually brought special renown to this globe maker, for he it was who proposed to his colleagues of the Council that Martin Behaim should be requested to undertake the construction of a globe on which the recent Portuguese and other discoveries should be represented.
This map was subsequently mounted upon two panels, framed and varnished and hung up in the clerka€™s office of the town hall.
This was fortunate, for had it remained, uncared for, in the town hall it might have shared the fate of so many other a€?monumentsa€? of geographical interest, the loss of which the living generation has been fated to deplore. In the course of time, however, the once brilliant colors darkened or faded, parts of the surface were rubbed off; many of the names became illegible or disappeared altogether.
Volkhamer, and Nicholas Groland, this globe was devised and executed according to the discoveries and indications of the Knight Martin Behaim, who is well versed in the art of cosmography, and has navigated around one-third of the earth. The chief magistrate induced his fellow citizen to give instruction in the art of making such instruments, yet this seems to have lasted but a short time, for we learn that not long after the completion of his now famous Erdapfel, Behaim returned to Portugal, where he died in the year 1507. The globe has also great importance in the perennial controversy over the initiation of Columbusa€™ great design and the subsequent evolution of his ideas on the nature of his discoveries. Ravenstein has shown that Behaim possibly made a voyage to Guinea in 1484-5, but that he was certainly not an explorer of the southern seas and a possible rival of Columbus, and his cartographical attainments were distinctly limited.
Behaim accepted more or less Ptolemya€™s 177A° and added 57A° to embrace the eastern shores of China. We are justified in assuming on these and other grounds that Behaim had not gone directly to the authorities he quotes, but had merely amended an existing world map. The main features of the west coast are more or less recognizable, though Cape Verde is greatly over-emphasized. Other sources were, however, drawn upon by the compiler, and several of these are incidentally referred to by him or easily discoverable, but as to a considerable part of his design scholars have been unable to trace the authorities consulted by him.
He has, however, rejected the theory of the Indian Ocean being a mare clausum [closed sea] and although he accepted Ptolemya€™s outline for the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Caspian, he substituted modern place names for most of those given by ancient geographers.
Accounts, in manuscript, of Poloa€™s travels in Latin, French, Italian and German, were available at the time the globe was being made at Nuremberg, as well as three printed editions. One may conclude from this that both Behaim and WaldseemA?ller derived their information from the same source, unless, indeed, we are to suppose that the Lotharingian cartographer had procured a copy of the globe that he embodied in his own design. This encouraged Columbus to sail to the west in the confident hope of being able to reach the wealthy cities of Zipangu and Cathay.
He may have been the a€?initiatora€? of the voyage that resulted in the discovery of America, but cannot be credited with being the a€?hypotheticala€? discoverer of this new world.
Further evidence of such use is afforded by the outline given to the British Isles, and possibly also by a few place names in western Africa, which are Italian rather than German or Portuguese.
Jorge da Mina, Benin and, far within the Sahara, at Wadan, trading expeditions had gone up the Senegal and Gambia, and relations established with Timbuktu, Melli and other states in the interior. Columbus, who saw the charts prepared by Bartolomeu Diaz, speaks of them as a€?depicting and describing from league to league the track followeda€? by the explorer. He might have learned much from personal intercourse with seamen and merchants who had recently visited the newly discovered regions or were interested in them.
Behaima€™s laudable reticence as to mirabilia mundi has been referred to already, but he does not disdain to introduce long accounts concerning the a€?romancea€? of Alexander the Great, the myth of the a€?Three Wise Mena€? or kings, the legends connected with Christian Saints, such as St.
Nicolaus Germanus, for in the map of the world in the edition of Ptolemy published in 1482 he introduces a third head stream of the Nile, which is evidently derived from it. The worthy Doctor and Knight Johann de Mandavilla likewise left a book in 1322 which brought to the light of day the countries of the East, unknown to Ptolemy, whence we receive spices, pearls and precious stones, and the Serene King John of Portugal has caused to be visited in his vessels that part to the south not yet known to Ptolemy in the year 1485, whereby I, according to whose indications this Apple has been made, was present. The Arctic Ocean, called das gesrore mer septentrionel [the frozen sea of the North] is surrounded on all sides by land. The Baltic, the Mare Germanicum of the learned, is called das mer von alemagna, [the German Sea], which proves conclusively, according to Ravenstein, that Behaim in delineating that part of the world was guided by an Italian or Catalan portolano chart. Albertus Magnus (died 1280) in his Meteorologia ascribed the current to the same cause, namely, a difference in the level of the ocean due to differences of evaporation, but believed the current thus produced to be steady and almost imperceptible. As an instance may be mentioned the misdeeds of William Byggeman, the captain of the a€?Trinity,a€™ who was prosecuted in England in 1445, for having committed this offense. It is the custom there to sell dogs at a high price, but to give away the children to (foreign) merchants, for the sake of God, so that those remaining may have bread. Subsequently, in the Medicean Portolano Chart of 1351 (#233), it figures as one of the Azores, usually identified with Terceira, a cape of which still bears the name of Morro do Brazil. Two flags fly above these islands from the same flagstaff, the upper one with the arms of Nuremberg, the lower with those of Behaim. These voyages, however, are purely imaginary, or, at all events, led to no actual discoveries. Brandon in his ship came to this island where he witnessed many marvels, and seven years afterwards he returned to his country. The author of the globe was well aware that the three northern kingdoms, since the Union of Calmar (1397), were ruled by the King of Denmark, for the standard of that kingdom flies at the mouth of the Elbe, at the westernmost point of Norway and on Iceland.
And if anyone desires to know more of these curious people, and peculiar fish in the sea or animals upon the land, let him read the books of Pliny, Isidore (of Seville), Aristotle, Strabo, the Specula of Vincent (of Beauvais) and many others.
