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Two carotenoids that have beneficial effects on visual performance are lutein and zeaxanthin.
A recent study published in the Journal of Food Science showed that the carotenoids prevent age-related eye diseases and also improve vision. One of the most commonly missed indicators on the Environment Rating scales is using proper handwashing techniques for children and teachers. For preschoolers, studies have shown that deficiencies in handwashing have contributed to many outbreaks of diarrhea among children and caregivers in child care centers.
The correct handwashing procedure is as follows: Hands must be wet first with warm water, which helps loosen soil, including infection-causing organisms. The most important tip that teachers can use to teach children how to wash hands correctly is to role-model by washing their hands correctly.
One helpful tip that can help children remember the steps is to have a poster with pictures of a child (preferably one of the children in the class), performing each of the steps. Finally, if you are having trouble with the amount of time it takes to wash all of the children’s hands during transitions, one way you can do it is to wash as a group. One of the more challenging criteria to meet on the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R) is taking infants and toddlers outdoors to play for an hour every day.
During the first few years of life, infants and toddlers are trying to make sense of their world. The outdoor equipment should challenge children, but should be based on realistic expectations about what children at this age can and cannot do. Beyond the activities already mentioned, there are many interesting and fun experiences that you can provide for   both infants and toddlers outdoors.
Create a texture path on the ground using assorted textures, such as carpet squares, rugs, grass, and resilient surfacing. For toddlers: Continue to add more materials that reflect the variety of developmental skills. The ITERS-R does require that infants and toddlers spend an hour a day outdoors, weather permitting.
Remember that the experiences that infants and toddlers have outdoors while they are in child-care, may in fact, be the only opportunity they have to really explore the outdoors. The ERS (Environmental Rating Scales) Team at Clayton Early Learning is holding one of their bi-annual trainings here on campus this week.
The Importance of Training: One of the first things we’ve learned with our involvement using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scales (ERS) is that training before implementation is critical.
Coaching Support is Key: Another thing we learned along the way is the importance of coaches and their role in the “Improvement” part of this process.
Reliability equals trust: The third thing we’ve learned along the way is how important it is to have a reliability system for our Quality Ratings. Incentives: Because child care is so expensive to implement at a “quality level” the fourth important thing is that we need to provide incentives for programs that participate.
For parents, who are the consumers, it’s also important that they buy in to this system and that they no longer accept poor quality care for their children. So as we look to introducing more quality improvement measures for our child care centers and homes, it’s important to take what we have learned and improve upon it. Clarifying the learning objective can be used anytime-during group, free time, and even in routines, like meals and snack time.
And as teachers it’s also important to recognize our role in preventing children’s access to outdoor time. Cognitively, exposure to natural settings may be widely effective in reducing ADHD symptoms.
If you haven’t heard the news, the rules and regulations for Child Care Licensing are changing for child care centers in Colorado.
In response to these findings, there was a big push in Colorado to improve the quality of care in the state. Throughout this process, the Environment Rating Scales have been important tools chosen by the state to measure the overall quality of centers and homes. The Scales have also been shown to provide stable results if classrooms do not improve quality, yet are sensitive to organized attempts to improve early childhood environments. See that child over there?  The one who is getting ready to go off to Kindergarten but hasn’t learned her letters or numbers. This April at the  Rocky Mountain Early Childhood Conference, the keynote speaker, Geoffrey Canada spoke about this topic as it relates to the educational field. So as this school year is coming to a close and we have been assessing our children who are heading off to Kindergarten next year, I worry. This year a study was published out of the University of Michigan based on a survey called the “Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort", which contains data on 8,900 babies at 9 months of age and 7,500 of those same babies at 2 years of age.
So looking beyond these alarming statistics, what are some of the things we can do to help prevent obesity in infants?
Finally the last thing we can do is encourage physical activity with our infants and toddlers.  Late last year an Institute of Medicine study committee was charged for the first time with developing obesity prevention recommendations specifically for the 0-to-5 set.
And because this is such new and important information, please feel free to share it with anyone you may know who is pregnant or has a young infant. The other day I was listening to the morning program on a local radio station and they asked the question “what has 39 times more germs than a public toilet seat?
Science and the “War on Germs”: Our “war on germs” has been around as long as we have been around. The media and the “War on Germs”: The media has also played a big part in how we look at germs. After many requests, I am finally updating the mixed hair posts with Alina’s curly, mixed hair care routine now that she is a toddler. Alina’s hair has changed tremendously since I first wrote her infant mixed hair routine. By no means am I a hair expert, but I do take great effort in making my toddler’s hair look and feel its best.
I spend the most amount of time combing through, to be sure all the knots are out and the curls become defined. After I have gone through the majority of her hair, closing the hair cuticles (which should follow the natural curls), I go through and twist larger segments.
I always make sure to give extra moisture love to the hair at the front of Alina’s gorgeous face. This Handbook provides instructions, information and reference material related to the work of panel members and to the IME process.
Issues affecting the health of immigrants and the immigration process itself are subject to change.
Client A foreign national who is seeking to enter Canada, and in accordance with the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and its Regulations, is required to submit to an IME.
Clinic staff Persons who are working in the panel member’s clinic and may be involved in the immigration medical process. EDE Excessive demand exempt is a category of client who is exempt from assessment of excessive demand.
ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, also known as enzyme immunoassay, which is a blood test for HIV. Furthered cases Cases that require supplemental medical reports to complete the medical assessment. Guardian A legal guardian is a person who has custody or who is empowered to act on behalf of another person and has been recognized as such by the competent authorities in the jurisdiction where the status was either recognized or granted. Handbook This Handbook is the standard reference for the orientation and training of panel members. IFHP Interim Federal Health Program: a program funded by CIC that provides limited, temporary coverage of costs related to health care for specific categories of people, including protected persons, refugee claimants, rejected refugee claimants, certain persons detained under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) and other specified groups.
IMM 0535 Medical Surveillance Undertaking Form, issued to individuals who have undergone their IME in Canada or abroad and have been determined to require medical surveillance by Canadian Public Health Authorities. IMM 1017 An IME form containing the client’s biodata, IME grading and panel physician declaration. IMM 5544 Supplemental medical and resettlement needs assessment form providing information on the special needs a client may have while settling in Canada.
Locum tenens Medical practitioners who replace panel physicians for a short period while they are on vacation, taking training or unable to provide service for other reasons.
