Alternative dating south africa,free promo code of mobile recharge,vistaprint usa free business cards - How to DIY

DESCRIPTION: Shown here are reproductions of an early road map of the imperial highways of the Roman world, covering the area roughly from southeast England to present day Sri-Lanka. This Colmar copy was found by Konrad Celtes (1459-1508), a German poet and scholar for the Emperor Maximilian I and later turned over to Konrad Peutinger (1465-1547), Chancellor of Augsburg, in 1508 in Augsburg and has since been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or Peutinger Tables or Itineraries. In its design, the Peutinger Table makes no pretense of showing the whole world or even its major parts in correct proportion.
The proportions of the Peutinger Map are such that distances east-west are represented at a much larger scale than distances north-south; for example, Rome looks as though it were nearer to Carthage than Naples is to Pompeii. In the Jansoon edition of the Peutinger Table (1652), the first sheet shows a section of southeastern England protruding from the title cartouche, with the roads and harbors marked. The Colmar manuscript of the Peutinger Tables, also known as Codex Vindobonensis 324, is presently in the National Bibliothek, Vienna and has been divided into sections for preservation. The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman miles (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees).
Around the personification of Rome - a female figure on a throne holding a globe, a spear, and a shield - are twelve main roads, each with its name attached, a practice not adopted elsewhere. Ostia is shown with a harbor occupying about one-third of a circle, in a fashion similar to that of miniatures in the early manuscripts of Virgila€™s Aeneid. The road network is thought to have been based (at least within the empire) on information held by the cursus publicus, responsible for organizing the official transport system set up by Augustus. The part of the British section of the Peutinger Map that survives is so fragmentary that it covers only a limited area of the southeast, not even including London, and an even smaller area around Exeter. Owing to the shape of the map, the Nile could not be represented as a long river if it were made to flow northward throughout its course. Late antiquity is considered as a relatively autonomous historical period, that according to certain scholars is extended from 200 A.D. These maps were used with a multitude of functions, including the use of maps as cadastral and legal records, as aids to travelers, to commemorate military and religious events, as strategic documents, as political propaganda and for academic and educational purposes.
The object of this study is focused on the cartographic genre of itineraria picta and more specifically on the Tabula Peutingeriana, a road map prepared in order to show the roads of the empire over a total distance of 104,000 km.
According to actual cartographic terminology Tabula Peutingeriana is a typical example of a thematic road map preserving mainly the topology of geographic continuity rather than the conventional cartographic representation. Depicting in topological consistency the road network and offering travel information to its users (by showing the road network, the settlements, the staging posts, the partial distances, the cities of various type, depending on their size and significance etc.
As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol. The second most important road axis, the Via Egnatia, ran crosswise through the Balkans and provided communications between the Adriatic, the Aegean, and the Propontis, between Rome and Constantinople. The borders of the Roman Empire in his northern regions correspond to the flow of the river Danubius, while the eastern limits correspond to the flow of the Tigris River.
The road network is represented with red distressed (zigzag) line, that denotes the corresponding changes of horses, with distances between stations, expressed in roman miles (milia passus = 1,4815 km) for all the territory.
There exist three cities of the First Level, Roma, Constantinopolis and Antiocheia, represented as female incarnations, Tychai of the cities, that constitute the three capitals a€“ imperial residences of the Empire. There exist six Second Level cities, which are represented in the form of fortresses with walls, bastions and deferring number of towers. Most of the pictures represent Third Level cities, provincial capitals (metropoleis) and important commercial centers (Figure 7).
The network of settlements is supplemented with the insertion of stations - mansiones and points of change of horses - mutationes that constitutes the intermediary turning-points between the various central places.
A number of settlements are represented according to particular uses and functions of space that are attributed with the particular characteristics of the shells that support the function.
There exist in total 33 temples located usually in colonies and points of local adoration, for example in the Balkans (Ad Dianam), in Africa, (Ad Herculem, Temple Jovis, Ad Mercurium, Temple Veneris), while in Egypt can be found three temples of Serapis and three of Isis. The defensive function is present in all the representations of cities, a fact that is considered in the context of a period after the imperial pax romana. Recreational functions are represented with thermal baths, portrayed with square structures, with a closed facade and in the center a swimming pool. Lighthouses are found in Alexandria, Egypt, in Chrissopolis [Uskudar] and in Jovisurius in the entry of Euxeinus Pontus. The iconographic system of the Tabula Peutingeriana is based upon a hierarchical structure that represents the settlements network, with a process of symbolic generalizations and personifications, in the period of the successors of Constantine the Great.