This island has a circuit of 4,000 miles, and is divided into four kingdoms, in which is found much gold and also pepper, camphor, aloe wood and also gold sand.
But the King replied that this stone had for a long time belonged to his ancestors, and it would ill become him to send this stone out of the country. It was not doubted that these a€?kingsa€? were descended from the three wise men from the East, who, according to Matthew ii.
This rumor first reached Europe through the Bishop of Gabala in 1145, and it was supposed that this Royal Priest was a direct successor or descendant of the Three Kings. Saba Ethiopie, however, in course of time, was transferred to Abyssinia, and its Christian ruler was accepted as the veritable and most popular Prester John. Here is a royal tent with the following legend: The kingdom of one of the Three Holy Kings, him of Saba. But while the undoubted beauties of that globe are due to the miniature painter Glockenthon, according to Ravenstein the purely geographical features do not exhibit Behaim as an expert cartographer, if judged by modern standards. The globe by Behaim was designed to demonstrate the ease with which one could sail westward to Japan and China, to the Zipangu and Cathay of Marco Polo. Unknown to Behaim, Columbus had discovered the Bahamas and the Antilles and had returned to Spain by March 1493. Otto's arguments seemed so convincing that Benjamin Franklin had a letter which Otto had written him printed in the works of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. Postela€™s Cosmography speaks outright of Martini Bohemi fretum and in 1682 Wagenseil demanded that the Magellan Straits be called the Behaim Straits.
The following took place according to Herrera: a€?(When Magellan) appeared for the first time at the Spanish court in Valladolid, he showed the Bishop of Burgos a painted globe on which he had traced his planned route.
12 years prior to Magellana€™s discovery, there was printed a pamphlet which spoke of the circumnavigability in the south of the newly discovered south American country. The whole of South America - as much as was discovered of it by that time - appears on this globe under the name of Paria sive Brasilia, south of it the sea rises in a broad front against the continent. If Magellan had ever come across it, he would, as can be understood, have believed that Behaim was its author.
However, due to the verities of time, many legends and place-names are illegible.A  In his book on the life and work of Behaim, Ravenstein provides a complete listing of all decipherable place-names and legends, along with a translation and discussion where his interpretation differs from previous scholars.
The text in the boxes explains how to read solar declination off of the figure and the accompanying latitude scale (given the date), how to use the quadrant, and how to calculate latitude given the solar declination and the suna€™s height at noon. Some of the Indians came on board, and asked to be carried [away, and] they died afterwards at sea.A  According to Pigafetta, those Indians, so far from having left of their own accord, were treacherously chained and kidnapped.
There are common traits related to each zodiac found in the people who belong to either of the 12. Each element is allotted 3 zodiac signs and the compatibility of each zodiac sign with the other is judged and analyzed according to the congeniality between these elements of astrology.
Earth finds a lot of comfort in Water on account of Water’s caring and understanding nature. On pages 1ba€“2a two round medallions carry an inscription stating the worka€™s subject and saying that it was prepared for the Treasury of Sultan Murad III (r.
This work sums the geographical knowledge of the Arabic world of the time, referring to climate, terrain, fauna and flora, population, way of living, existing states and their governments in individual regions of the world. In addition to a compendium of place names, seas and mountains, the author has also included a description of the flora and fauna of the places he describes. 912 AD) who devised the earliest known geographical work using the Kaa€?ba as the center of the world in his Kitab al-Masalik waa€™l-Mamalik. The text and map in the manuscript suggest a medieval precursor; old place names and archaic descriptions occur frequently.
The final page bears a partial reference to the owner or scribe of the manuscript, whose name appears to be al-Qawariqi. They worship idols, are brave, hardy and fight in battle riding oxen, as their country supplies neither horses, mules, nor camels. Turkish Constantinople is a red crescent a€?walla€? or barrier against the a€?people of the crossa€?.
His first chapter is almost entirely based on Yaquta€™s geography.A  As a result, those trying to date his work start from c.
The remaining part, the extension or neck, is occupied by a calendar and two tables with inscriptions relating to the calendar.
The names of various locations are written in either red or black ink, always on the inside of a small box or cartouche.
The three known continents, Europa, Africa, and Axia, underlined on the map for emphasis, are harmoniously placed (in part) around the Mediterranean Sea, drawn tolerably with exactness like the European portolan [nautical] charts, and (on the other hand) around the Indian Ocean, which is decorated with multi-colored archipelagos similar to the Arab maps. A large gulf that opens into the ocean carries the notation Dara Four Asiner close to some islands.
On the shores of the Indian Ocean there are the kingdoms of Mimdar and Madar [Malabar?], along with many islands with the following note which, without a doubt, relates to Sri Lanka: Ysola d alegro suczimcas magna.
This suggests that when making the de Virga map, the mapmaker copied a Chinese map and left this remark unchanged. The first, a 1409 sea chart, shows the Mediterranean and Black Seas as well as the eastern Atlantic shores up to the southern Baltic region, incorporating the British Isles.
Medieval European cartographers knew the world was round and would have known how to represent areas that a€?spilled overa€? to the west or east. We also need to ask why a cartographer would fail to name a poorly known region if, indeed, he was familiar with it. However, de Virgaa€™s depiction of the Atlantic coast suggests that even this cartographera€™s ability to conceptualize coastlines could not entirely transcend gaps in the information available to him. Nevertheless, it would have been difficult for de Virga to visualize the intricacies of the Baltic entrance solely from descriptions of the rounding of the Skaw, the route south along the east coast of SjA¦lland taken to pass through the sound, and the passage east (actually, east followed by northeast) into the Baltic Sea.
Furthermore, Bothnian Bay freezes over so early in the winter and is so often bedeviled by heavy fogs that few sailed those waters in the early 15th century. Repeated trade restrictions prevented trading farther up the coast, however, at least legally.