Panel member A general term that refers to a panel physician, panel radiologist or panel laboratories or specialists authorized by CIC to perform IME-related activities. Panel physician New term used for a medical doctor designated to perform, grade and submit IMEs. Panel radiologist A radiologist designated to perform, grade and submit chest x-rays for IMEs. PHLU Public Health Liaison Unit, located in the Health Branch, CIC (the former term was Medical Surveillance Unit). Protected person – In Canada People who have been determined to be protected persons by the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB), or in a Pre-Removal Risk Assessment, and who have been granted permanent residence as a result.
RMO Regional medical office is the location of operations for medical officers who are CIC officials with responsibility for the Canadian immigration health program in a given region. The IRPA and its accompanying regulations set out the medical requirements that clients must meet in order to come to Canada as temporary or permanent residents.
In addition, the legislation sets out the grounds on which a person may be found to be inadmissible to Canada, including inadmissibility on health grounds. The purpose of this Act is to protect the privacy of individuals with respect to personal information collected by the government and to provide individuals with a right of access to their personal information. Under the Privacy Act, all individuals have the right to the protection of their personal information held by a federal institution. Pursuant to paragraph 8(2)(f) of the Privacy Act, Health Branch has concluded Memoranda of Understanding with certain partner countries on information sharing in order to align our network of panel members, which allows Health Branch to share information about our network with partner countries. The Access to Information Act gives every Canadian citizen, permanent resident and individual or corporation present in Canada the right to access records, in any format, held by a government institution, subject to certain exceptions. The Act is used to access information held by the government apart from an individual’s own personal information. It is not necessary for clients to use the Act to obtain a copy of the results of their own IME.
Completion of orientation, which includes reading and understanding this Handbook and participating in discussions with CIC medical personnel.
Completion of training, including eMedical training where and when relevant, which may be done individually or through group activities involving several panel members in locations where they operate in geographic proximity.
Designation is not a permanent status and completing the designation process does not create any contract or agency relationship with CIC.
CIC immigration officials and medical officers consult one another regularly in order to determine the number of panel members required in a given location. If a panel member relocates his or her practice, that relocation must be brought to the attention of the RMO, as designation as a panel member is related to your location. Complaints or disputes regarding a panel member’s performance may result in termination, depending on the situation.
Panel members, depending on their field of work, are authorized to perform IMEs, arrange for diagnostics and investigations, and complete immigration medical forms. Panel members performing IMEs should ensure that they meet CIC-mandated service standards and that there are no conflicts of interest in providing services. For all clients, the Canadian IME will include an examination by a panel member and a medical assessment by a CIC medical officer.
The assessment of whether or not a client is inadmissible on health grounds is based on the health findings identified during the examination by a panel member. Once CIC has designated a laboratory in your area, panel physicians will be required to use this facility. The eMedical system is a Web-based system implemented by CIC and the DIAC for the electronic recording and transmission of IMEs.
Panel physicians are to provide appropriate and timely advice to the client when they discover a serious disease not known to the client. In doing so, they are to uphold professional and ethical standards by referring back to the client’s usual physician or to an appropriate specialist, upon request. The panel member discovers inappropriate activity relative to the provision of IMEs by clinic, office, laboratory or radiology centre staff.
To support fraud prevention and the integrity of the IME process, panel members must confirm the identity of the client using an identification document acceptable for the Canadian Immigration medical examination. Panel members or clinic staff must also inform CIC if they suspect that clients are providing false information or attempting to falsify any aspect of the IME. Panel members can proceed with the IME, and CIC will follow up on the concern raised about the individual’s identity and any other report of possible fraud.
Panel members should help prevent fraud by educating their staff on procedures used to verify client identity (refer to Section 4.1 for additional information). Panel members must be aware that clients from some cultures may request special accommodation during the IME. Panel members should try to accommodate personal and cultural sensitivities, while keeping in mind that IME standards must be respected. A panel member who fails to meet the IME performance standards reflects badly on the immigration medical program. If the panel member will have a locum tenens replacing him or her during extended absences, the panel member must give the RMO at least 14 days’ notice, preferably by email. Panel members cannot submit IMEs if their leave information indicates that they are on leave. Extended or repeated unapproved absences may result in termination of a panel member’s status. For personal and program integrity, they must enter leave dates directly in their personal record. The RMO will update the information in their record in order to track the leave in their system. A statement from the proposed locum indicating that he or she has read this Handbook and agrees with the standards and requirements defined herein. Note: Prior to recommending a particular physician or radiologist as a prospective locum, the panel member must be satisfied that the proposed locum has the qualifications and experience to perform IMEs. If the RMO approves the request, a written response (by letter or email) will be sent to the panel member. The panel member must give the RMO at least 14 days’ notice, preferably by email, for every period of time where the locum will be acting on behalf of the panel member. Panel members must ensure that the locum has adequate training in IME requirements, reporting procedures and any updates. The termination of a panel member will automatically cancel prior approvals of a locum for this panel member. English and French are the official languages of Canada and panel members must be able to communicate with Canadian officials in at least one official language. Panel members should inform CIC of the official language they prefer to use in correspondence.
Panel members should inform CIC of the official language and any other language they speak. Panel members should also indicate in the drop-down list in eMedical other languages they speak. When performing IMEs, panel physicians may examine clients who speak neither of the two official languages, nor any other language that the panel physician speaks. If an interpreter is used, panel members must select and ensure that the interpreter is unbiased and has no connection to the client. The panel member’s unique identifier should be included in all correspondence with CIC. For panel members or their locum tenens performing a paper-based IME, the unique identifier, along with their name, must be clearly readable on each Medical Report (forms IMM 1017 and IMM 5419) and on each chest x-ray. Each photo attached to the Medical Report (IMM 1017) must be stamped to confirm the identity of the client. Panel radiologists may embed this information on the chest x-ray along with other required information about the client. Forms, documents and results of investigations required for the completion of IMEs are the property of CIC.
Panel members who perform IME-related activities must follow the procedures below for copies and files as well as for original documents and information. Original documents and information related to an IME must be forwarded to the responsible RMO electronically. Original documents and information related to an IME must be forwarded to the responsible RMO by regular mail or commercial courier and must never be given to the client for delivery to the RMO. Panel physicians are required to keep copies and records of files for at least 2 years and in compliance with their local regulatory and licensing requirements.
Regular contact will be maintained between panel members and RMOs regarding both medical and administrative issues. Written correspondence, such as letters, faxes or email, is preferred, but the telephone can be used when necessary (see Appendix I for RMOs’ addresses and contact information). Information about IME fees, services included in the fees, clinic’s address and contact information may be included in the advertisement.
