How to train puppies without using treats xo,childrens size 5 shoe measurements,the potty problem ariana - Tips For You

December 9, 2015 By Pippa Leave a Comment Let’s find out how to reinforce your pet’s good behavior and learn how effective  modern dog training works! Times have changed and many dog owners now seek to avoid using punishment when teaching their puppies and older dogs. To train a dog without punishment, you need to understand how to use the power of reinforcement. So in today’s article we are going to look closely at the use of reinforcement, especially positive reinforcement, in dog training.
We talked about punishment decreasing behavior, well in simple terms reinforcement is the opposite. What this means for you and your puppy is that if you purposefully reinforce the nice or good things he does, he will do them more often. For example, if your puppy jumps onto the kitchen table, and you happen to have left some tasty cup cakes there for him to steal, reinforcement just happened.
We need to know a little bit more about how to use it properly before we dive in and start puppy training.
His brain then automatically encourages him to repeat actions which had a good consequence and to avoid actions which had a bad or indifferent consequence.
In nature, beneficial consequences (and scary ones) are likely to be closely linked with the activities that caused them. Which is why it is no good rewarding your puppy for coming when you call, five minutes after he arrives. You need to have that reward to hand and deliver it swiftly if you want his recall response to be reinforced. They are not about being optimistic or pessimistic, and this causes quite a lot of confusion. In order to reinforce a behavior through negative reinforcement, we remove something that the dog finds unpleasant. In the USA negative reinforcement is a feature of most gundog training programmes.  The trainer first applies pain to the dog in the form of an ear pinch or toe hitch. Negative reinforcement is not normally used in dog training in the UK, though you quite often find people mistakenly referring to punishment as negative reinforcement. This is not the true meaning of reinforcement,  which either adds a pleasant consequence to a desirable behaviour, or removes an unpleasant one. Reinforcement is a powerful training technique, that can be used to create new behaviours, or strengthen existing ones. Bribery has very limited use in dog training but it can help get dogs into specific positions so that we can reinforce them once they are there. Positive reinforcement enables us to train our dog while keeping the dog’s confidence and enthusiasm high. It strengthens the bond between each dog and his owner and develops an intelligent problem solving attitude in the dog. Creating new behaviors through punishment is not an option. Imagine trying to teach a dog to turn on a light switch by punishing all the alternative behaviours he might choose to display.
It would be impossible, and the dog would soon freeze up and refuse to try anything new for fear of triggering a punishment. It is highly effective and is now used and recommended by behaviorists and animal trainers worldwide. Guide dogs, police dogs, bomb detection dogs and therapy dogs are just a few of the talented and obedient dogs trained using these methods. Modern dog training relies on positive (rather than negative) reinforcement to create trained behaviors, and is often simply called positive training. We are seeing some similarities here between punishment and reinforcement and that is because they are two sides of the same coin. However, reinforcement is a faster way of getting training started, avoids many of the problems that arise during training when we use punishment and is the only way to create a range of new and interesting behaviors in our dogs. Like punishment, reinforcement must follow a behavior straight away, in order to effect the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated in the future. Positive reinforcement training is a highly effective way to teach basic and advanced obedience to any puppy or dog. The best news is, that the techniques involved are not difficult to use, they just require a little practice.
House training & potty training a puppy or dog, House training & potty training your puppy or adult dog quickly and easily. Ray colero dog training - home, World renowned dog training experts reveal how to solve all of your dog's behavior problems fast? Potty training - dog breed info center®, dbic, Raising puppies at 3 to 3 ? weeks time to start potty training using the "misty method" the misty method is for the breeders home only, from 3 to 9 weeks.. Puppy potty training - how to train a dog, dog training, Puppy potty training method designed to quickly house train your puppy or older dog. Have you ever seen a country dog being told what to do and it does it without question and the owner doesn't use any leash or special collar to get their dog to do what they ask? If they do here's how to stop them and the answers to the questions at the beginning of this article.
You see, it's not that they train their dogs better or they know more than you about dog training. Notice I did not use the word, "love." Their dogs respect them and this is how they can call their unleashed dog from 200 yards away with a simple whistle or by calling their name.