Nobody could describe its shape and extent, but on several maps of the early 15th century Norway appears as a rectangle framed and bisected by mountains. Adam of Bremena€™s writing about the North depended more on the European accounts available to him than on the information brought to him by the Danes, and medieval Norse literature demonstrates greater awareness of Adama€™s writing, as well as other European geographical and cosmographical works, than of information derived directly from their own northern background. No published author has been more fervently convinced of a cartographical record of Norse transatlantic sailings than the German Ptolemaic scholar Father Josef Fischer, S.J. The map was analyzed by Doctor Professor Franz von Wieser, of the University of Vienna, a well-known Austrian cartographical scholar. We can discount a sudden discovery that the map was fake, for no one doubts its authenticity.
He may have found the time ripe to rebut his former mentora€™s criticism of his views on Norse cartography. Father Fischer was still at the Jesuit college of Stella Matutina in Feldkirch and would soon have felt both the worsening relations between Germany and Austria and the anti-Catholicism of the Nazis.
It would have made little difference to Becker-Walz in the long run if she had converted to Christianity, as Figdor in his time had done. Those wishing to hasten the process might start by looking into the fate of Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband Ernst Walz, an important Jewish citizen of Heidelberg and a defiant supporter of the Weimar Republic to the republica€™s bitter end. It was not until more than a century later that Francisco Pizarro, a Spaniard, finally reached Peru.
From a record on the globe itself, placed within the Antarctic Circle, we learn that the work was undertaken on the authority of three distinguished citizens, Gabriel Nutzel, Paul Volckamer, and Nikolaus Groland.
Johann SchA¶ner, in 1532, was paid A?5 for a€?renovatinga€? this map and for compiling a new one, recording the discoveries that had been made since the days of Behaim. Having covered the mould with successive layers of paper, pasted together so as to form pasteboard, he cut the shell into two hemispheres along the line of the intended Equator. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces. The whole was borrowed with great care from the works of Ptolemy, Pliny, Strabo, and Marco Polo, and brought together, both lands and seas, according to their configuration and position, in conformity with the order given by the aforesaid magistrates to George Holzschuer, who participated in the making of this globe, in 1492.
Ravenstein describes this remarkable cartographic monument of a period that represented the beginning of a rapid expansion of geographical knowledge (in summary): Martin Behaima€™s map of the world was drawn on parchment that had been pasted over a large sphere. The ships thus provisioned sailed continuously to the westward for 500 German miles, and in the end they sighted these ten islands. All the available evidence tends to show that he was a successful man of business who made a certain position for himself in Portugal, and who, like many others of his time, was keenly interested in the new discoveries. No special knowledge of Contia€™s narrative is shown, but a certain Bartolomeo Fiorentino, not otherwise known, is quoted on the spice trade routes to Europe. To Cape Formoso, on the Guinea coast the nomenclature differs little from contemporary usage. The edition of Ptolemy of which he availed himself was that published at Ulm in 1482, and reprinted in 1486, with the maps of Dominus Nicolaus Germanus. Sri Lanka though unduly magnified would have occupied its correct position, and the huge peninsula beyond Ptolemya€™s a€?Furthest,a€? a duplicated or bogus India, would have disappeared, and place names in that peninsula, and even beyond it, such as Murfuli, Maabar, Lac or Lar, Cael, Var, Coulam, Cumari, Dely, Cambaia, Servenath, Chesmakoran and Bangala would have occupied approximately correct sites in Poloa€™s India maior. A comparison of the two shows, however, that such cannot have been the case, for there are many names upon the map that are not to be found on the globe.
The author of the Laon globe went even further, for he reduced the width of the Atlantic to 110A°. That honor, if honor it be, in the absence of scientific arguments is due to Crates of Mallos (#113), who died 145 years before Christ, whose Perioeci and Antipodes are assigned vast continents in the Western Hemisphere, or to Strabo (66 B.C. Behaim, however, erred in good company, and for years after the completion of his globe the mistaken views of Ptolemy respecting the longitudinal extent of the Mediterranean were upheld by men of such authority as WaldseemA?ller (1507), SchA¶ner (1520), Gerhard Mercator (1538), and Jacobus Gastaldo (1548). In addition to all this, ever since the days of Prince Henry and the capture of Ceuta, in 1417, information on the interior had been collected on the spot or from natives who were brought to Lisbon to be converted to the Christian faith. But not one of these original charts has survived, and had it not been for copies made of them by Italians and others, our knowledge of these early explorations would have been even less perfect than it actually is. Fernando, the son of King Manuel, in 1528, and which had been brought to the famous monastery of Alcoba, ca. His contemporary, the printer, Valentin Ferdinand, was thus enabled not only to consult the manuscript Chronicle of Azurara, and the records of Cadamosto (credited with the discovery of the Azores) and Pedro de Cintra (his account of a voyage to Guinea), but also to gather much valuable information from Portuguese travelers who had visited Guinea. There are three sections of the globe, upon the origins of which much light might be thrown by the discovery of ancient maps formerly in the possession of John MA?ller.
Towards the west the Sea Ocean has likewise been navigated further than what is described by Ptolemy and beyond the Columns of Hercules as far as the islands Faial and Pico of the Azoreas occupied by the noble and valiant Knight Jobst de HA?rter of Moerkerken, and the people of Flanders whom he conducted thither. It is the Mare concretum of Pierre da€™Aillya€™s Imago mundi, and of the Ulm edition of Ptolemy printed in 1482. Later charts, like that of Pizzigani (1367), contained three islands of the name, the one furthest north lying to the west of Ireland. We are told nothing about the a€?burning mountaina€? and the great earthquake which happened in 1444.