The reliability of map has been placed under contestation by many scholars, in regard to the precision of settlements locations and distances that represent. Albu, Emily, a€?Imperial Geography and the Medieval Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp.
Drakoulis, Dr Dimitris, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol. Fowden a€“ Athanasiadi P., a€?The successors of Great Constantinea€? (in Greek), Istoria Ellinikou Ethnous. Salway, Benet, a€?The Nature and Genesis of the Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp.
The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman milesA  (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees).
As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis,A  a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol.
In 1992, the Discovery year for all those connected to the American continents - North, Central and South - world Jewry was concerned with commemorating not only the expulsion, but also seven centuries of the Jewish life in Spain, flourishing under Muslim rule, and the 500th anniversary of the official welcome extended by the Ottoman Empire in 1492. This humanitarianism demonstrated at that time, was consistent with the beneficence and goodwill traditionally displayed by the Turkish government and people towards those of different creeds, cultures and backgrunds. A History Predating 1492 The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. When Mehmet II "the Conqueror" took Constantinople in 1453, he encountered an oppressed Romaniot (Byzantine) Jewish community which welcomed him with enthusiasm.
A Haven for Sephardic Jews Sultan Bayazid II's offer of refuge gave new hope to the persecuted Sephardim. The arrival of the Sephardim altered the structure of the community and the original group of Romaniote Jews was totally absorbed. Over the centuries an increasing number of European Jews, escaping persecution in their native countries, settled in the Ottoman Empire. Under Ottoman tradition, each non-Muslim religious community was responsible for its own institutions, including schools.
Recognized in 1923 by the Treaty of Lausanne as a fully independent state within its present day borders, Turkey accorded minority rights to the three principal non-Muslim religious minorities and permitted them to carry on with their own schools, social institutions and funds. A Community Calendar (Halila) is published by the Chief Rabbinate every year and distributed free of charge to all those who have paid their dues (Kisba) to the welfare bodies. Social clubs containing libraries, cultural and sports facilities, discotheques give young people the chance to meet. The Jewish Community is of course a very small group in Turkey today, considering that the total population - 99% Muslim - exceeds 67 million. 1492 Sultan Bayezid II welcomes Jews fleeing the Spanish inquisition; in Istanbul , the Jewish population double and Salonika becomes a major Jewish centre.
1516 - 1517 The Ottoman conquest of Palestine and Egypt leads to the strengthening of Jewish communities in their ancient homeland of Eretz Israel. 1535 Approximately 56,000 Jewish live in Istanbul,1556 Sultan Suleyman ' the Magnificent' write a letter to Pope Paul IV asking for immediate release of the Ancona Conversos whom he declared to be Ottoman citizens. 1922-23 Hayim Nahum Turkey's Chief Rabbi is an adviser to the Turkish delegation to the Lausanne Conference.1923 The Turkish Republic is founded under the preseidency of Mustafa Kemal ATATURK . 1940s Turkey stays neutral in World War II,,1942 Wealth tax ( varlA±k vergisi ) places a disproportionately heavy burden on non Muslim communities and sets off a massive migration of Jews to Palestine .
ISTANBUL,After the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in1453 , Sultan Mehmet II ( the Conqueor 1451-1481 ) encouraged immigration to repopulate the city.
Senguler Tourism a member of Association of Turkish Travel Agencies,ISTANBUL JEWISH HERITAGE TOURS,jewish tours in istanbul,jewish heritage tours in istanbul turkey,hakan hacibekiroglu,Welcome to our IJHT web site.. On the midnight of August 2nd 1492, when Columbus embarked on what would become his most famous expedition to the New World, his fleet departed from the relatively unknown seaport of Palos because the shipping lanes of Cadiz and Seville were clogged with Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain by the Edict of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain. In the faraway Ottoman Empire, one ruler extended an immediate welcome to the persecuted Jews of Spain, the Sephardim. In 1992, the Discovery year for all those connected to the American continents - North, Central and South - world Jewry was concerned with commemorating not only the expulsion, but also seven centuries of the Jewish life in Spain, flourishing under Muslim rule, and the 500th anniversary of the official welcome extended by the Ottoman Empire in 1492. This humanitarianism demonstrated at that time, was consistent with the beneficence and goodwill traditionally displayed by the Turkish government and people towards those of different creeds, cultures and backgrounds.
