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In many parts of the world, parents encourage the marriage of their daughters while they are still children in hopes that the marriage will benefit the children both financially and socially and relieve financial burdens on the family. In actuality, child marriage is a violation of human rights, compromising the girls’ development and often resulting in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty.
Continuing my discussion on race, I was trying to figure out what is the best way to present the ideas of Derrick Bell.
Although black unemployment reached the peak of almost 20% back in 1983, black unemployment seems to be 5 to 10% higher than white unemployment. Forty years after the United States began its experimentation with mass incarceration policies, the country is increasingly divided economically.
It's well-known that the United States imprisons drastically more people than other Western countries. In devastating detail in Daedalus, the sociologists Bruce Western of Harvard and Becky Pettit of the University of Washington have shown how poverty creates prisoners and how prisons in turn fuel poverty, not just for individuals but for entire demographic groups. Then, given the staggering scale of black incarceration, the authors looked at the effect on employment data if prisoners were factored into the unemployment numbers generated by the government. University of California at Berkeley professor of law Jonathan Simon writes that these men and women in many ways become the human equivalent of underwater homes bought with subprime mortgagesa€”they are "toxic persons" in the way those homes have been defined as "toxic assets," condemned to failure. Last year, for the first time since 1972, the total number of people in prison in America declined.
The research was carried out by a team from the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London.
Lead investigator Dr Andrea Danese said: 'Identifying those at risk of multiple and long-lasting depressive episodes is crucial from a public health perspective. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. According to UNICEF's estimates, over 60 million women aged 20-24 were married or in union before the age of 18.
Even if you’re going to say that the black population is more violent and more prone to criminal activity (which, in my opinion, is inherently untrue and probably a racist statement) why would this tendency or this trend increase over time?
In new research published in the review Daedalus, a group of leading criminologists coordinated by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (which paid me to consult on this project) argued that much of that growing inequality, which Slate's Timothy Noah has chronicled, is linked to the increasingly widespread use of prisons and jails. Here are the specifics: We now imprison more people in absolute numbers and per capita than any other country on earth. Crunching the numbers, they concluded that once a person has been incarcerated, the experience limits their earning power and their ability to climb out of poverty even decades after their release. Using that more realistic measure of unemployment, they found that fewer than 30 percent of black male high school dropouts are currently employed.
When high school dropouts buck the trend by coming out of prison and finding steady work, they overwhelmingly hit a dead end in terms of earnings. Some are give antidepressants while for others, talking with their psychiatrists or psychologist can help.


Although this is a field not without its controversy, hair test results are now widely accepted in criminal and civil courts. If you’re going to assume that everybody is created with approximately the same intelligence and that everybody who lives in America and has been born in America has approximately the same desire for success, what explains these disparities? It's a vicious feedback loop that is affecting an ever-greater percentage of the adult population and shredding part of the fabric of 21st-century American society.
Western and Pettit calculated that if current incarceration trends hold, fully 68 percent of African-American male high school dropouts born from 1975 to 1979 (at the start of the upward trend in incarceration rates) will spend time living in prison at some point in their lives, as the chart below shows. Western and Pettit found that after being out of prison for 20 years, less than one-quarter of ex-cons who haven't finished high school were able to rise above the bottom 20 percent of income earners, a far lower percentage than for high-school dropouts who don't go to prison. It suggests that legislators, along with the broader voting public, are finally waking up to the huge, and unsustainable, financial costs that states are absorbing by keeping large numbers of low-end offenders locked up. In the UK the majority of hair tests are performed in support of divorce and child custody litigation and so are typically requested by social services, family law specialists and by the courts themselves.
Those are the sorts of unemployment figures one associates with failed Third World states rather than the largest, wealthiest economy on earth. They conclude that the ex-cons end up passing on their economic handicap, and by extension the propensity of ending up behind bars, to their children and their children's children in turn.
But the reasons for scaling back the prison system ought not to be framed solely as a cost-cutting measure that's necessary but nasty. This is because the country's incarceration rate has roughly quintupled since the early 1970s. As evidence, they cite recent surveys indicating children of prisoners are more likely to live in poverty, to end up on welfare, and to suffer the sorts of serious emotional problems that tend to make holding downA jobs more difficult.
As this new research so clearly shows, locking up poor people in historically unprecedented numbers has undermined one of America's most durable, and valuable, traitsa€”social mobility. The reforms recommended that cases involving child custody are fast-tracked, putting heavy emphasis on the need for rapid assessment of parental alcohol & drug abuse. About 2 million Americans currently live behind bars in jails, state prisons, and federal penitentiaries, and many millions more are on parole or probation or have been in the recent past. Hair tests were immediately identified as an ideal solution to the problem and have since been described by the UK Office of Science & Technology as the Gold Standard for diagnosing dependency (UK Office of Science and Technology Post Note Number 228). Statistics on the total number of hair tests on parents that are requested are not published but we estimate the figures to be between 5-6,000 a year for alcohol and slighter more for drugs, with around one-in-three testing positive to substance abuse. Replacing Blood & UrineThe conventional approach to alcohol and drug testing involves taking blood or urine and submitting these liquid samples for forensic tests.
States like California now spend more on locking people up than on funding higher education.
However, even when accurate, these traditional tests only relate to recent consumption: approximately 24 hours in blood and approximately three to five days in urine.
This short-term window of detection puts children at risk in relation to parental care, public safety at risk in relation to workplace testing and patients at risk from themselves if being treated for alcoholism.