While the average owner struggles to train their Pit Bull puppy, these owners have never even asked their dogs to sit, much less put them on a leash. Here are the standard new Pit Bull owner rules that I share with people who are having problems with their new pups. In my book, The Pit Bull Training Handbook I touch on this subject a bit more so here's a shorter explanation. If you raise your puppy by being a fair leader, establishing rules, and enforcing them without anger or prejudice, your dog will not only respect you, they will love you too.
Finally, if you think setting rules for your puppy is, "harsh" or too restrictive, next time you get frustrated and can't figure out why your puppy pooped all over your carpet even though you just set them outside think about this article.
Before you go out and get two Pit Bull puppies or add another Pit Bull to your life read this article.
I am still surprised, in today’s motivational dog training climate, when I run into someone who adamantly believes training with food is just wrong.
Let’s explore these one by one starting with the belief, that if you  start training with food you will only have a dog that works when there is food. Your dog should just “naturally” do what you want?  Actually nothing is more natural than rewarding with food. The common theme here is that when mom requires a specific action she lures the pups with food to achieve it and then rewards by giving them food once she gets the response she wants. Hopefully, I have convinced you that rewarding with food is a natural and  useful tool in your training toolkit. Lowest level – the dog’s own food – remember to reduce your dog’s regular meal by the amount you use in training. Mid level – Something softer and tastier than your regular food but not as high-value as the next level. Highest level – Cooked chicken or Roast – this is used when the dog is learning advanced behaviours where great focus and motivation is needed or later in the training session when the dog starts to tire. For example, you ask your dog to look at you, and he does but  just as you were going to reward him, he looked away. This is where people who don’t believe in using food usually go wrong they think that if I teach my dog to sit using food they will need to use food every time they ask the dog to sit – not so! If your dog is learning something and starting to offer up the new behaviour reward with a better pay. If your dog is struggling to learn something but suddenly hits on the right action then give the best reward you have to offer! In the 1960’s ground-breaking animal behaviorist BF Skinner did a series of experiments using food rewards with rats. The interesting part of this experiment is what happened when they stopped rewarding for pushing the lever.
This article is absolutely amazing Bonnie (and Leslie!), sharing with friends and family from all over. Old school dog training told us that we should never play tug of war with our dogs, and if we did enter into such irresponsible games, never to let the dog ‘win’.
As we learn more and more about what makes dogs ‘tick’, trainers have come to learn that games of tug can be a really valuable tool for training all sorts of different behaviours in our dogs. Playing tug is not only a great way to burn up energy; it is quite simply one of the best tools we can use to get our dogs to interact with us. How many people have tried to get a dog to come when it would rather be playing with another dog, or it becomes distracted by people in the distance. NOW, take the dog which has been trained to see YOU as the best way of using its energy, and suddenly your whole world changes. Here’s where we use the dog’s drive to our own advantage:  we’re using the dog’s natural energy in a way which means WE are the means of channelling that drive, that energy. You might wonder what on earth this has to do with hunting dogs, after all, we don’t want to play tug of war with the rabbit your dog has just caught and retrieved to you! We shape a behaviour in a dog through a number of carefully controlled steps, fixing each step of the behaviour, one at a time, before adding the next. So let’s take the retrieve: many people throw an object, tell the dog to run and fetch it, and expect the dog to return carrying the object. NOW, if you start training a retrieve by letting the dog have a great time pulling and tugging on an object, WHILE YOU HOLD THAT OBJECT, we have already established the first step in that retrieve sequence. Once your dog is playing tug really well, you can tell the dog to ‘give’ then quickly throw the tug toy a few feet away, and your dog should come right back to you so it can continue the tug game with you: and you have your retrieve! There are several methods of establishing rules, the following are the ways I’ve found to work the best with lurchers. Some dogs are motivated more by food than others, whilst some will go wild at the prospect of having another item to chase or pull on. For the dog which is more interested in ‘killing’ the toy than food, use two tug items, which must be identical.
Once the dog has understood that “Yes!” means something good is going to happen you can introduce the tug.
Now you up the game a little: you want the dog to actually grab hold of the tug, so you stop rewarding when it sniffs the tug.


