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Both definitions emphasize the uniqueness of the individual and consequently adopt an idiographic view. The idiographic view assumes that each person has a unique psychological structure and that some traits are possessed by only one person; and that there are times when it is impossible to compare one person with others. We must also consider the influence and interaction of nature (biology, genetics etc.) and nurture (the environment, upbringing) with respect to personality development. Trait theories of personality imply personality is biologically based, whereas state theories such as Bandura's (1977) Social Learning Theory emphasize the role of nurture and environmental influence. Personality development depends on the interplay of instinct and environment during the first five years of life.
People a€“ including children a€“ are basically hedonistic a€“ they are driven to seek pleasure by gratifying the Ida€™s desires (Freud, 1920). Environmental and parental experiences during childhood influence an individual's personality during adulthood. The ego develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world (like a referee).
The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents and others. This approach assumes behavior is determined by relatively stable traits which are the fundamental units of onea€™s personality. These theories are sometimes referred to a psychometric theories, because of their emphasis on measuring personality by using psychometric tests. He found that the soldiers's answers seemed to link naturally with one another, suggesting that there were a number of different personality traits which were being revealed by the soldier's answers. Eysenck related the personality of an individual to the functioning of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).


Cattell (1965) disagreed with Eysencka€™s view that personality can be understood by looking at only two or three dimensions of behavior. Instead, he argued that that is was necessary to look at a much larger number of traits in order to get a complete picture of someonea€™s personality. Whereas Eysenck based his theory based on the responses of hospitalized servicemen, Cattell collected data from a range of people through three different sources of data. Allport's theory of personality emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual and the internal cognitive and motivational processes that influence behavior. Allport (1937) believes that personality is biologically determined at birth, and shaped by a person's environmental experience. Shields (1976) found that monozygotic (identical) twins were significantly more alike on the Introvert a€“ Extrovert (E) and Psychoticism (P) dimensions than dizygotic (non-identical) twins. Loehlin, Willerman and Horn (1988) found that only 50% of the variations of scores on personality dimensions are due to inherited traits. Sigmund Freud's psychodynamic theory of personality assumes there is an interaction between nature (innate instincts) and nurture (parental influences). For example, during the first two years of life the infant who is neglected (insufficiently fed) or who is over-protected (over-fed) might become an orally-fixated person (Freud, 1905).
It is the decision making component of personalityThe ego operates according to the reality principle, working our realistic ways of satisfying the id’s demands, often compromising or postponing satisfaction to avoid negative consequences of society. Based on the results of factor analyses of responses on personality questionnaires he identified three dimensions of personality: extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism.
Through this position he compiled a battery of questions about behavior, which he later applied to 700 soldiers who were being treated for neurotic disorders at the hospital (Eysenck (1947). This technique reduces behavior to a number of factors which can be grouped together under separate headings, called dimensions.


Surface traits are very obvious and can be easily identified by other people, whereas source traits are less visible to other people and appear to underlie several different aspects of behavior.
The 16PF (16 Personality Factors Test) has 160 questions in total, 10 questions relating to each personality factor. Personality and mental health problems in adulthood can usually be traced back to the first five years. As a child moves through different developmental stages, the location of the libido, and hence sources of pleasure, change (Freud, 1905). The ego considers social realities and norms, etiquette and rules in deciding how to behave. This means that traits should remain consistent across situations and over time, but may vary between individuals. Cattell regarded source traits are more important in describing personality than surface traits.
This might help to explain why some people are more resistant to changing their prejudiced views.
It operates on the pleasure principle (Freud, 1920) which is the idea that every wishful impulse should be satisfied immediately, regardless of the consequences.
Cultural or social norms would seem to offer a better explanation of prejudice and conflict than personality variables. Also, Hyman and Sheatsley (1954) found that lower educational level was probably a better explanation of high F-scale scores than an authoritarian.



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