On occasion, the media may become interested in the IME of a particular individual and contact the panel member for information.
Panel members should never communicate confidential information they are privy to with respect to the immigration system or to individual clients. Clients may have questions about the immigration process, particularly when CIC officials request additional medical information or investigations. These questions should be addressed to the immigration or visa office responsible for the case. If panel members have non-eMedical-related questions regarding IMEs, they may contact their RMO listed in Appendix I. Panel members who have questions about eMedical should consult the eMedical System User Guides and Quick Reference Guides. Panel members in Canada should refer to Chapter 5 for instructions regarding requirements and fees for refugee claimants under the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP). Clear and transparent procedures for responding to complaints and resolving disputes improve client service and the integrity of the immigration medical program.
If, during an IME, a panel member has a disagreement with a client, or confusion arises or an event occurs that might compromise client service, panel members should report these incidents to the RMO. The panel member feels that reporting a one of a kind situation may benefit the program or increase other panel members’ knowledge. Reports to the RMO should include the date of the incident, the client’s IME, UMI or UCI number and a brief description of the incident. CIC’s Health Branch will consider the opinions and viewpoints of panel members and of anyone submitting a complaint or critical comment. Health Branch officers will occasionally visit panel members to ensure the quality of their work. Failure to meet performance standards may result in termination of the panel member’s designation. Continued failure to maintain an acceptable level of performance as set out in this Handbook or in accordance with written instructions from the RMO. For serious complaints, such as harassment, sexual misconduct or illegal activities, the RMO will suspend the panel member, issue a letter summarizing the facts that gave rise to the complaint and provide the panel member with an opportunity to reply.
However, if the panel member’s designation is terminated because of performance deficiencies or complaints, there is no transition period and the termination is effective as of the date of the notification letter sent by the RMO. CIC will consider all requests for reconsideration and make every effort to provide panel members with a written reply within 30 days of the receipt of their request for reconsideration. This chapter provides panel members with a step-by-step method for completing an IME and associated forms.
The IME consists of a medical history, physical examination, age-specific laboratory tests and age-specific chest x-ray.
With the launch of eMedical, the IME will be conducted, where technologically feasible, in a Web-based computer program designed for the electronic recording, transmission, processing and temporary storage of the IME and its associated results.
Panel members performing IMEs in a region where eMedical has been implemented must use the system to complete and submit all IMEs. Differences between the paper process and the eMedical process have been pointed out throughout this document.
IME paper forms have been redesigned to ensure consistency between eMedical IMEs and paper-based IMEs.
Client photographs are essential for ensuring that there is no substitution at any time during the lifecycle of the IME and that the person who undergoes the IME is the same person who is applying for entry to Canada.
The eMedical system will include the photograph on all requisitions and referrals (laboratory, radiology, specialists and others). If the photographs do not meet the specifications, ask the client to provide new photographs before their IME can be completed. The photograph on the Medical Report (IMM 1017) must be stamped in the top right corner with the panel physician’s ID stamp.

The client must submit a passport or other identification document acceptable for the Canadian Immigration medical examination. Important: To ensure the integrity of the IME process, the same identity document must be used for all components of the IME, including laboratory, radiology and specialist referrals.
If the client provides personal details that seem inconsistent with the information on the submitted identity documents, panel members must identify the concern in the eMedical system or on the IMM 1017 – Medical Report (Client Biodata and Summary) for paper-based IMEs. Photocopies of the identification document concerned must be attached to the IME and submitted to CIC. Consent for the collection and release of IME information related to the administration of Canada’s IRPA or to the protection of the health and safety of Canadians.
If a client does not give consent, the IME cannot be carried out and the panel physician must notify the responsible RMO.
Clinic staff or a panel member should review the Consent and Declaration form with the client and answer any questions.
CIC has implemented one standard form, the Medical Report: Client Biodata and Summary (IMM 1017), for all immigration categories. EDE clients are those who are exempted from assessment of excessive demand on the Canadian health care system. Note: Panel physicians must complete and submit, either electronically or on paper, the IMM 5544 Resettlement Needs Assessment Form.
Note: EDE clients include refugees, refugee claimants and certain family classes and individuals with protected person status. The Medical Report (IMM 1017) form is typically issued by CIC with the client information and immigration information sections completed.
Clients who have been issued a Medical Report (IMM 1017) must present the form to the panel clinic when presenting themselves for their IMEs.
Clinic staff will search for the client health case in eMedical using the IME# (search may also be done using client name and passport number, or UCI# or UMI#).
A live photo of the client is taken and uploaded to eMedical to verify identity throughout the life cycle of the IME. Clinic staff must attach a client photo (provided by the client) to the Medical Report (IMM 1017). The Medical Report (IMM 1017) will be completed and submitted along with all other IME forms. Clients who are being processed as refugees overseas will have a Resettlement Needs Assessment (IMM 5544) form issued to them along with their IMM 1017 by a Visa Office (VO).
Refer to the IMEI on the Resettlement Needs Assessment (IMM 5544) for detailed instructions on completing the form.
UFM examinations are performed when clients report to a panel physician for their IME before a visa application has been submitted to CIC.
Panel physicians must ensure that they provide the client with the proof of having completed their upfront medical examination. Since an IME is valid for 12 months, panel physicians should remind clients to submit their visa application along with the proof of having completed their upfront medical examination well before the expiration of the 12 months; otherwise, the client may have to undergo a second IME. Enter the Client personal details (mandatory fields include Title, Family name, Gender, Date of birth and Country of birth). Panel physicians will use IMM 1017B Upfront paper forms, which have been provided to them and that are pre- populated with a UMI# and a barcode (see sample form in Appendix III).
Clinic staff must select the immigration category by checking the appropriate box (student, worker, visitor, family EDE or refugee claimant (in Canada only)). Note: It is very important to ensure the correct page goes to the client and the correct page goes to your RMO. Grade A indicates that there are no abnormal findings present and no significant abnormal history. Panel physicians must provide this information in the comments section or they may attach a report to the IME. The following table lists additional requirements when the answers to medical history questions show abnormality, whether the IME is completed in eMedical or on paper. If a baby can be taught to say bye bye and wave, then sign language is no different if you truly think about it. Many studies have shown that unwashed or improperly washed hands are the primary carriers of infections, particularly among infants and toddlers.