Leave it at that for the moment, put the tug away and leave the dog to digest this new information. Yes, you can train a dog to hold something in its mouth by opening its jaws, inserting an object and holding its mouth shut while you say “Hold”; but this type of learning is forced on the dog by you, the handler. Modern training is all about shaping natural behaviour in a way which benefits us without restricting or squashing the dog’s natural drive and enthusiasm. High drive dogs need little encouragement to grab hold of an object waved in front of their noses, whilst less confident and driven animals may need you to make the tug ‘move’ around on the ground like prey, to incite their interest. Next week I’ll explain how to work with dogs which are either too motivated by food, to the extent that the food is of more interest to them than the toy, and those which are more motivated by moving objects. However, the sock and towel toy works fine to begin with, just don’t expect materials to last very long! Using a food treat may be OK to begin with if it gets your dog’s interest, but the food will be faded out as a reward, because the dog is getting its reward by actually playing tug with you. If you have always taught your dog to give up anything it is carrying as soon as you put your hand on the catch or article, don’t expect an instant understanding of this new idea of holding on and pulling back. You start by wiggling the tug toy, the old stuffed sock in my case, around on the ground in front of you. If the dog appears disinterested in the sock, remember, if you haven’t played games together before, the dog may actually be scared of getting up close to you in play mode. I can honestly say that my training methods have improved dramatically since I got my Airedale. Dill, the Airedale, taught me how to play tug, reawakened my desire to really engage with my dogs, and this enabled me to get a better relationship with even my older dogs. Back to the tug training: once your dog is grabbing on to and pulling the sock, you need to have the other sock ready to get the dog to drop the first sock on command. You end the game by standing up, having commanded the dog to “Give”, and walk away, putting the tug toys out of sight. You can start playing tug with very young puppies, and in the initial stages you do nothing more than sit on the ground and offer the pup an old sock or other soft item to play with. The reason you must sit on the ground is partly to get down to the pup’s level to make yourself more approachable, and partly because at no time must you force the pup’s head upwards, which can damage its spine.
The game must be played by your rules, so if the pup nips your hand you squeak sharply as though in pain, gently but firmly remove the item from the pup’s mouth and put it out of sight for a few seconds.
Each pup is different however, and you should be guided by the way your pup responds to both your voice and the tug toy. One a puppy has started to understand spoken commands you can introduce words such as ‘take it’ or ‘yes’.
To begin with the pup doesn’t know that the ‘yes’ command means anything at all, but by associating the presence of the tug toy with the offering and the word, it learns that the ‘yes’ means that the pup can start play. I use the word ‘give’, as it is the command I shall eventually use in the field when the dog brings me a rabbit. When I first started tug training I used food as a reward for the ‘give’, tempting the dog to give up the tug toy by distracting it with food.
Whilst the pup is tugging away merrily I reach with my free hand to the second old sock or woolly hat that I’ve tucked into the back pocket of my jeans. The pup lets go of the first ‘dead’ toy when its attention is moved to the now more exciting second toy that is wriggling about. It may take you some practice to get the timing and the commands right, and with exactly the right timing.
I reckon that a pup of around 6 months, providing that we’ve already established a good bond, and the pup is confidant around me, can learn the whole concept of ‘yes’ and ‘give’ in a single session lasting no more than 15 minutes. As I’ve no doubt said in the past, retrieving, or rather, the refusal to retrieve can sometimes be the biggest stumbling block in the lurcher owner’s training programme.
The problems arise when the dog doesn’t bring back what you want it to fetch, and finding the reasons behind such a refusal is what led me to tug training. I expect we’ve all seen the pup which bounds gleefully after a tennis ball or toy, then runs off with the item, playfully taunting its owner by coming oh so close, before racing off again. The pup which runs around with the ball, maybe throwing it up in the air, dropping it and chasing it all over again, without any intervention from you, is really telling you that it is too damn boring just playing the ‘fetch and retrieve’ game. If we want our dogs to retrieve what they catch, they need to feel very comfortable when they are near us, and not just comfortable whilst they are lounging around at home, but when they are in that different place, the place where predators hunt and kill. That place is present in all our dogs, no matter how gentle and affectionate they may be with friends and family, be they canine or human. Tug games encourage the dog to be that predator, that killer, that grabber and shaker when they are right by our sides.
This sharing, the feeling comfortable whilst in that hard driving zone, is what will allow your dog to bring you back the rabbit it has caught. It is a way of responding that has evolved in animals, including dogs and humans too, to help them benefit from their environment.
These can range from activities that the dog enjoys such as games or retrieving, to opportunities to exercise, or access to a desirable area.