In 1992, Turkish Jewry celebrated not only the anniversary of this gracious welcome, but also the remarkable spirit of tolerance and acceptance which has characterized the whole Jewish experience in Turkey.
The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest.
Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there.
The arrival of the Sephardim altered the structure of the community and the original group of Romaniote Jews was totally absorbed. Over the centuries an increasing number of European Jews, escaping persecution in their native countries, settled in the Ottoman Empire. For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. Most of the court physicians were Jews: Hakim Yakoub, Joseph and Moshe Hamon, Daniel Fonseca, Gabriel Buenaventura to name only very few. One of the most significant innovations that Jews brought to the Ottoman Empire was the printing press. Under Ottoman tradition, each non-Muslim religious community was responsible for its own institutions, including schools. An important event in the life of Ottoman Jews in the 17th century was the schism led by Sabetay Sevi, the pseudo Messiah who lived in Izmir and later adopted Islam with his followers. Efforts at reform of the Ottoman Empire led to the proclamation of the Hatt-A± Humayun in 1856, which made all Ottoman citizens, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, equal under the law.
Recognized in 1923 by the Treaty of Lausanne as a fully independent state within its present day borders, Turkey accorded minority rights to the three principal non-Muslim religious minorities and permitted them to carry on with their own schools, social institutions and funds. Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi. Most Jewish children attend state schools or private Turkish or foreign language schools, and many are enrolled in the universities. While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino).
A Community Calendar (Halila) is published by the Chief Rabbinate every year and distributed free of charge to all those who have paid their dues (Kisba) to the welfare bodies. Two Jewish hospitals, the 98 bed Or-Ahayim in Istanbul and the 22 bed KaratasHospital in Izmir, serve the Community.
Social clubs containing libraries, cultural and sports facilities, discotheques give young people the chance to meet. The Jewish Community is of course a very small group in Turkey today, considering that the total population - 99% Muslim - exceeds 67 million. This simple sketch is typical of Lucan-type T-O maps in that it presents only the four cardinal directions, the three continents, and the features that divide them, including a€?gada€™, or Cadiz. This page is from Lucana€™s manuscript of Pharsalia, which describes the fight between Pompeii and Caesar.
On the African side, which has the most legends and is even divided into various countries and provinces, opposite Roma we see Cartago and to its east the legend inside the rectangle reads Fenicies [Phoenicia]. Looking at the map it seems that some of the legends are later additions, such as Mare Mediterraneu, Tanais and Nilus, which the scribe may have added in order to rectify some of the apparent errors. The map shown at the bottom is a simple Lucan map, which mentions only the three continents with the rivers and sea separating them (Tanais, Nilus and Mare Mediterraneu). As mentioned above the map is of T-O type, but unusually, it also incorporates the Macrobian climatic zones. The inhabited world is squeezed inside the Northern Temperate Zone; hence it is shown n somewhat distorted and stylized form. In Europe, at the lower left of the map many provinces are shown including Roma, Ythalia [Italy], the city of Constantinople, Grecia, Ungaria [Hungary], the river Danube, Germania and Francia.
In Africa the cities of Carthage, Cyrene [Seine a€“ Aswan] and Hyppone [Hippo, present day Annaba in Algeria], as well as other provinces are shown.
The text that surrounds this tiny but detailed T-O map refers to the division of the earth among the sons of Noah, revealing its origin from another work, as Gautier does not mention this event in the accompanying text.
This map is known as Gautier de Chatillon world map and is included in his work entitled De Alexandreis, an epic poem about the conquests of Alexander the Great. The four protruding arms and the outer ring of the map are inscribed with the names of the four cardinal directions and the external double circle bears the legends of the twelve winds. This is a climate Y-O map, in which the inhabited world is divided into eight climates, seven of which come from Pliny. Oriented with North at the top, the world map contains a wind rose with eight divisions, the center of which is situated on the western shores of the Mar Capara [Caspian Sea] the northern division is marked with a star and the eastern division is marked by a cross. While no color copy, or color photograph of this map has survived it is known that the map was produced in color with the seas left white, except for the Red Sea that is colored in vermillion.