Research has shown that infants are especially vulnerable to infectious disease between 6 months and 9 months of age, when the protection of being in utero wears off. In child care centers that have implemented a hand-washing training program, the incidence of diarrheal illness has decreased by 50%. Often times it is the teachers who are not doing the procedures correctly, rather than the children. One of our home providers came up with putting water in a spray bottle which she then sprays onto the children’s hands (hands are wet step). It just takes some creativity (like what was mentioned above), some persistence, and some supervision.
We often hear from providers that “parents don’t want their infant outdoors because they’ll get sick” or that “there’s no time to take young children outside when there are so many routines and individualized schedules.” So why is it important to take infants and toddlers outdoors? One of the ways they do this is by soaking up every noise, every sound, and every experience that they have.
Even infants, who do not have the ability to physically play with others, are able to watch others, which is the first step in social development (Oesterreich, 1995). According to Gabbard (1998), the “window of opportunity” for acquiring basic motor movements is   from prenatal to five years of age.
Toddlers need space and materials that will help them act out prepositions-over, under, on top of, inside, outside, behind, in front of, up, and down (Rivkin, 2000).
Because they are exploring their world, they often taste it first, which can result in more exposure to germs or to choking hazards. All anchored equipment should be designed for toddlers, based on the new ASTM F 2373-05 guidelines for children ages 6 months to 23 months. Point out the leaves moving, let them feel the leaves or grass, and point out the nature sounds that they hear.
The children can crawl along this path to explore large motor skills and sensory stimulation (Miller, 1989). Bring out riding toys and trikes, wagons to pull, baby carriages with dolls, large trucks to push, etc.
By taking infants and toddlers outdoors, you are providing wonderful opportunity and you are setting up a good model for parents to follow. Because of this, it only seemed appropriate to republish Brenda Cobb-Hoge's blog on Early Childhood Classroom assessment from last spring. We have been assessing quality in many of our classrooms and family childcare homes for over 12 years, primarily through the use of the Environment Rating Scales (ECERS-R, ITERS-R, FCCERS-R). Providing overview trainings for teachers, providers and Directors on the tools as well as more in-depth training for coaches was key to improving quality based on the tools because it gave everyone the “why” behind the indicators and assured everyone that they could pick and choose the indicators that they felt was important to implement in their program. As some communities began using the Rating, their programs were getting money for materials based on their ERS scores but we weren’t really changing the quality. As the Qualistar Rating has become more “high stakes” having well-trained Rating Specialists whose reliability is checked regularly has been crucial in building trust in the system. Whether the incentives come in the form of grants for staff training or coaching or whether it comes in the form of higher reimbursement rates, programs need support to make “quality” happen.
We want providers invested in improving the quality of their classrooms; that they really understand that quality is something you work on every single day – not just the day or month of the rating. Yes, the problem that we continue to face is that many parents’ choices in child care may, out of necessity, be driven by costs of programs rather than the quality. And like any suitcase, there are some things that we take with us but we never use, and some things we forgot to bring along or couldn’t fit that are critical to our journey. Was there something teachers insisted that you learn that you never used and you wouldn't even know when or why you should use it? Right now, we are observing classrooms across Denver using the CLASS™ Pre-K tool and one of the indicators that classrooms score low on is Clarity of Learning Objectives. Basically what an advanced organizer means is that you state what the objective of the lesson is or what children should be focusing on prior to starting the activity. This is one of my favorites because there is always one child in your classroom that gets the conversation “off-track.” Now whether that child is really getting the conversation “off-track” or whether they are making some connection you aren't aware of is something that you don’t know. The important thing is to practice because it’s not something that comes naturally to most of us. Often the first thing to get the blame is children’s increased access to computer games, the internet and television. In a recent study based on interviews with preschool teachers in Ohio, Participants noted physical and socio-emotional benefits of physical activity particular to preschoolers (e.g. Physically, outdoor play increases fitness levels and builds active, healthy bodies which helps combat the current rise in obesity among children. In addition, schools with environmental education programs score higher on standardized tests in math, reading, writing and listening. Unstructured active play with others, including with parents, siblings, and peers, is a major opportunity to cultivate social skills.
Time to start taking action by not letting another generation of children grow up without having an opportunity to play outdoors. In the last few weeks there has been a state-wide debate over whether Child Care Licensing rules should be limited to regulating health and safety aspects of centers or whether they should move beyond that to encompass aspects of “quality” in children’s learning environments and interactions with caregivers. Colorado’s involvement can be traced back to the 1990s when child care centers in Colorado were part of the Cost, Quality and Outcomes study that was published in 1995.
These efforts resulted in the formation of organizations, like Qualistar (formerly Educare Colorado) and local Early Childhood Councils. The Environment Rating Scales have been used for the past 30 years around the world (current versions are ECERS-R for preschool, ITERS-R for infant and toddler classrooms and FCCERS-R for family child care homes). The proposed new rules and regulations for licensing do include indicators from the Environment Rating Scales, most from what the Scales define as “minimal” level of quality and a few from what is defined at a “quality level.” Most of these requirements are not new for centers since many programs have been involved in some sort of quality improvement effort. Canada mentioned around blame is that there are a lot of excuses that we, as a society, have for why our children are not doing well in school and the “blame game” is more prominent when talking about why lower-income children aren’t succeeding.
Yes, many of them are leaving Clayton Educare knowing all of their letters, letter sounds, and rhymes and they seem fully ready for Kindergarten.
He is also a poet and has written a poem titled “Don’t Blame Me.” He recited this poem at the end of his speech. The babies’ weights were based on CDC growth charts and infants in the 95th percentile were categorized as “obese” while infants in the 85th to 95th percentile were counted as “at-risk.” Researchers found that even at 9 months, many babies fell into these two categories.
Well, as early as 3 years of age, obese children have elevated levels of inflammatory markers that have been linked to heart disease that is manifested later in life.  At a summary of the “Conference on Preventing Childhood Obesity,” it was remarked that, “The prenatal period, infancy, and early childhood may be stages of particular vulnerability to obesity development because they are unique periods for cellular differentiation and development”. Should infants go on “diets?” No, definitely not.  But there are some other solutions that will help. The report, due in about 18 months, will look at the role of sleep and early feeding patterns, as well as physical activity. In an article published in the Ecologist Report, Garry Hamilton writes that “Ever since microbes were identified as the source of infectious diseases, humans have been intensifying efforts to stamp out germs, dreaming of a day when these invisible enemies are no more. The "hygiene hypothesis" is a theory that young children who are exposed to a variety of germs will have a lower risk of developing asthma and allergies later in life.