Two more flags are merely shown in outline and may have been intended for the arms of Portugal and Hurter. It is certain, however, that FernA?o Telles, in 1475, and FernA?o Dulmo, in 1486, were authorized to sail in search of this imaginary island.
Brandan, who, after a seven yearsa€™ peregrination over a sea of darkness, penetrated to an Island of Saints, a terra repromissionis sanctorum, was very popular during the Middle Ages. The ruby is said to be a foot and a half in length and a span broad, and without any blemish.
1-10, were guided by a star to Bethlehem, and there worshipped the newborn a€?King of the Jews.a€? The Venerable Bede (died 735) already knew that the names of these kings were Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar.
Friar John of Marignola (1338-53) is the first traveler who mentions an a€?African archpriest,a€? and on a map of the world that Cardinal Guillaume Filastre presented in 1417 to the library of Reims we read Ynde Pbr Jo at the easternmost cape of Africa. 8), but Polo says that they are known to the natives as Ung and Mongul, that is, the Un-gut, a Turkish tribe, and the Mongols.
The above information as well as that given in the remaining legends may have been taken from Mandeville, who himself is indebted to Haiton, Friar Odorico and others. He was not a careful compiler, who first of all plotted the routes of the travelers to whose accounts he had access, and then combined the results with judgment.
It showed Zipangu as only 80 degrees to the west of the Canaries and Cathay some 35 degrees more. It sets a problem: two men with identical plans to reach Asia, at the same time in history and with similar cosmographical concepts. The map has either been lost or, as already assumed by Humboldt, there was a mistake on the part of the Portuguese discoverer. It cannot be proved that Behaim had under-taken any longer sea-journey to the west from Fayal (Azores) where he mostly resided from 1486 to I507 with some intervals. As late as 1859 Ziegler and in 1873 the American Mytton Maury designated Behaim as Americaa€™s actual discoverer. However, it is altogether possible that Magellan had come across a map with the entry in question, as such maps have actually existed! The supplementary text - Magistralis - indicates however that it is a question of straits whose length and width cannot as yet be stated.
It can be inferred that Magellan had no clear idea on which latitude the longed for sea route was to be found. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.A  In his opinion it could not last much longer. This program gives you a detailed interpretation of the sign you belong to according to Chinese Astrology.
The astrolabe, which is dated 1529, carries a shadow scale; the inscription below identifies it as a marinera€™s instrument.


Lawrence, mention is made of an archipelago, which may refer to the Iles de la Madeleine, borrowed apparently from some Portuguese map of the Fagundes expeditions.A  On the northwest coast there is a Rio solo and, on the Pacific coast, what the Weimar Ribero calls R. Astrology may be mumbo jumbo to some, but many people pay attention to it — at least the shiny part that comes in a small gift box. Each zodiac gives us great insights into our day to day living as well as the many talents and special qualities we posses. The author also speaks about Slavs and their lifestyle and mentions al-Mahdiyya as the residence of the Fatimid dynasty. Throughout the work, the author refers to various historians and geographers, such as al-Masa€?udi (d. These geographical works neglected to include coordinates or to employ mathematical geography in the maps, and bear great similarity to the simpler-produced maps of medieval Europe.
The region between North Africa and Syria is associated with the northwest wall of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah from east to south.
At the top, Africa is extended the length of the Indian Ocean, but unlike Ptolemya€™s map, here the continent does not enclose the ocean. These are sometimes capped by a crown or by a picture of a castle, which indicates the principle countries or kingdoms.
According to its principle commentator Franz Von Wieser, the de Virga map presents itself in some ways a€?like a compromise between the classical medieval world maps and the map of seaportsa€?. In the southeast, out in the middle of the Indian Ocean, is a large island provided with the note: Caparu sive Java magna, which includes in only one piece of land the distinct geographic features of Zipangu [Japan] and of Java, gathered from Marco Polo. This entire portion of the parchment, separate from the map proper, seems to have been copied from part of some astronomical tables dating from the beginning of the 14th century. The second, a world map, dates from sometime between 1411 and 1414 (a fold of the parchment at the narrow strip between the zodiacal calendar and the map obscures the last digit(s) of the date).
The Inventio Fortunatae, though lost, appears to have been real enough, but it is highly unlikely that it was written by Nicholas of Lynn.
De Virgaa€™s fellow Venetian cartographers, Andrea Bianco (#241) and Fra Mauro (#249), accorded Norway plenty of space in 1436 and 1459, respectively. The Book of Roger, which accompanied al-Idrisia€™s maps, says that Ireland, which lies west of the a€?deserted islanda€? of Scotland, is a very large island.
Gilhofer & Ranschburg announced an auction to be held on June 14-15, in Lucerne, featuring many rare items from the Russian Tsara€™s library at Zarskoje-Selo as well as the de Virga world map, a large photograph of which introduced the catalog. Nor would Becker-Walz have decided that she or someone close to her needed it for cartographical study, for there was no such scholar in her family.
By April of 1934 Stella Matutinaa€™s large contingent of German students had to transfer to Saint Blaise in Switzerland because the Austrian Jesuit school could no longer grant them valid diplomas.
He arrived at the shores of a southern mainland that was already named a€?Peru.a€? And it was already included on Chinese, Venetian, and Portuguese maps. Stevenson, it is hardly probable that he is entitled to that renown as an African coast explorer with which certain of his biographers have attempted to crown him, nor does it appear that he is entitled to a very prominent place among the men famed in his day for their astronomical and nautical knowledge. The hemispheres were then taken off the mould, and the interior having been given stability by a skeleton of wooden hoops, they were again glued together so as to revolve on an iron axis, the ends of which passed through the two poles. It was left by the said gentleman, Martin Behaim, to the city of Nuremberg, as a recollection and homage on his part, before returning to meet his wife (Johanna de Macedo, daughter of Job de Huerter, whom he married in 1486) who lives on an island (at Fayal) seven hundred leagues from this place, and where he has his home, and intends to end his days. The globe itself has a circumference of 1,595 mm, consequently a diameter of 507 mm or 20 inches, resulting in a scale of 1:25,138,000. On landing they found nothing but a wilderness and birds that were so tame that they fled from no one.