The continental landmass is surrounded by a large expanse of ocean which several times mentions Mari Oziano magno. The influence of the Genoan and Catalonian nautical maps is marked particularly by the detailed indications of the then recently discovered islands in the Atlantic, the Canaries and the Azores. In Asia, most of the regional notations are consistent with Mongolian domination, a crown with the notes Medru, Calcar, Monza sede di sedre [the Mangi of northern China], and Bogar Tartarorum [the Great Bulgarian or Golden Horde]. As for the calendar appended to the world map, it shows the figure of a child whose body parts correspond to the twelve signs of the Zodiac, a classic representation of a miniature Adam. This map contains areas of Asia with names used in the Mongol dynasty; some rivers and cities have similar names as those in a€?The Travels of Marco Poloa€?, and it shows that before the map was drawn the cartographer had referred to the maps made by Chinese Yuan scholars. What requires special notice is there can be seen a remark on the V-shaped land on the upper left of the de Virga map that says: a€?the known furthest extreme of the worlda€?. The latter de Virga world map has been missing since 1932, when its owner withdrew it just days before an auction to be held by Gilhofer & Ranschburg in Lucerne, Switzerland, according to the cartographic historian Albert DA?rst, who describes the map minutely in a 1996 article in the journal Cartographica Helvetica.
Thompson, a psychologist who serves as director of the Multicultural Discovery Project at the University of Hawaii, supposes that de Virga lacked precedents for expressing medieval European surveys of the Americas on a planisphere and thus depicted the New World in an odd configuration a€” to the north and west. A sketch of the northern section of de Virgaa€™s world map reveals the legacy of a survey by Nicholas of Lynn, according to Gunnar Thompson. Thompson is not the first to argue that pre-Columbian American discovery by the Norse and others resulted in early cartographical representations of the Americas. Unlike the case of the so-called Vinland Map (#243), there was no reason to dispute the authenticity of de Virgaa€™s world map when it emerged from oblivion in 1912, and there is no reason to dispute it now.
De Virgaa€™s African outline is startlingly advanced compared with the works of his contemporaries in Venice and elsewhere. Juxtaposing de Virgaa€™s world map with a 1511 Venetian edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (compiled by Bernardus Sylvanus with maps by Andreas Matheus Aquavivus) underscores the realism of the former. Although the map also depicts a somewhat foreshortened coastline from the Algarve to Brittany, the coast is at least recognizable past the English Channel and beyond the Scheldt, up the west coast of Danish Jutland. The Danish king exacted payments from ships on their way to and from the Baltic toward the Hanse cities (a medieval alliance of cities that controlled trade between the eastern and western sides of northern Europe). Although inaccurate by modem standards, de Virgaa€™s delineations of the Baltic Sea and Scandinavian Peninsula fairly represent contemporary Hanse knowledge. His map adequately depicts the western part of the Baltic with an arm dipping south, as well as the eastward-tending inner Baltic with the Finnish Bay and a north coast comprised of Finland and southeast Sweden combined with Danish Scania. Nevertheless, many Hanse would have heard about or experienced a part of this cold arm reaching north into the unfamiliar regions just a little past the Scanian peninsula. Logically, the land mass in the mapa€™s northwest corner, featuring a crown and the name Norveca (repeated in three more places, probably to indicate the three major Norwegian towns) would then represent his concept of southwest Sweden detached from Danish Scania and of southern Norway from its join with Sweden at least as far north and west as Bergen. Showing the rather wide southern end of Norway in this manner would also be in keeping with Hanse information. Although he clearly did not know the shape of Norway, de Virga would have been aware of the countrya€™s existence. It is tempting to assume that medieval churchmen who had spent time in the Far North contributed to Romea€™s knowledge of this remote region and that this knowledge long had been diffused through various channels of culture and learning.
Whereas modern scholars are able to fit topographical descriptions or information from travel accounts into an existing geographic image, such visual aids did not exist during the Middle Ages.
Thompson and other writers support their claims about pre-Columbian European cartographic awareness of the Americas by calling into service the supposed 1360 voyage of Nicholas of Lynn, as well as an Arabic mention of Greater Ireland. Gunnar Thompsona€™s theory regarding the de Virga mapa€™s Norveca rests on his conviction that the cartographical record of American discovery reaches back through the Middle Ages. The map was re-discovered in a second-hand bookshop in 1911 in A ibenik, Croatia by Albert Figdor, an art collector. When Figdor died on 22 January 1927, his magnificent collections became the property of his niece Margarete Becker-Walz, the wife of a prominent Heidelberg lawyer.