In 1998, media began reporting about bio-terrorism and the likelihood that we would someday be attacked not with weapons, but with an incurable disease.
Should we go to extremes and put ourselves and our kids in a germ-free bubble or should we roll around and dirt and never wash our hands?
I wanted to give a few tips on how to get those adorable ringlet curls that adorn her head in most of the photos here on De Su Mama. I listed a few resource links in previous posts; I relied on them heavily when I was a new mom.
Tip: since you are not brushing curly hair, you will have a lot more shedding in the bath than straight hair people will. I slather and smooth and twist until I feel like the hair has adsorbed all the conditioner it can.
But, while writing this, it also occurred to me that Alina will want to know this information one day too. To check out the most current content on my baby girl (now 5 years old!) mixed curly hair care routine, check out the series!
You can print these professional quality letters on your own printer at home and use them for all the children in your family for years to come. You may also like our Santa sample letters and non-customizable free printable Santa letters. Your printable Santa letter will be delivered in a Microsoft Word format, so it’s easy to edit and customize. By downloading one of these documents, you are agreeing to use it for your personal, noncommercial use only.
These responsibilities include management of the panel members (including panel physicians, panel radiologists and laboratories) who perform immigration medical examinations (IMEs) in Canada and abroad. In providing these services, the RMOs rely on the IMEs that panel members conduct on clients for permanent residency and some categories of temporary residency in Canada. As part of its modernization agenda, CIC has implemented an electronic IME Web-based processing system called eMedical.
Panel members may include physicians, radiologists, laboratories and other designated health care professionals involved in the IME process. All panel members must ensure that they remain familiar with it and with departmental instructions, including interim changes and updates provided by CIC. Panel members should be aware of the following legislation as it relates to immigration and the requirements with respect to medical examinations and inadmissibility on health grounds. One of the objectives is to ensure that the movement of people into Canada contributes to the country’s cultural, social, and economic interests and affirms its humanitarian commitments, while protecting the health, safety and security of Canadians.
Moreover, Canadian citizens, permanent residents and other individuals present in Canada have the right of access to their own personal information held by government institutions. Subsection 8(1) states that the government institution shall not disclose personal information without the consent of the individual to whom the information relates except under the circumstances provided under subsection 8(2).
Health Branch requests that all panel physicians sign a consent form to share information with other immigration health authorities.
Panel physicians are authorized to provide clients with a copy of their own IME upon the clients’ request.
Based on CIC’s operational requirements, the number of designated panel members in any given location may be reduced or increased. They do not have the authority to assess or determine whether the medical conditions of clients are grounds for inadmissibility. They are also required to help prevent fraud and abuse of Canada’s immigration laws, submit to performance evaluations, follow proper procedures for absences, and use English or French in their communications with CIC. Where necessary to establish compliance with the IRPA and the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations, clients will be asked to undergo further medical examinations. In regions where eMedical is available, panel members and their clinic staff will be required to complete all IMEs and enter the results in the eMedical system, unless otherwise specified by the responsible RMO. Panel members are expected to exhibit professional behaviour and perform their IME-related activities in a manner that is in keeping with the principles of proper medical practice and with CIC policy. Female clients, for example, may be uncomfortable with a male examiner, in which case panel members should offer to have a chaperone present during the examination.
In such cases, panel members will indicate on the examination form the type of accommodation provided and the names of other persons present during the examination. Consequently, the panel member’s inclusion in the panel member network may be terminated. The procedure for completing the IME is discussed in Chapter 4 and is also subject to performance evaluation.
This will allow the RMO to activate the locum’s P number allowing him or her to use eMedical. The panel member will then notify the locum that he or she has been authorized to provide services. This unique identifier will replace the designated medical practitioner stamp that was previously used. For panel members, the eMedical logon information will be linked electronically to the panel member’s unique identifier. When documents are sent by courier, panel physicians must ensure that the IME forms and results are sent in appropriate order (refer to Appendix V for instructions) and should retain shipment tracking numbers for six months. It may not be used for other purposes, including research, clinical studies or investigations, without appropriate consent of the client and CIC. RMOs are the points of contact for panel members to address inquiries, questions and comments about individual immigration medical cases, examinations and about the immigration medial program.
These officials may be seeking information about local health conditions, medical resources for consular services or help with a personal medical condition. Under no circumstances should a panel member provide the media with information about a particular case.
This section explains how CIC will deal with incidents, complaints and quality assurance concerns. Complaints regarding the IME and related services may arise from clients or other persons outside CIC. While the panel member’s designation is suspended, IME activities by the panel member cease until the panel member is notified that he or she has been reinstated by CIC. If the response is deemed satisfactory, the panel member will be informed of the decision and be reinstated with appropriate recommendations. Panel members should send written notification to the RMO, including the anticipated date on which activity will cease. Photographs must be attached and submitted with the IME whether the IME is completed in eMedical or on paper. Clients who are eligible for UFM examinations will not have a Medical Report (IMM 1017) issued by CIC nor will they have an existing file in the eMedical system. Note: For refugee claimants in Canada, select the category family EDE, and scan and attach the document provided by the client.
I have bought 2 sets from e-bay (one for me to use and one to lend to parents to get them started on the sign language). The urge to improve eyesight with fruits and veggies is growing fast among many parents who are concerned with their children eyesight. They are colorful pigments (phyto nutrients) found in plants and in many colored fruits and vegetables. Images that pass the lens of our eye are focused on the retina which converts these images to electric signals and sends them along the optic nerve to the brain. They say that following the proper procedures are “impossible.” We want to clarify why handwashing is important and give some helpful tips about how to wash correctly.
Since many infected people carry communicable diseases without having symptoms and many are contagious before they experience a symptom, staff members need to protect themselves and the children they serve by carrying out hygienic procedures on a routine basis. From that point, it takes until children are 2 years of age before their immune systems are fully functioning.
Another study found that handwashing helped to reduce colds when frequent and proper handwashing practices were incorporated into a child care center's curriculum. The soap lather also helps to loosen the soil and brings it into solution on the surface of the skin. By being good role-models children understand not only how to wash but it emphasizes the importance of washing. The programs that are the most successful at handwashing are the programs that have the teachers supervising the procedures. She then applies dispenser soap to each child’s hands, and they sing a song together as a group (soap and 20 sec. One thing to remember is that if children and teachers are absent because they are sick, the children are not learning.