The effect of this was to reduce the distance from Western Europe westwards to the Asiatic shores to 126A°, in place of the correct figure of 229A°. Southeast Asia is represented as a long peninsula extending southwards and somewhat westwards beyond the Tropic of Capricorn.
Beyond it, though a good deal can be paralleled in the two other contemporary sources, Soligo and Martellus (#256), there are elements peculiar to Behaim, e.g.
An intermediate position between these extremes is occupied by Henricus Martellus, 1489 (#256), who gives the Old World a longitudinal extent of 196A°. Cooley describes as a€?the most unblushing volume of lies that was ever offered to the world,a€? but which, perhaps on that very ground, became one of the most popular books of the age, for as many as sixteen editions of it, in French, German, Italian and Latin, were printed between 1480 and 1492. It is curious that not one of these learned a€?cosmographersa€? should have undertaken to produce a revised version of Ptolemya€™s map by retaining the latitudes (several of which were known to have been from actual observation), while rejecting his erroneous estimate of 500 stadia to a degree in favor of the 700 stadia resulting from the measurement of Eratosthenes (#112).
These copies were made use of in the production of charts on a small scale, the place names upon which, owing either to the carelessness of the draftsmen or their ignorance of Portuguese, are frequently mutilated to an extent rendering them quite unrecognizable.
Foremost among these was JoA?o Rodriguez, who resided at Arguim from 1493-5, and there collected information on the Western Sahara. It is this northern island that retained its place on the maps until late in the 16th century, and, together with the islands of St. John of Hildesheim (died 1375) wrote a popular account of their story, which was first printed in German in 1480. Oppert has satisfactorily shown that this mysterious personage was Yeliutashe of the Liao dynasty, which ruled in Northern China from 906 to 1125.
In the Sinus magnus of Ptolemy we also read: This sea, land and towns all belong to the great Emperor Prester John of India. Had he done this, the fact of India being a peninsula could not have escaped him; the west coast of Africa would have appeared more accurate. Behaim had hopes of leading a voyage westward to Asia and sought the backing of the Emperor Maximilian. At your pleasure you can secure for this voyage a companion sent by our King Maximilian, namely Don Martin Behaim, and many other expert mariners, who would start from the Azores islands and boldly cross the sea.
Columbus, in the copy of the Toscanelli letter (made on the flyleaf of the Historia Rerum of Pope Pius II) gave Cathay as 130A° west of Lisbon and Zipangu as ten spaces, or 50A°, west of the legendary island of Antillia.
Previously no doubts were entertained with respect to Magellana€™s statement, since it undoubtedly was well supported. He may have participated in a minor exploration trip which one Fernan Dulmo planned in I486 and which had to have Azores as the point of departure. When the Kinga€™s Ministers assailed him with questions, he confided to the Ministers that he planned to land first on the promontory of St. It states inter alia with respect to the Land of Brazil: a€?The Portuguese have circumnavigated this land and they have found a sound which practically tallies with that of our continent of Europe (where we live). On the other hand, SchA¶nera€™s drawings may very well be re- produced more or less exactly in other maps which took into consideration the discoveries in America. Yet the globe has survived, and its condition seems in no manner worse than it was when it was under treatment by the Bauers. It gives a report that includes the positive and negative characteristics of each sign, your lucky colors, months and seasons, gemstone, element, energy, ruling planet and compatibility with other signs.
The world maps in the Vatican, Dillingen and WolfenbA?ttel also feature masterful drawings of mountains, trees, castellated towns, ships, birds and mammals. The astrolabe shown by Ribero is not the standard marinera€™s version, but a a€?quadrante horarioa€?, as described in the inscription next to the drawing. The work, which was written by the court panegyrist (Azehnameci) Sayyid Loqman AAYuri, consists of two main sections. The region between Iraq and Afghanistan is connected with the northeast wall of the Ka`ba and has a qiblah from south to west.
The Nile, drawn in red, takes a right-angle turn, possibly reflecting the rivera€™s great bend. The omission of this island by any name also demonstrates, as does the rest of the map, that de Virga did not base his work on the Ptolemaic concepts that had barely begun to enter European thought at the time. Nevertheless, reports written by the Venetian nobleman Piero Querini and two of his crew about their enforced 1431 sojourn in the Norwegian Lofoten islands make it clear that Norway was as exotic to 15th century Italians as the Brazilian jungles were to 19th century European explorers. As Father Fischera€™s mentor, von Wieser kindled the young scholara€™s interest in cartographical and historical material pertaining to the Norse discovery of America. The mapa€™s reserve price was set at 9,000 Swiss francs, and its connection with Figdor and von Wieser was noted.
Most likely, someone gave her reason to believe the map would fetch a higher price if written up in a new study of hitherto unsuspected features in de Virgaa€™s work. All Jews at the university, including honorary professors like her husband, had to resign their positions by the end of that year. Western historians have given Pizarro credit for discovering Perua€”even though it was already discovered and mapped by somebody else. It was doubtless, for reasons primarily commercial, that he first found his way to Portugal, where, shortly after his arrival, probably in the year 1484, he was honored by King John with an appointment as a member of the junta dos mathematicos [a nautical or mathematical council]. The sphere was then coated with whiting, upon which was laid the vellum that was to bear the design. Only two great circles are laid down upon it, the equator, divided into 360 degrees (unnumbered), and the ecliptic studded with the signs of the zodiac. But of men or of four-footed animals none had come to live there because of the wildness, and this accounts for the birds not having been shy. There is no indication on the globe of what Behaim considered the length of a degree to be, but even if he did not go as far as Columbus in adopting the figure of 562 miles for a degree, he presented a very misleading impression of the distance to be covered in reaching the east from the west.