Father Fischer was the only scholar in Becker-Walza€™s part of Europe who combined a belief in medieval cartographic manifestations of the Norse discovery of America with sufficient scholarly stature to allow an approach to the map's owner.
That year brought an opportunity to revive his interest when he was asked to comment on a manuscript atlas about to be auctioned by Gilhofer & Ranschburg a€” an atlas he had been allowed to keep at Stella Matutina for the purposes of study.
If Becker-Walz withdrew the map from the auction on Fischera€™s advice and withdraw it she did a€” neither of them would have had much opportunity to proceed further. For Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband, as Jews living in Heidelberg, the situation would have turned ugly sooner.
After Germanya€™s surrender in 1945, Nazi loot was found stored all over the former Third Reich in town offices, houses used as billets, officersa€™ clubs, and cattle barns. This map by the Venetian cartographer, Albertin de Virga, shows Marco Poloa€™s a€?Southern Continenta€? southeast of Asia. DESCRIPTION: This highly controversial map has only recently been uncovered (1957) and therefore has only a short history of scholarly analysis.
THE MANUSCRIPT: First brought to the publica€™s attention in 1957 by an Italian bookseller, Enzo Ferrajoli from Barcelona, the document now known as the Vinland map was discovered bound in a thin manuscript text entitled Historia Tartarorum (now commonly referred to as the Tartar Relation). The Tartar Relation, in essence, is a shortened version of the more well-known text entitled Ystoria Mongolorum, which relates the mission of Friar John de Plano Carpini, sent by Pope Innocent IV to a€?the King and People of the Tartarsa€™, which left Lyons in April 1245 and which was away for 30 months.
The fate of the Speculum Historiale was very different, for Vincenta€™s work became a standard reference book on the shelves of monastic libraries and was constantly multiplied during the next two centuries in manuscript form. According to these same scholars, the Tartar Relation text does have some significance in its own right as an independent primary source for information on Mongol history and legend not to be found in any other Western source. That the map and the manuscript were juxtaposed within their binding from a very early date cannot be doubted. The association of the map with the texts is reinforced by paleographical examination, which has enabled the hands of the map, of its endorsement, and of the texts to be confidently attributed to one and the same scribe. The map depicts, in outline, the three parts of the medieval world: Europe, Africa, and Asia surrounded by ocean, with islands and island-groups in the east and west. In the design of the Old World the map belongs to that class of circular or elliptical world maps in which, during the 14th and 15th centuries, new data were introduced into the traditional mappaemundi of Christian cosmology. Written in Latin on the face of the map are sixty-two geographical names and seven longer legends.
Before proceeding to analyze the geographical delineations of the map in detail, we may briefly survey the antecedent materials, cartographic and textual, to which comparative study of it must refer. As noted above, the representation of Europe, Africa, and Asia in the map plainly derives from a circular or oval prototype. Variations of this basic pattern were introduced to admit new geographical information, ideas, or new cartographic concepts.
The circular form of the medieval world map, in the hands of some 14th and 15th century cartographers, is superseded by an oval or ovoid; and even in the 14th century rectangular world maps begin to appear, mainly under the influence of nautical cartography.
Most of these variations in the form and design of world maps were adapted from the practice of nautical charts and, in the 15th century, of the Ptolemaic maps.
If the Vinland map was drawn in the second quarter of the 15th century, and perhaps early in the last decade of that quarter, it would take its place after that of Andrea Bianco and would be contemporary with the output of Leardo, whose three maps are dated 1442, 1448, and 1452 or 1453. As previously noted, the outlines of the three continents form an ellipse or oval, the proportions between the longer horizontal axis and the vertical axis being about 2:1.
It is not necessary to assume that the prototype followed by the cartographer was also oval in form.
If the model for the Vinland map corresponded generally in form and content to Andrea Biancoa€™s world map, then the variations introduced by its author are not less significant than the general concordance. Comparison of the geographical outlines of the Vinland map with those of Bianco suggests that its author, while generally following his model, was inclined to exaggerate prominent features, such as capes or peninsulas, and to elaborate, by fanciful a€?squigglesa€?, the drawing of a stretch of featureless coast. EUROPE: With the reservations made in the preceding paragraph, the cartographera€™s representation of the regions embraced by the a€?normala€? portolan chart of the 15th century, the Mediterranean and Black Seas, Western Europe, and the Baltic, closely resembles that of Bianco in his world map, which reflects his own practice in chart making. Scandinavia, as in all maps before the second quarter of the 16th century, lies east-west in both maps; but there is a conspicuous divergence in their treatment of its western end, which both cartographers extend into roughly the longitude of Ireland.