It is the only method of training suitable for young puppies, and the fastest way of establishing some behaviors. The skills and techniques involved have been, and are still being, developed at a very exciting pace.
They try and try to house train their dog but alas, the dog is now 3 months old and still goes to the bathroom in the kitchen or on the sofa. They try to train their puppy using a leash, but the puppy eats through the leash and escapes. They feel like they are raising a wild lion cub instead of a domesticated Pit Bull Terrier.
They should be put in a wire kennel (not a shipping crate) and stay there until you let them out in the morning. A dog that is always under supervision can not crap in the floor or pee on your favorite chair. Free feeding a puppy is bad news and without this set schedule of feeding potty training will be a lot harder.
If they do not eat 20 minutes after you set the bowl down, pick it up and put it down at the next feeding time.
Would you rather have a loving, respectful bond with your puppy or would you rather your puppy run over you like a mannerless wild beast? 30 odd years ago, back in the day when most trainers were popping and jerking their way around the ring that attitude was fairly common, but now?
In certain situations – if you were in an obedience trial and were sneakily slipping your dog food out of your pocket while you were competing in the ring - that would most definitely be cheating. I wonder how long this person would continue to go to work everyday without earning a paycheque?
The domestication of the dog came about in the first place by dogs choosing to hang around human settlements looking for – you guessed it – FOOD. When mom wants the puppies to start venturing out of the den she will regurgitate the food she brought back from the hunt closer and closer to the den mouth and will eventually only let the puppies nurse from her when they are outside the den. This level of reward would be used for behaviours that your dog knows well and when the dog is fresh. Some people use hotdogs for this level but I find it can give the dogs diarrhea so I don’t recommend it. On movie sets – where the shooting can go on for hours (not without breaks) we pull out the high value treats later in the day to bring back the excitement. The goal is to reward at exactly the right moment so that the dog clearly understands what it is being rewarded for. You would need to stop yourself from rewarding at that point because you would be actually rewarding the dog for the wrong behaviour (looking away).  Another example, if your dog is shy or nervous and makes a gesture to meet someone, have they person feed your dog or you offer food while the dog is still moving forward to greet the person.
I try to ignore all undesired behaviour instead setting the dog up in to situations where I get the opportunity to reward it for doing the right thing.  Using whining as an example – make sure to praise and reward the dog when it is laying quietly not whining. While we are actually training a dog to perform a behaviour we will lure them into position using food.
In one study the rats were placed in a cage with a lever that when pushed released a food treat.
The rats that received food rewards every time tried pushing the lever a couple times and then stopped. Of course she does offer behaviours now without food as soon as she sees the clicker come out, so I scale back her treats a little unless we are learning something new.
Watch a litter of puppies playing with various bits of cardboard, blankets and toys…….you can guarantee that at any one time a pair or pups will be playing tug, and although the stronger pup will usually win, it will often return to the pup who gave up the toy and invite it to play all over again.
A lot of owners shout, plead, scream, and generally go over the top in a vain attempt to get the dog’s attention, all to no avail, because the dog has realised that an owner in melt-down is not the best place to be! For there must be rules, and the dog must understand these rules before you ever commence playing tug, or you can end up with a madly tugging dog with no ‘off’ button to press!
Depending on the dog, it could take a few seconds, or a few moments, or even longer, for the animal to actually reach out and grab the tug.
It is a fact that by stopping any form of training the moment you hit the right behaviour, the pupil digests and retains that information much better than if you have continued for ages where mistakes and wrong behaviour have more of a chance of creeping in. This kind of training allows the dog to figure out, through trial and error, what you want it to do.
Any type of forced training is necessarily a negative experience for the dog, as well as being open to abuse, and is very difficult to get right.
Dogs trained through play and reward will ALWAYS retrieve to you as they have learned that it feels good to do so. Low drive dogs, or those which aren’t confident playing close contact games like this need very gentle handling at this stage.
When you want the game to stop, say “Give” , offering the reward with your free hand, and reward the moment the dog lets go of the toy.
In fact, some very submissive sighthound saturated dogs may find this an impossible concept unless you start them off as puppies. You will, of course, have already taught the meaning of the marker word “Yes!””, as I described in the last article.
It helps to be sitting on the ground at this stage as you shouldn’t be looming over the dog: get down to dog level to encourage play and to lessen your dominance and status. This is how dogs play with each other as well, and there are very strict codes of conduct in canine play.