It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument.
In the original French the author is called Mandeville, in German translations Johannes or Hans von Montevilla, in the Latin and Italian Mandavilla. But even of maps of this imperfect kind illustrating the time of Behaim and of a date anterior to his globe, only two have reached us, namely the Ginea Portugalexe ascribed to Cristofero Soligo, and a map of the world by Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256). To Ferdinand we owe, moreover, the preservation of the account that Diogo Gomez gave to Martin Behaim of his voyages to Guinea. As to the first it is remarkable that although Ptolemya€™s outlines of lakes and rivers have been retained, his place names have for the most part been rejected and others substituted. The far-off places towards midnight or Tramontana, beyond Ptolemya€™s description, such as Iceland, Norway and Russia, are likewise now known to us, and are visited annually by ships, wherefore let none doubt the simple arrangement of the world, and that every part may be reached in ships, as is here to be seen. Brandan and of the Septe citez [the Seven Cities] it still appears on Mercatora€™s chart of the world in 1587. Having been expelled by the Koreans, Yeliutashe went forth with part of his horde, and founded the Empire of the Kara Khitai, which at one time extended from the Altai to Lake Aral, and assumed the title of Korkhan. His delineation is rather a€?hotch-potcha€? made up without discrimination from maps that happened to fall in his hands. The Emperor shrugged it off by passing it on to King John of Portugal in a letter written by Dr. Pigafetta, Magellana€™s fellow-traveller and the chronicler of the world trip, has noted this fact. This trip referred however only to the discovery of new islands in the Azores waters and may not have been performed at all.
Satirical Voltaire, displaying a truly French superficiality of judgment, expressed in 1757 his disbelief in that a€?one (!) Martin Behem of Nuremberga€? had travelled in 1460 (Behaim was born in I459) a€?from Nuremberg to the Magellan Straitsa€? on a mission for the Duchess of Burgundy(!).Voltaire was followed, as result of substantially more thorough studies, by Tozen in 1761, v. We have from 15I5, the year when SchA¶nera€™s globe was made, also the so-called of Leonardo-representation the countries in the west (Book IV, #327).
This can be inferred with certitude from the statement made in the pamphlet of 1508 to the effect that one had found Americaa€™s southern cape south of the 40A° S.
Indeed, on examining the globe, a beholder may feel surprise at the brightness of much of the lettering.
This program aims to help people come to terms with their good and bad traits and rectify the negative qualities if they have any, so that they can lead happy and prosperous life.
Horary quadrants were usually used on land to tell the time; they incorporated features for taking measurements that were either unnecessary for navigation (such as the indirect determination of altitude or distance) or readily available in other forms (such as tables of solar declination).
Although clearly labeled as an a€?[a]strolabio maritimeoa€?, it consists of a solid disc rather than an open wheel, and it has a shadow square on the back. The first begins with the universe and the signs of the zodiac and continues with stories taken from the Torah, the New Testament, and the Qura€™an which tell of the lives of prophets and those who rendered service to the faith. Its sense of proportion is highly schematic, and the location of certain places is rather unusual, but al-Andalus [Spain], Qustantaniyyah [Constantinople] and the River Nile are all approximately where one might expect. India, Tibet and China are associated with the Black Stone in the eastern corner of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah pointing slightly northwest. Snow is not know among them, nor rain, which is commonly the case with the greater part of the country of the blacks. They have islands in the sea, from which they collect cowries to adorn their persons, and they use them in traffic one with another, at an established rate.
Albertin diuirga me fecit in vinexia, the last number of the date having been erased by a fold in the parchment. The Garden of Eden is depicted at the southernmost tip of Africa with the symbol of two concentric rings, from which emerge the four rivers mentioned in Genesis. This statement leaves no room for alternative interpretations of another a€?islanda€? that was supposedly North America. But in his 1912 published treatise on the de Virga map, von Wieser referred to Fischera€™s work only in a footnote, in which he refuted Fishera€™s conviction that the Danish cartographer Claudius Clavus had brought North America, as well as Greenland, into European cartography. If so, a strong probability exists that those features had to do with the landmass in the northwest corner labeled Norveca. During his earlier years in Portugal he was connected with one or more expeditions down the coast of Africa, was knighted by the king, presumably for his services, and made his home for some years on the island of Fayal. The vellum was cut into segments resembling the gores of a modern globe, and fitted the sphere most admirably.
The Tropics, the Arctic and the Antarctic circles are likewise shown and in the high latitudes the lengths of the longest days are given.
On this ground the islands were called dos Azores, that is, Hawk Islands, and in the year after, the king of Portugal sent sixteen ships with various tame animals and put some of these on each island there to multiply. The coast swings abruptly to the east at Monte Negro, placed by Behaim in 38A° south latitude.
Behaim calls him Johann de Mandavilla, as in Italian, although six editions of his work printed in German, at Strasburg and Augsburg, were at his command.
