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The scientific interest in parenting and academic discussions of 'what is the best mode of child rearing' haven't actually been around for that long! Of course that's always a matter of perspective, but considering the fact that we humans have been having kids for eons, literally, the deep founded interest in the psychology of children and their general development and well-being is remarkably young.
In fact, it was only in the late 1800s that pediatrics, infant care and child psychology actually became subjects of scientific interest. Before that time, the general perception of children and general child health care was typically influenced by various religious convictions and dominating philosophical attitudes. On the one hand, the Industrial Revolution represented optimism and hope for the future in terms of great advances in technology, agriculture and general economic growth.
On the other hand, it wasn't necessarily a great improvement for children and their living conditions. If anything, with the Industrial Revolution, child labor became more visible than ever before.
Fortunately, the general awareness of children's harsh circumstances rose throughout the century. In 1897 PTA (The Parent Teacher Association) was founded as a group of spokesmen for children and their health and safety.
This means that not only had science moved into the parenting domain, the physical and emotional well-being of children was also seen as governmental issue, too. Yes, from approximately 1920 and onwards scientific information on child care and child health started to become general public knowledge.
Rather than just following tradition or family customs, mothers were increasingly influenced by the strong authoritative voice of 'science'.
A voice that was - and still is - very convincing, alluring and powerful, but not always wise! In the next couple of sections I will briefly outline the 3 most dominant 'scientific' approaches to parenting that were identified during the 1900s.
I will present them chronologically trying to stay true to the time when they were scientifically discovered and defined.
In 1928 behaviorist John Broadus Watson wrote the famous "Psychological Care of Infant and Child".
Basically he views children as objects that are to be strictly shaped and moulded so that they may develop into efficient tools of society. In order to prepare children for adulthood and society's high demands, parents were encouraged to keep their children in very tight reins and install a good and sound work ethic. This was best though done by keeping children under strict behavioral control (requiring instant obedience and demanding chores etc.) as well as psychological control (using threats along with aggressive intrusiveness). Today, one can hardly believe it, but in "Psychological Care of Infant and Child" parents are directly advised to withhold their affection so as to not spoil their children.
He is recommending that women reject and abandon their motherly instinct to bond and nurture their children on an emotional level.
Emotions, positive as well as negative are perceived as threats to order of things and to what we may call instrumental rationality!
In 1946 Benjamin Spock, a representative of the Freudian psychoanalyst view, published "In Baby and Child Care".
Benjamin Spock sought to encourage mothers to trust, not abandon, their own parenting instinct (something the advent of John Broadus Watson's educational child rearing science had tried to eradicate). Basically Benjamin Spock urged parents to try and see the world from perspective of children in order to better understand their behavior, needs and personality.