In its delineation of the British Isles, the Vinland map again diverges from that in Biancoa€™s world map. These differences seem too great to fall within the limits of the license in copying which the author of the Vinland map evidently allowed himself in those parts of his design which agree basically with Biancoa€™s rendering and may derive from a common prototype.
In the Vinland map, Europe is devoid of rivers, save for a very muddled representation of the hydrography of Eastern Europe.
The twelve names on the mainland of Europe are, with two exceptions, those of countries or states. AFRICA: The general shape and proportions of Africa, extending across the lower half of the Vinland map, also correspond to a type followed, with variation, in most circular world maps of the 14th and 15th centuries, and deriving ultimately from much earlier medieval and classical models. Alike in the general form of Africa (with one major variation) and in the detailed outlines of the continent, the Vinland map agrees with Biancoa€™s circular map of 1436 (which itself has, in this part, close affinities with the design of Petrus Vesconte). The hydrographic pattern of the African rivers in the Vinland map is a somewhat simplified version of that drawn by Bianco, with the Nile (unnamed) flowing northward from sources in southern Africa to its mouth on the Mediterranean and forking, a little below its springs, to flow westward to two mouths on the Atlantic; the western branch is named magnus [fluuius]. The African nomenclature of the Vinland map, some fourteen names, is conventional, over half the forms corresponding to those of Bianco. Africa is the continent in which we have noted some striking links between the Vinland map and Biancoa€™s world map of 1436. The great advance in the knowledge which, from the second half of the 13th century, reached southern Europe about the interior of West Africa and the Sudan was reflected in many maps, from the information collected by merchants on the Saharan trade routes and in the markets of Northwest Africa.
ASIA: If we are justified in supposing the cartographera€™s prototype to have been circular, he, or the author of the immediate original copied by him, has adapted the shape of Asia, as of Africa, to the oval framework by vertical compression rather than lateral extension.
It is in the outline of East Asia that the maker of the Vinland map introduces his most radical change in the representation of the tripartite world which we find in other surviving mappaemundi and particularly (in view of the affinities noted elsewhere) in that of Andrea Bianco. This version of East Asian geography is found in no other extant map, and its relationship to the prototype followed for the rest of the Old World is best seen by comparison with Biancoa€™s delineation, which itself descends from an ancient tradition. It is a striking fact, and one which perhaps does credit to his realism, that, in order to admit into his drawing of the Far East a representation derived from a new source under his hand, he has gone so far as to jettison the Earthly Paradise from the design. The concentration of interest on the Greenland sector has led to the comparative neglect of the Asian section, which has topographical features at least as unusual. The remaining islands of Asia are drawn in the Vinland map very much as by Bianco, with some simplification and generalization, and may be taken to have been in the prototype. Within the restricted space allowed by his revision of the river-pattern and of the coastal outlines, the author of the Vinland map has grouped the majority of his names in two belts from north to south, on either side of the river which runs from the Caspian to the ocean.
For Asia the compiler of the Vinland map shows the same conservatism in his use of sources as for Africa; and, apart from the modifications introduced from his reading of the Tartar Relation, this part of the map could very well have been drawn over a century earlier.
To the north of the British Isles, the Vinland map marks two islands, presumably representing either the Orkneys and Shetlands or these two groups and the Faeroes.
To the west of Ireland the Vinland map has an isolated island, also in Bianco; and to the southwest of England another, drawn by Bianco as a crescent.
Further out, and extending north-south from about the latitude of Brittany to about that of Cape Juby, Biancoa€™s world map shows a chain of about a dozen small islands, drawn in conventional portolan style. Further south, the Vinland map lays down the Canaries as seven islands lying off Cape Bojador, with the name Beate lsule fortune.
ICELAND, GREENLAND, VINLAND: In the extreme northwest and west of the map are laid down three great islands, named respectively isolanda Ibernica, Gronelada, and Vinlandia Insula a Byarno re et leipho socijis, with a long legend on Bishop Eirik Gnupssona€™s Vinland voyage above the last two.