MA?ntzer, in 1495, saw hanging on a wall of the royal mansion in which he resided as the guest of Joz da€™Utra; and lastly, the map which Toscanelli is believed to have forwarded to King Affonso in 1474 in illustration of his plan of reaching Cathay and Zipangu by sailing across the Western Ocean. Eastern Asia, with its islands, and Africa have, however, been copied from a map or maps which were also at the command of WaldseemA?ller (#310). It is this northern island that was searched for in vain between 1480 and 1499, and figures on Behaima€™s globe. Brandona€™s Island retained a place upon the maps, notwithstanding Vincent of Beauaisa€™ disbelief in the legend, until the days of Ortelius (1570) and Mercator; and as late as 1721 the Governor of the Canaries sent out a vessel to search for this imaginary island. The King George in Tenduk, whom Marco Polo describes as a successor of Presbyter John, was actually a relative of this Yeliutashe who had remained in the original seats of the tribe not far from the Hwang-ho, and of Kuku-kotan, where the Kutakhtu Lama of the Mongols resided when Gerbillon visited the place in 1688. In this respect, however, he is not worse than are other cartographers of his period: Fra Mauro and WaldseemA?ller, SchA¶ner and Gastaldo, and even the famous Mercator, if the latter be judged by his delineation of Eastern Asia. He writes: a€?But Hernando knew that is was the question of a very mysterious strait by which one could sail and which he had seen described on a map in the Treasury of the King of Portugal, the map having been made by an excellent man called Martin di Boemiaa€?. Apart from this there is nothing to indicate that he had undertaken from Fayal sea trips other than those to Europe. Murrin 1778, Cancellieri in 1809 and others, and more recently, above all by Ghillany in 1842, v. The Magellan Straits are on the other hand on 52A° and prior to Magellan had no expedition, of which we know, sighted land near there.
This, however, is due to the action of the a€? renovators,a€? who were let loose upon the globe in 1823, and again in 1847; who were permitted to work their will without the guidance of a competent geographer, and, as is the custom of the tribe, have done irreparable mischief.
Yet the inscription to the left of the quadrant on the chart describes not only how to use it to deter- mine the declination of the sun or stars, but also how to use the altimetric scale on it to find the height of a tower or of a flat surface, or the width of a river. The original work is said to have been completed around the year 1419 AD, as stated on the earliest known copy which is dated 1479 AD (cited in R.
The world is shown surrounded by water, with an outer boundary of mountains, seen here as the polychrome outer border.
A fourth region, the Yemen, the Hadramawt, Aden and Socotra are linked with the southern corner of the Ka`ba, with a qiblah pointing north.
They have no ships, but traders come in vessels from Uman, to buy their children, whom they sell in different countries.
That notwithstanding, the parchment is generally in good condition with some folds and tears that inhibit its readability. Those who remained after the infamous Kristallnacht (9a€“10 November 1938) were moved into a€?Jewish Housesa€? the following year. A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust. The only meridian which is drawn from pole-to-pole 80 degrees to the west of Lisbon is graduated for degrees, but also unnumbered.
Arthur Davies, in his discussion of the Martellus map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara. This is the point reached by CA?o in 1483, and its true position is 15A° 40a€™ south; a Portuguese standard marks the spot.
Pipinoa€™s Latin version, on the other hand, is divided in this manner, and Behaim in seven of his legends quotes these divisions correctly. One could conclude from this that he is indebted to an Italian map and not to a perusal of his Travels for the two references on the globe.
A comparison of that cartographera€™s map with Behaima€™s globe leaves no doubt as to this, unless we are prepared to assume that WaldseemA?ller took his information from the globe, which Ravenstein concludes to be quite inadmissible. The island Seilan has a circuit of 2,400 miles as is written by Marco Polo in the 19th chapter of the third book. Tarsis (Tarssia) is shown on many medieval maps in a similar position, for instance, on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, where the three kings are shown on horseback about to start for Bethlehem.
His famous globe which he made in I491-92 in Nuremberg does not show even the slightest trace of a knowledge of countries or islands beyond the Azores. A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust.A  In 1510 the iron meridian was displaced by one of brass, the work of Johann Verner, the astronomer. As a result numerous place-names have been corrupted past recognition, and if one desires to recover the original nomenclature of the globe we must deal with it as a palimpsest. The first part ends with genealogical trees of the Prophet Muhammad, the Four Orthodox Caliphs, and the sultans and high officials of Muslim dynasties such as the Umayyads, the a€?Abbasids, the early Islamic period, the Ghaznawids, the Ilkhanids, the Seljuqs and the Timurids. Sellheim, Arabische Handschriften: Materialen zur Arabischen Literaturgeschichte, Wiesbaden, 1976-87, Vol. In addition to the extensive chapter on geography, the Kharidat al-`Ajaa€™ib contains a chapter on the types of birds and other animals that exist in the places that the author has described. The right side carries some tears that indicate that the map was nailed on this side to a wooden piece around which it was evidently rolled. Bjornbo, as well as on personal correspondence with him, which ceased just before Bjornbo acknowledged that he had been wrong about Clavus.
After 1940 most were deported to the Gurs concentration camp in the Pyrenees and to extermination camps in Germany.
The sea is colored a dark blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green and silver, representing forests and regions supposed to be buried beneath perennial ice and snow. This feature is a remnant of Ptolemya€™s Geography that evolved when the Indian Sea was opened to the surrounding ocean. On the eastward trending coast, there are names that seem to be related to those bestowed by Diaz, and the sea is named oceanus maris asperi meridionalis, a phrase which doubtless refers to the storms encountered by him. We should naturally conclude from this that this was the version consulted if on other occasions he had not quoted the chapters as given in the version which was first printed in Ramusioa€™s Navigationi e viaggi in 1559. The first of these (near Candyn) refers to the invisibility of the Lodestar in the Southern Hemisphere and the Antipodes, and is one of the four original statements of the learned doctor, and the second describes the dog-headed people of Nekuran, which he has borrowed from Odoric of Portenone and enlarged upon. It was on the same map that Ritter von Harff, who returned to Germany in 1499 after a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, performed his fictitious journey from the east coast of Africa, across the Mountains of the Moon and down the Nile to Egypt. Brandana€™s Island is generally associated with the Canaries, as on the Hereford map of 1280 (Book II, #226), but Dulcerta€™s Insulla Scti Brandani sive puellarum (1339) lies further north, while Pizzigania€™s San Brandany y ysole Pouzele lie far to the west (1367). Finally, in 1939 the problem was definitively clarified as regards the connection between Americaa€™s discovery and the great Nuremberg scholar by answering it in the negative. He was all the more sure to find a sound as he had seen it on a sea map made by Martin de Bohemia. He owned the map, but the master-drawer did made this representation which is extremely poorly executed. Such a process, however, might lead to the destruction of the globe, whilst the result possibly to be achieved would hardly justify running such a risk. The second part opens with Sultan Osman, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, and goes up to Sultan Murad III, with 12 portraits of Ottoman sultans.