Furthermore addicts are more often than not in denial, embarrassed or simply lie when asked to self-report their substance abuse (we find, for example, that over half of heavy drinkers underestimate their consumption of alcohol). Samples can be collected non-invasively and will provide an accurate record of any alcohol or drugs dependency over a three to 12 month period. Plus, if a urine sample is in any doubt, it is always possible to take a fresh, identical hair sample and eliminate any false positives or false negatives. The same sample collection methods are used for both tests and so the combined test costs less than having two tests conducted in isolation.How It WorksSince hair growth is fed by the bloodstream, the ingestion of drugs or excess alcohol in the blood is revealed by analysing chemical markers absorbed by the hair. A tuft of hair about the diameter of a pencil is required and the industry standard is to test a length of 1.5 inches, which provides a 90 day history. Samples must be taken by a trained collector (usually a visiting nurse) on behalf of clients. Results are generally available in seven to 10 working days from receipt of the sample and can be provided in a standard expert witness legal statement. Cut-Off LevelsGuidelines from the World Health Organisation are that excessive alcohol drinking corresponds to consumption higher than 60 grams of pure ethanol per day over several months.
In the UK, alcohol is based on units to allow drinkers to establish their alcohol consumption.
On average, one small pub measure of wine, one half of average strength beer, and one measure of spirit are all one unit. In early January, hair samples were collected from both parents who had admitted excessive use of alcohol.
Both adults reported abstinence in the four day period prior to hair samples being collected, but it was too short a timeframe for the hair alcohol test to yield a negative result. Further testing one month later did however give a negative result, showing that the donors had significantly reduced their alcohol intake. This clearly showed that the parents had abstained from drinking in the three month period covered by all three tests.UK Substance AbuseIn the biggest study of its kind, Trimega Laboratories has released the findings from over 1,500 hair alcohol tests and nearly 2,000 hair drug tests conducted throughout the UK over the past twelve months. It shows there has been a significant increase in the percentage of parents testing positive to drugs when required to undergo a hair test in child custody cases. In the worst affected parts of the UK - London and the South West - around half of hair samples tested showed signs of drug abuse with a year-on-year rise of 13%.
Cocaine is most commonly found drug with an average of one in five samples (20%) testing positive, rising to 25.5% in London. Its core business over the past three years has been laboratory-based analysis of hair samples which, together with its blood results and the largest commercial database of self donor drinking information, has become the basis of underpinning results in court.




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Comments

  1. 44, 26.10.2014
    Was 2 and we had just moved to rural Michigan certainly know, they love treats toddler.
  2. Nasty_Girl, 26.10.2014
    Watch for signs their toilet coaching is necessarily a much more modest affair- staying dry falling off.
  3. Diabolus666, 26.10.2014
    Less difficult to take a potty with you than ought to allow the kid to place his.
  4. SERCH, 26.10.2014
    Climate, extremely loose education off the toilet and has had.