Caring for our children: National health and safety performance standards-Guidelines for out-of-home care. Effect of Infection Control Measures on the Frequency of Upper Respiratory Infection in Child Care: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.
When an infant feels the leaves or the toddler notices the airplane in the sky, they are more inclined to verbalize this experience because it will elicit a favorable response by their caregivers. During this time the brain gathers and stores information, and a solid foundation for movement activities is built. Therefore, it is necessary to make sure that all potential choking hazards are removed from the area and that caregivers are in close proximity to children so that they can remove unwanted objects from mouths. It should be made of materials that will not get too hot in the summer or too icy in the winter.
Many playground manufacturers are not aware of these new standards therefore, it is important to check with them before purchasing equipment.
Attach musical toys, activity centers, and mirrors to the fence at different levels for children who are still crawling and for children who are standing. Bring some music outdoors so that children can practice dancing, jumping, and twirling outdoors.

Thelma Harms, who is one of the authors of the Environment Rating Scales, often speaks of an old Swedish saying that says “there is no bad weather, only bad clothes.” If you travel to different sites across Colorado you will see this reflected on the Western slope where infants and toddlers are dressed in snow suits, gloves, hats, and boots to go outside in the winter.
As Colorado begins building a new version of the Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS), it’s important to reflect on what we have learned along the way – and what challenges remain.
We also had TA services where someone would come in and help the program “get ready for the rating” which worked for the “month rating window” but it really didn’t help create lasting improvements.
Yes, not everyone can be consistent 100% of the time due to the high variance in the types of programs Rating Specialists encounter, but by having highly reliable Raters, program disputes over the observation portion of the rating have decreased over time. Yes anyone can “pass the test” on any of these quality measures, but to really commit to quality every single day is extremely important.
I’m fairly certain that if you asked any parent, they would prefer to put their child in a quality program if we could find a way to make it affordable. Some of these include the buy-in of providers and parents, approaches and tools for working with Dual-Language Learners and Staff, support for the wide array of curricula that are being used by our programs, funding for our improved QRIS system, and having resources in place in all areas of Colorado and for all types of programs. Most teachers have a plan for what children are going to learn each and every day they are in school and most lesson plans have objectives stated. For example, if your classroom is doing a unit on sea animals and last week you talked about whales and this week you are introducing dolphins, you can use an advanced organizer by saying “We are going to read a story about whales and then a story about dolphins. So you want to make sure that you acknowledge what they are saying but then you want to re-orient back to the planned objective. Put up little reminder statements in your centers, write the objective on your board so you remember to tell the children what and why they are learning this, and practice with your co-teachers. Spending time outside also raises levels of Vitamin D, helping protect children from future bone problems, heart disease, diabetes and other health issues. All of this leads children to develop social and emotional capabilities such as empathy, flexibility, self-awareness, and self-regulation which continues into their adult life.
Because if those of us who had the opportunity to spend the entire day outdoors have raised children who don’t have the same opportunity, what kind of children will our children raise? Media portrayal of this debate has mostly focused on whether child care centers should be further regulated, the cost of adding “quality” for the centers, and what the specific criteria should be to determine whether a center is licensed or not.  What the media have not discussed is the history of child care quality improvement efforts in Colorado as well as the research behind how we define quality child care and the long-term outcomes for children.
This study looked at the quality of child care in 4 states and the effects of quality on children’s development. Research has shown that these instruments can be used reliably and consistently across a wide variety of settings and cultures, including programs that use different curricula, programs that serve at-risk populations (such as Head Start), and corporate programs, family child care homes, and military programs.
From there, classroom staff can create a plan to make identified improvements in the areas that are important to them. Canada has been the President and Chief Executive Officer for the Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ), which The New York Times Magazine called "one of the most ambitious social experiments of our time." The HCZ designs, funds, and operates a holistic system of education, social services and community-building programs within Harlem to counter the negative influences of crime, drugs and poverty and to help children complete college and go on to the job market.
The teachers blame the families, the families blame the teachers, the schools blame the government, the government blames the schools, and so on and so forth. This statement has been magnified by the numerous studies demonstrating the association between rapid or accelerated infant weight gain and subsequent obesity as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In general, parents and caregivers of infants should choose physical activities that are interactive, stimulating, easy to do, and that can be incorporated  into their daily routine to reinforce the concept that physical activity is rewarding. The battles that have been won — the defeat of polio, the dramatic decline of infant mortality in the west, the eradication of small pox worldwide — spur the endeavour onward. Last year researchers from Erasmus University in the Netherlands found no evidence for either a long-term protective or harmful effect associated with day care attendance in their study involving nearly 4,000 children followed from birth through age 8.
And then the media and a few select scientists starting looking at our living spaces and found that not only could we be attacked by terrorists but that  we were being attacked in our homes by high levels of illness-causing germs in our bathrooms, beds, kitchens, and should we leave our homes, taxis, airplanes and our hotel rooms. We were also told that children were bringing germs home from their adventures in the outside world and that is what was also causing us to be sick. Her hair is also more coarse, although the way her hair looks and feels rests largely on how well its been cared for.
Using a brush (as opposed to a comb) when curly hair is completely dry only promotes breakage and frizz.
But, in the picture below, you will see how dry her hair looks before we start our hair care routine. It is not easy to comb through, so be sure to have used an easier product to work with to remove tangles. I’ve always done this with with my own hair, so it is hard to explain, but you want to twist and curl with the curl pattern, but making larger curls as you go.
I keep her favorite rubber duckies separate from her regular bath toys for these deep condition days. I wish I would have loved my curls for all the years they were healthy, because now they are pretty much gone and I feel like a piece of my identity is gone with them. My opinion on hair is as much about self esteem and cultural identity as it is about creating a defined curl pattern, but there are a few pointers in there for those looking for tips. I am determined for my daughters to have a play kitchen of their own, but do not want to spend an arm and a leg for a quality one.
Health findings on the IMEs allow CIC medical officers to make recommendations on the medical admissibility of persons requesting entry to Canada.
The information to be shared will not be related to individual clients or a specific type of care; rather it will be generic information concerning administrative (such as email, contact addresses) and operational activities (such as electronic capabilities, locations) as well as information gathered during evaluations, assessments or onsite visits by CIC officers. Upon examination of the new location of the practice and an assessment of the operational requirement for panel members in that location, the affected panel member will be informed of a decision confirming his or her status and given an opportunity to respond. More specifically, panel members do not have authority to give clients an opinion on their medical admissibility.