The inclusion of a small section explaining the game of chess, including a detailed drawing, has not been recorded in other copies of Ibn al-Wardia€™s cosmography. The inhabitants are infidels, and the tartars among the blacks, consisting of savage tribes of freebooters, who continually take captive and plunder every thing that falls in their way.
In recent works from about 2000 on the Ibn al-Wardi concerned is often called pseudo Ibn al Wardi. The whole map is framed with a double line and the laced corners between the figures are adorned with oriental-style decoration.
It is unlikely that any of these Heidelberg Jews escaped the confiscation of their homes and property by the National Socialists that became the lot of almost every Austrian Jew after the Anschluss in 1938. Perhaps the most attractive feature of the globe consists of 111 miniatures, for which we are indebted to Glockenthona€™s clever pencil. The placing of Madagascar and Zanzibar approximately midway between this peninsula and the Cape must be another feature of some antiquity. Owing to the exaggeration of the latitudes, Monte Negro falls fairly near the position that the Cape of Good Hope should occupy. On Behaima€™s globe may be traced twenty-one names, out of about forty to be found on WaldseemA?llera€™s map of 1507, and four of them mark stages of the worthy knighta€™s journey.
The evidence which carried the greatest weight was doubtlessly the letter which on July 14th, 1493 was written to King John II of Portugal by Hieronymus Miinzer who was a friend of Behaim and was in close touch with him.
Also this representation of the newly discovered South America shows a wide sound that separates America from the hypothetical southern continent of Ptolemy.
The period from mid January to mid February of each year may have a different animal sign and element based on the Chinese Calendar. In their country the river divides; one branch going towards Egypt, and the other to the country of the Zinji. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher.
It is noticeable that the Soligo chart ends in 14A° south, which is near the limit of Behaima€™s detailed knowledge.
Behaim had ample opportunity to study the proposals of Columbus and the map(s) that accompanied them. This letter which knew nothing about Columbusa€™ discovery was written to suggest to King John a western trip across the ocean in order to reach East Asia. Another contemporary map, designed by the Turkish map-maker Piri Rea€™is in 1513 (Book IV, #322) even regarded South America as a peninsula of the southern continent and therefore did not contain any separating sound. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher.A  There are, in addition, 48 flags (including ten of Portugal) and five coats of arms, all of them showing heraldic colors. The paper of the present manuscript can be clearly located to Spain no later than the middle of the 15th century.
We might conclude, therefore, that Behaima€™s contribution was to reproduce this coast from a similar chart, and to add some gleanings from the Diaz voyage round the Cape.
This was the origin of Behaima€™s later plan to sail to Asia and the source of his concepts of the distances involved. This letter would of necessity have referred to Behaima€™s legendary discoveries in the western ocean, if such discoveries had been made, since Behaim certainly knew about the letter and approved of it.
This shows that individual mapmakers used their imagination arbitrarily in their efforts to combine cartographically the new countries of which only fragments were known.
It is an extensive district, and mines of iron are found in it, which the people of the country work and sell to the traders from India, who give a high price for it, on account of it being harder and of better temper than that which they obtain in their own country, and they purify it and make it into steel, which admits to a durable edge. The two personal names are not to be found on any other map: in conjunction with the attempt made to associate Behaima€™s own voyage with the discovery of the Cape, we are justified in assuming that this portion of the globe at least was designed in a spirit of self-glorification. Leonardoa€™s map conceived all the new western countries as islands: the islands and coasts of the mainland which were discovered by Columbus, Labrador-Newfoundland in the north, found by Cabot, and the coast line of North America, cursorily explored by Cabral, Verrazano and others. Forty-eight of them show us kings seated within tents or upon thrones; full-length portraits are given of four Saints (St. The inscription reads as follows: The country of Stephen Gomez, which he discovered at the command of his Majesty, in the year 1525.
How arbitrary were the designs of the drawers of these earliest maps of America is shown inter alia by the Ruysch map of 1508 (Book IV, #313) which had inserted a connecting water way even between Honduras and Yucatan or also the much-discussed Anian Strait in northern America which were sought even late as the beginning of the 19th century. The most remarkable produce of this country is its quantity of native gold that is found, in pieces of two or three Meskalla weight; in spite of which, the natives generally adorn their persons with ornaments of brass.
As far as he knew in 1492, Columbus had not gained support for his enterprise in Portugal or Spain and there was no logical or moral reason why he should not seek German support.
Eleven vessels float upon the sea, which is populated by fishes, seals, sea lions, sea-cows, sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen, and a mermaid.
The land animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, parrots, and serpents.A  The only fabulous beings that are represented among the miniatures are a merman and a mermaid, near the Cape Verde Islands, and two Sciapodes in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs, and a€?men with dogsa€™ heads are referred to in some of the legends.
Nor do we meet with the a€?Iudei clausi,a€™ or with a a€?garden of Eden,a€™ still believed in by Columbus.A  There is a curiously faulty representation of the Portuguese arms, especially for someone like Behaim who had lived in and sailed for that country for many years.



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