All you are doing at this stage is getting the pup to bond with you through play, and you are not trying to put word commands into the game at all with pups that are under 4 months of age. You must only tug as hard as the pup tugs, though many small puppies don’t actually tug; they just run around you, back and forth, mouthing the toy whilst you hang on to one end.
Some pups get much too excited and words of praise can incite them to go even further over the top.
I usually start a session by showing the pup the tug item, choosing a moment when the pup is neither tired, nor hungry nor distracted by something else.
This is my trigger word; the command which lets the pup know it has my permission to grab hold of the tug and start playing. I need to teach the pup that giving up the tug is only a tiny break in the game, and not the end of its fun.
This is something I found unproductive for the working dog, for many lurchers are quite immune to food when they are in hunting mode, so I now use a second tug toy as the distraction instead.
I produce this toy and wiggle it about furiously on the ground, at the same time as letting my other hand which is playing tug with the pup, go slack. The exciting thing about using a pup’s drive and energy to teach it new words and concepts is that all dogs learn much faster when they are in a driven mode; when their energy is positively engaged, rather than the dog simply feeling that is must submit to orders with no reward.
If you have a pup which happily runs and fetches a ball and brings it back to you for a repeat performance, you don’t have to think laterally in order to get that pup to do what you want because it’s all happening naturally.
Dogs which possess that initiative, wit and the sharp intelligence which can reduce their owners to little blobs of steaming rage are actually very good for us humans.
If we can show the dog, prove to that young pup, that we understand what makes it tick, what forces it to run, chase, grab and play, then we shall have an ally in the field. When you see the glint and steel in the eyes of your gentle lurcher as it tugs and shakes the toy in your hand, you know that you are sharing that place with your dog. They feel things far more deeply than we could ever imagine, but they can’t tell us in words. Dogs which feel proud and happy to be with their owners whilst in the driven, predator zone, actually WANT to retrieve what they have caught. Even with paycheques, workers often choose to go to another job or slack off  if they feel unappreciated.
If you fumble with your food and now the dog has moved back to beside you or behind you and then you feed it  you are rewarding  the dog for hiding behind you.
Once the dog knows the behaviour the food is offered less and less frequently and a lower value food is used or other rewards such as praise or petting. The rats that were rewarded randomly continued to push the lever for a long time always hopeful that this would be the time that a treat would be dispensed. Drive is what makes dogs chase, makes them grab hold of things, and ultimately what makes them chase and catch and sometimes kill their quarry. It is using energy and drive whilst playing tug, and it is also seeing you as the source of that great time: what could be better! This might sound back to front, but by teaching the end of the behaviour first, you establish the correct sequence of events.
For the foodie, use very tasty treats, and make them of the small, swallow-at-one-gulp variety.
Do this as many times as you want, but most dogs learn very fast that when you say “Yes!” they are going to get the reward. Active, confident dogs will almost always reach forward and sniff what you have in your hand. As the dog advances in its understanding of the game, it learns that giving up the tug isn’t the end of the fun, just a break in the game. The moment he grabs it reward with praise and titbits and offer verbal praise as well: “Good dog” or whatever phrase you want to use. The fact that the dog is making its own decisions, thinking about how to get the reward, means that it is learning much faster than if you are forcing a sequence of behaviours.
The fact that we have subtly conditioned this behaviour means that there has been no stress on the dog, only pleasure, thus fixing the behaviour all the better. This is probably because I’ve trained all my pups to chase bits of fur on a piece of string around the garden from an early age; they were already well motivated to chase something that moves.
The dog should now realise that “Yes!” means a reward, but when training the dog which is overly food orientated, we use two tug toys instead of one. A dog which doesn’t abide by the rules is cold shouldered by its mates, they yelp or snap, and turn away as if to say: ‘if you don’t play fair then I’m not playing’. Try not to speak too much to the pup whilst it is tugging; you don’t want to distract it, and some pups react to your voice by letting go of the item and scrambling up at your face. If this is the case, keep the whole game very low key and remain silent whilst the pup tugs. When I first introduce this word I am standing up, towering over the pup, with the tug toy well out of its reach and sight.
This is an important part of learning self control, and something that is invaluable in the training of any dog, but vital in a working dog that will eventually learn to give up its catch without feeling deprived of its possession.