The panel member’s unique identifier will be embedded electronically in each IME or chest x-ray they submit through eMedical. The eMedical logon ID must not be disclosed to any other person or used by any other person to submit IMEs or chest x-rays. Such requests are not related to the immigration medical program and panel physicians may respond to these inquiries as they choose.
Consequently, the fees for IMEs may vary from country to country and even within a country.
In addition, CIC personnel may provide critical comments or notifications of errors, performance issues or situations of concern regarding the IME and related services. If the response is unsatisfactory, the panel member’s designation will be terminated. Panel physicians who are terminated because of operational needs will be notified in writing by the RMO at least 30 days prior to any such change in the network. Only in the event of a system outage should paper IMEs be used by eMedical-enabled panel members. If the client or clinic staff completes it, the panel physician must review and confirm the information provided.
Most of the moms have now started pushing their kids to eat veggies like carrots to help improve their eyesight. Finally, when handwashing is done correctly by children and adults- there can be a 17% reduction in respiratory infections for young children.
This does not necessarily mean that teachers need to be at the sink with the children (although this is recommended for younger children and at the beginning of the school year), but that they are watching from wherever they are in the classroom and reminding children when steps are missed and praising them when it is done correctly.
So it really is worth taking the time and effort to make sure that handwashing is done correctly.
American Academy of Pediatrics, American Public Health Association, & National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care.
So, not only is being outdoors an enjoyable experience for infants and toddlers, it’s critical for cognitive development. If the mountain communities waited until the weather was “appropriate,” they would only get to be outside from June-October.
It will also help ensure that they will take better care of our world when they are adults.
Centers and homes that have been provided with individualized coaching have focused on not just the “test” but rather on more introspection, goal-setting, and education, and again, quality in these programs has improved over time.
In our programs who have invested the time and energy to work on quality every day, the benefits to the children enrolled in those programs can be life-changing. And while this is just a small list of what we’ve learned and what we still need to answer, it’s a start.
When I was in high school, my math teacher insisted that I must learn how to do logarithmic functions and tried to assure me that I couldn't possibly have a career without knowing this. But do we take the time to verbally explain to the children “what is it they are learning and why they are learning this?” Often times we don’t.
Think about things that are the same between whales and dolphins and things that are different about them. You know that you have achieved success when your children can tell you what it was that they were learning. For most of us, including myself, I think about all of the time I spent outdoors as a child.
The two fundamental principles of the HCZ Project are to help kids as early in their lives as possible and to create a critical mass of adults around them who understand what it takes to help children succeed.
What will happen to them when they enter Elementary School?  We hope that we have taken responsibility for them while they’ve been here and that we have shown families how to be involved in their child’s education. When these same infants turned 2 years old, just under 14% were at-risk and almost 21% were obese.
Further, numerous studies have now shown that overweight infants and toddlers are at increased risk of staying overweight as they age.  So based on this, the current focus on preventing childhood obesity should not only be focused on children 5 years and older but should in fact, start at infancy and possibly pre-natal. They can also target more intervention techniques to mothers who smoke during pregnancy.  And once the infant is born, encouraging mothers to breast-feed longer rather than using formula, helping parents to realize what signifies a hunger cry versus needing alternative soothing, and teaching parents sleep-lengthening techniques to help infants get the appropriate amount of sleep will all help prevent obesity.
Also limiting the amount of sedentary activity will greatly help.  This includes limiting infants and toddlers access to television, limiting time in “containment” devices such as swings, bouncy seats, high chairs and cribs, and encouraging free movement and exploration. And as I checked myself into a hotel this morning and was face to face with those elevator buttons, I hesitated for a brief moment to ponder which body part should I use to press the button. Recent setbacks such as the threat of new pathogens, the return of old enemies and the development of antibiotic resistance, remind us that we must never let down our guard.
Lead researcher Daan Caudri, MD stated that “If day care attendance truly was protective, we would expect to see this protection persist, but that is not what we saw. So we started washing, sanitizing, and limiting children's exposure to that outside world.  But even doing that wasn't totally effective so companies started developing products (like antibacterial soaps and hand sanitizers) that would help protect us.
All doctors and researchers on both sides of the germ-debate agree that the best thing we can do is to wash our hands with soap (not anti-bacterial) and water, especially when we eat, use the bathroom and are out in public places. Having curly hair myself, I believe strongly in reinforcing the beauty of curly mixed hair in my positive parenting values. She is left with decent amount of conditioner still in her hair as I move onto deep conditioning.
The best tool I’ve found to use this deep condition are your hands, and its actually really simple. Your printable Santa letter is saved as a Microsoft Word document with your choice of background image and letter.
Panel members working in countries where eMedical is implemented will need to complete and transmit all IMEs through this Web-based system.
In all cases, the online version of the Handbook will be the most current and is the version that should be consulted.
Questions and information on specific cases should always include identification details, such as the IME, unique medical identifier (UMI) or unique client identifier (UCI) number along with the client’s date of birth.
If a panel member is completing a paper-based IME that must be mailed to the RMO, he or she should discuss the method and cost of sending the documents with the client beforehand.
Affected panel members will receive a letter of concern from the RMO and be given an opportunity to reply to the complaint. Hands must then be rinsed, which moves the lather off into the sink, as well as the soil from the hands that the soap brought into solution. She then has them line up at the sink and they rinse their hands under running water (rinse step). Because children are still mastering balance, there must be enough room to move without hitting a hard surface or sharp edges.
They do not need high equipment, ladders, or climbers because they haven’t mastered taking large steps. The HAPPE  (High Autonomy Physical Play Environment), provides a great list of games for toddlers that can be played outdoors. As coaches have begun working with the Raters, it has become more of a unified support system for the program, which has been very beneficial.
What other things have you learned from our ERS journey that we need to pack with us in our “Quality Suitcase” as we embark on this new direction?
Well, as it turns out, other than the math modules I had to take in college, I have never had to do a logarithmic function and I’m pretty sure I wouldn't even know when to use one.
In the summer, my neighborhood friends and I would get up and spend the entire day outdoors. In a study conducted in the late 1990’s, Rhonda Clements surveyed 830 mothers throughout the U.S.
Since the ratings given to programs affected funding, a reliability system for Qualistar raters was created.  Additionally, coaching and technical assistance became available to help classrooms improve their quality.
Items on this include providing good supervision of children and meeting standards to help keep children healthy. The school also has high expectations for the families it serves by making sure that they are highly involved in their child's education as well as high expectations for the community.