Acknowledging and meeting the child's needs was seen as crucial for the child's well-being and healthy future development.
Spock saw parenting more as a matter of 'working with' the child by trying to understand the reason behind tantrums, disobedience etc. Contrary to what has been said about Benjamin Spock, he didn't call for a complete abandonment of discipline.
No, he saw discipline more as a question of acknowledging what a child is actually capable of doing at a particular age and stage of child development. Another scientific voice supporting the great importance of affection, warmth and child mother bonding also came forward in the late 1940s and in the 1950s. A Model of Diana Baumrind's 3 Parenting Styles!Below you'll see a model I've made containing the dominant values or primary features of Diana Baumrind's 3 parenting styles.Sometimes the 'bubbles' overlap. Patriarchal, Victorian, behaviorist, insensitivity and intolerance, hierarchy, authority, submissiveness, harshness, predictability, conservatism, no parent child discussions, black and white world view, rigidity, aggressiveness, inhibiting psychological control, suppression of emotions, threats. High behavior control, disciplined conformity, demands and chores, rules and order, obedience, punishments. Socially responsible, shaping and reinforcement, coorporative, rational control, relative freedom of choice. High responsiveness, give and take discussions, self-assertiveness, warmth, independent thinking, meeting needs, encouragement. Freudianism, manipulative control, bribes, individual autonomy and personal freedom, high creativity, non-restrictiveness, role equality, non-punitive, harmony orientated, free development, flat hierarchy, self-regulation.
Diana Baumrind's authoritative parenting style has received widespread approval from western child experts. Authoritative parenting is considered the most successful of the 3 parenting styles in terms of producing happy, independent children that do well in school. Authoritarian parenting is generally considered an oppressive parenting style that may have unfortunate long term consequences for children in terms e.g.
Permissive parenting has been praised for producing children with good social skills and high self esteem but mediocre academic performance. But 'what is a goal' is all dependent on the point of view which again is typically influenced by societal norms. Permissive parents' children may do less well in school but maybe school performance isn't considered as important a value by the parents as creativity and personal freedom.
I'm just making the point that what is considered the best values to grow in your child is a question of personal perspective - it's not a universal given!
I'm not an advocate of authoritative parenting, nor am I an advocate of permissive parenting.
Conscious Parenting Is Getting in Touch With Yourself, Keeping the Long Term Perspective While Sensing Your Child! Sometimes my child needs my control in terms of some limits and boundaries in order to feel secure and have a sense of predictability. That doesn't mean it's not a challenge because fulfilling needs may require expanding your mind beyond what the norms say are the 'correct' way of raising children. It also requires opening your heart and sharpening your intuition in order to 'feel' what is the right thing to do! Yes, there is warmth and affection but the parent's main role according to Baumrind is still to be an authority and control the child's behavior. However, in my eyes, sometimes need to step forward and take control and sometimes they need to step back.

Parents use their open mind and sharp intuition to judge each situation (conflict) according to 'what is needed'! If I were to put names on the parenting styles I practice, I would say that it's a mix of positive parenting, attachment parenting and unconditional parenting. A Fascinating Historical View on the Authoritarian Parenting Style Along with Deep Insights into Authoritarian Parents' Thought Pattern and Its Effect on Their Kids. The Essence of the Authoritarian Parenting Style and the Long Term Effects of Strict Parenting! Understanding the nature of the permissive parenting style: Going beyond Diana Baumrind's idea of low demandingness and get deep insights into the psychology of permissive parents.
Permissive Parenting Historically and Psychologically: The Rise of 'Permissive' Parenting and the 3 Fear Based Indulgent Parenting Strategies!
A Psychological Profile on 3 Types of Permissive Parents: Understand Their Indulgent Behavior by Understanding Their Ego Fears! Deep Insights into the Authoritative Parenting Style along with Modern Perspectives on Diana Baumrind's Beloved 'Firm Parental Control'!
Academic Criticism of the Authoritative Parenting Style: Questioning Diana Baumrind's Celebration of High Control! Although I am in no hurry for my daughter to grow up, I am looking forward to making crafts with her, especially during the holidays. The American Pediatric Society was established in order to provide the general public with educative information on various infant issues. She values both expressive and instrumental attributes, both autonomous self-will and disciplined conformity. They just more or less copy their parents' parenting style or follow the dominant parenting trend in their society.
Therefore this parenting style is also seen as less successful because in general, academic performance is considered a goal. I fondly remember making fun crafts such as toy soldiers from toilet paper rolls and yarn doll ornaments from scraps of yarn as a kid. John Bowlby did his famous research on attachment theory, child grief and separation processes which lead to valuable insights into early infant bonding processes.Yet another voice from the child centred parenting domain was A.
Therefore, she exerts firm control at points of parent-child divergence, but does not hem the child in with restrictions. I am so looking forward to making similar fun crafts with my daughter during Christmastime when she gets a little older. She recognizes her own special rights as an adult, but also the child's individual interests and special ways.
The authoritative parent affirms the child's present qualities, but also sets standards for future conduct. Neill) "The function of the child is to live his own life a€“ not the life that his anxious parents think he should live, nor a life according to the purpose of the educator who thinks he knows best." (A.

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