If you teach the ‘give’ during tug play you’ll never have a dog that wants to hang on to its catch, for it has learned that to give up something means no more than momentary loss, with much more fun to be had just seconds later. I don’t let go of that toy, but I make it seem ‘dead’ and uninteresting, which immediately directs the pup’s attention on to the ‘live’ toy that is moving about slightly to one side of me. At the risk of incurring the wrath of pun haters, they aren’t playing ball: sorry about that! If we can’t understand the dog, don’t understand how it feels, can’t see how the predator needs to play, it shuts down, turns away from us because we are no more than the person on the end of the lead, the person who feeds and exercises the dog. Look into their eyes when they are trying to pull that tug toy out of your hands and they’ll meet your gaze hard. When they are done going to the potty and you can't supervise them, put them back in their wire crate. This is a good thing, however, too much attention and not enough of the other needs results in bad mannered dogs. As the dog becomes increasingly stable on that behaviour food rewards are  gradually faded away until only the more spectacular instances of that behaviour are rewarded.
Why would your dog be any different?  Part of being a good dog trainer is knowing when to pay and even when to give a bonus. When she wants them to start to hunt she brings food to the top of the den first by regurgitating food, then by dropping a kill, as they progress she will bring the kill & drag it for the pups to follow.
In another set of cages the food reward was random, so the rat might push the lever 2 times or 6 times before getting a treat.
I’ve trained a lot of my dogs by playing tug, and none of them have ever tried to play tug with a rabbit: ever! Dog then realises, even if owner is buttoning up and keeping calm, (remember, dogs can read body language better than an ace psychiatrist!) that if it runs to fetch object, and doesn’t come straight back, owner gets mad, which of course then means that dog has no intention of coming back to owner carrying the object which has caused all that anger in the first place! There’s no point teaching a dog to tug or retrieve if it hasn’t learned to give up the article when it comes to you and is told to do so. Immediately the dog does this you say “Yes!”, and the dog knows it has done the right thing, then you reward with the treat.
Most dogs don’t take long to associate the word “Give” with letting go of the tug and receiving the reward. Remember you should be sitting on the ground for pups and small dogs: you must not put them in a position where their heads are forced upwards unnaturally, especially with young puppies. Praise in a low, encouraging voice, and if you see that your voice is putting the dog off, keep quiet! It doesn’t take long before the dog will reliably let go of the first sock on command, because it knows it is going to continue playing with the second sock. Only play the game for a couple of minutes at a time to begin with, for tugging is very tiring for young mouths and bodies. Having called the pup to me by saying its name, and having got its attention, I then sit down in front of the pup at the same time as holding the tug toy out in front of me, saying ‘yes’ in an excited tone of voice. I use quite a sharp tone of voice here, and as the pup moves to grab the new toy I say ‘yes’ in the excited voice which is the trigger word for allowing the pup to grab hold of the item. Get a friend to act the part of the puppy, and hope that your friends are as nutty as you are!
They are in that predator zone, and you, the human, are privileged to be sharing that space, right there and then. For example, on a dog that is not a raw beginner I would seldom reward a sit with food, but once in a while if the sit was blazing fast and perfectly straight I might well give the dog a reward.
Because it works – using food motivation can create a happy engaged learner who enjoys working.
In the final stages of this training she will bring a small or injured animal for the pups to learn how to track, chase and  kill. On screen, are  the dog’s ears up, is his tail wagging are his eyes sparkling with mischief. Training the release before you do anything else makes it the strongest part of the behaviour pattern you are trying to establish. Sitting on the ground also has the effect of keeping things low key and calm; essential in the early stages where you’re both learning the game.
As the dog leaves the first, now boring and immobile sock, say “Give!” right as the dog is letting go of the first sock.
Food is intended to facilitate the learning process and as a motivator to encourage the dog in both learning and work.
In the obedience ring a competitor could get a high score with a dog stressed by compulsion, working nervously with his shoulders slightly hunched and tail down but for the film industry that would just be a waste of film.
If your dog gives a spectacular performance of a certain behaviour and you give him a jackpot in reward he will keep trying to offer up that behaviour even if the rewards are intermittent. I choose to use motivational methods including food rewards so that the dogs I train work happy and enjoy working and have that sparkle when they are set.



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