But some children  have a lot of things stacked against them before they enter the door of their Elementary school.
As infants get older, other interventions include delaying the introduction of solid foods until 4-6 months of age and teaching parents and caregivers about infants’  responses to new foods. The elbow was of course the most logical choice and my elbow has become quite talented since the “war on germs” first started. In the war on germs, the wisdom says, there's no such thing as going too far.” And for the most part science hasn’t gone too far. And yes, they also agree that our children need to be given the opportunity to play in that dirt.
Alina has about three different textures, ranging from very soft to a few kinky strands in the front. I start at the bottom of her head, where the curls are tightest, and make sure the condition is well incorporated into every strand and curl. There is still a ton of conditioner and make sure you are getting the ends of the hair as well. To customize it, you simply open the document in MS Word 97 or newer and replace the placeholder text with your child’s information. I noticed that in this post, you mentioned posting plans for a larger kitchen set, but I didn't see any while I was browsing through the list of posted plans. To avoid possible breaches of confidentiality, information requests should never identify a client by name. In accordance with the principles of natural justice and procedural fairness, privacy rules will not be breached when sharing the content of the complaint. Finally, hands must be dried with a single-service dispensed towel, which prohibits the spread of germs between children.
Set up obstacle courses where toddlers can climb over and under material and walk a curved path. We played at the park, we played at the school playground, we searched creeks for roly-poly’s, and we rode our bikes all around our part of town (and yes, with no helmets ).
85 percent of mothers cited television viewing and 81 percent cited computer play as among the reasons why their children played outdoors so infrequently.
Because individual teachers determine daily schedules and ultimately make the decision whether to take the children outdoors, they serve as gatekeepers to the playground. Results showed that 12% of the centers were rated “less than minimal in quality” and 15% of the centers were rated “good”.  The remaining sites fell between those two points. Since 2004, 968 centers and 326 homes have been rated by Qualistar – about 30% of licensed settings in the state of Colorado. By everyone taking responsibility for each child, these children are successful. However, if we keep blaming each other the problems and lack of responsibility continue to grow and, in the meantime, that child never learns to read and the schools keeps passing that child and their “problems” off to the next teacher. Will school administration, teachers, families and the community use barriers like poverty, or challenging behaviors as an excuse to blame someone else when learning doesn't happen?
Parents often interpret the initial rejection of new foods as “she doesn’t like it”, and the food is not offered again. Scientists are working hard every day to make sure that there are new drugs to combat the “large germs,” such as H1N1 which was running rampant across the nation last year. So it is no wonder that we are afraid, especially with all of the conflicting information that we are being given.
So as for me and the elevator buttons, when I go back downstairs to get dinner, I’m not going to use my elbow, but rather my fingers.
The curls at the back of her head are very tight, with the curls on the top of her head being loose and soft. By the time Sunday rolls around, Alina’s hair is very dry and in need of serious hydration (like the photo above). Lather, slather and put on some more, then use a wide toothed comb (the wider the better!) to comb the conditioner out, making sure to work the conditioner to the ends of the hair and removing all the tiny knots. Between my fingertips, I run the hair shaft down, from the nape of the neck to the end of the curl.
In the end, Alina knows our routine and anticipates the length of time it takes to do her hair. Kieran is 16 months old and knows about 10 signs and also speaks about 15 words and is now beginning to put words together "uh,oh, Momma". Without these steps, potential infection-causing organisms will remain on the skin and then  those can be transferred between teachers and children.
This process is very quick and it eliminates a lot of the issues of children waiting at the table and in line for a long amount of time. So, it would make sense that childcare providers would want to provide a stimulating environment for infants and toddlers, both indoors and outdoors. Playing with riding toys, trikes, wagons (where they can put other materials in it), and different sizes of balls are just as interesting as climbing onto a structure. And finally, provide a garden outdoors so that children can learn about soil, plants, and insects. Work with your parents on providing appropriate clothing for all kinds of weather and a change of clothes for when children   get dirty.  Also set up a clothing donation box so that parents, teachers, or other adults in the program can drop off winter clothing that no longer fits their child. But the one thing my teacher neglected to tell me was, “what is it that I need to know and why do I need to know this?” In other words, what was the objective behind logarithmic functions and how is it relevant to my life? Our play wasn’t organized by the adults and there were no boundaries to our creativity-okay, maybe a few boundaries like “don’t attach that rope to the highest tree limb and try to swing off of it.” We stayed outside until we were called in for dinner and then, if it was a great day, we would all meet again after dinner to play a game of “Kick the Can” before bedtime.
And in Levanto, Italy, every day after school the children of all ages would meet and play in the town center.
However, in the same survey, most of the mothers admitted that they themselves restricted their children’s outdoor play, and 82 percent cited safety concerns, including fear of crime, as reasons for doing so.
This includes teaching children social skills to help learn how to deal with peer conflicts, for example. Or will they take responsibility and ensure that all children learn, no matter their background? However, the infant’s initial response about disliking the food is usually transient, and that infants’, toddlers’ and preschoolers’ intake of new healthy foods will typically increase if the infant has repeated opportunities to taste them. But is this level of concern necessary and what is exactly fueling this “war on germs?” Is it science and research or is it the media? This is also when I thoroughly cleanse her hair with a shampoo that won’t dry out her hair (I got this one from Whole Foods). To avoid hurting your baby, hold the hair with one hand at the base of the scalp while pulling the hair through the comb with the other. For infants, providing grass, balls, push toys, tunnels, and a ramp for crawling is just as stimulating as having a slide or a baby swing.
Some were playing on the playground, some were organizing a soccer game, and some were riding their bikes. What is our role here at Clayton in continuing to make sure that all children succeed, even after they leave?  So many questions where the answer is critical for  each child's success. Even if infants and toddlers are only out for 5 or 10 minutes because the weather is bad, it will help prevent illness and it will give them some of those sensory experiences that are so critical for their development. Curly hair does not get oily like straight hair does, nor does my toddler sweat or get very dirty, so cleansing this often is fine for us. The only time I can think of when I’ve seen that many children playing recently is indoors at the Cherry Creek Mall where children were climbing on the “Looney Tunes” characters. Yes, it’s good they are playing but it’s indoors and it’s  "Looney Tunes" rather than nature.

Games barbie car free 3d
The toddler years gina ford method


  1. ASad, 21.04.2014
    Some other sweet treat ??for.
  2. ele_bele_gelmisem, 21.04.2014
    Use pictures and amusing rhymes to go over learning.