The three islands are drawn in outline, in the same style as the coasts in the rest of the map; and there can be no doubt that the whole map, including this part of it, was drawn at the same time and by a single hand.
The land depicted to the west of Greenland in the northwest Atlantic has the following legend (in translation): Island of Vinland discovered by Bjarni and Lief in company. The question a€?what kind of map is this?a€? the answer must be: a very simple map, simple both in intention and in execution.
In finding cartographic expression for the geography of his texts, the maker of the map has practiced considerable economy of means.
Examination of the nomenclature has suggested that the Vinland map, in the form in which it has survived, is the product of a stage of compilation (the work of the author or cartographer) and a subsequent stage of copying or transcription (the work of a scribe who was perhaps not a cartographer). The process of simplification described above was presumably carried out in the compilation stage.
These considerations must govern our judgment of the date and place of origin to be ascribed to the map. The Map was interesting to historians as apparent evidence that Norse voyages of the 11th and 12th centuries were known in the Upper Rhineland in the mid-15th century, and consequently that some continuity of knowledge existed between the early discovery of what we know as America and the rediscovery of western lands in the later 15th century. As a world map the Vinland map does not fit into the framework of medieval cartography as conceived in Western Europe. SOURCES: Analysis of the nomenclature and of its affinities with other maps or texts suggests some general remarks about the Vinland map and about its mode of compilation. In those parts of the map in which (as noted above) the influence of O1 predominates, there are very few names which cannot be traced to it or to the common stock of toponymy found in contemporary cartography (and therefore perhaps in O1). On this assumption, some other names (if they were not in O1) and all the legends (which can hardly have been in O1) must be attributed to the compiler of the map, i.e. Whether the novelties in the nomenclature of the Atlantic island groups were in O1 or were introduced by the compiler of O2 cannot be determined; the affinities between their delineation in the Vinland map and in surviving charts suggest that the names also may have been found by the compiler in maps which have not survived.
At each stage of derivation, from O1 to O2, and (less probably) from O2 to the Vinland map in its present form, there must have been a process of selection or thinning out of names. The representation of the Atlantic, with Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, was almost certainly not in the prototype used for the tripartite world, but was added to it by the cartographer from another source or other sources.
The world picture of the 14th century, which was taken over into the mappaemundi of the next century, including the prototype used in the Vinland map, owed its general form and plan to geographical concepts of classical origin, confirmed and modified by the authority of the Christian Fathers. On this pattern were to be grafted geographical facts derived from experience and unknown to the creators of the model. 1922-23 Hayim Nahum Turkey's Chief Rabbi is an adviser to the Turkish delegation to the Lausanne Conference.,1923 The Turkish Republic is founded under the preseidency of Mustafa Kemal ATATURK . 1940s Turkey stays neutral in World War II,1942 Wealth tax ( varlyk vergisi ) places a disproportionately heavy burden on non Muslim communities and sets off a massive migration of Jews to Palestine . The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. Ottoman diplomacy was often carried out by Jews. Joseph Nasi, appointed the Duke of Naxos, was the former Portuguese Marrano Joao Miques. Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi. Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest.
From 4th Century BCE Archaelogical findings indicate Jewish settlement in the Aegean region of Anatolia.
From 220 BCE There are Jewish settlements in Sardes , Miletus , Prien , Bursa in the southeast and along the Aegean ,Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. 1299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands. 1453 Following the conquest of Constantinople,Sultan Mehmet II transfers Jewish populations to their new capital . 1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion.
1870s The French Jewish school network Alliance Israelite Universelle expands throughout the Ottoman Empire in cities with large Jewish populations with a mission to modernise the Jewish communities of the East. 1881 Despite an official Ottoman policy against the modern migration of Jews to Palestine,Russian Jews are welcomed to migrate to the heartland of Ottoman Anatolia (Asia Minor ) where they set up farming communities lasting until World War I . 1908 The Young Turk revolution is supported by a wide coalition of Muslims,Jews,Armenians and Greek who unite under the French slogan of liberte,egalite and fraternite against Sultan Abdulhamid II.
1933 Turkey recruits German Jewish academics facing Nazi discriminative policies in order to strengthen Istanbul and Ankara universities. 1934 As a result of pogroms in Edirne and Canakkale the majority of the Jews yf Thrace migrate to Istanbul.
1948 Israel declares independence leading to continuous immigration throughtout the following years.
1989 The Quincentennial Foundation made up of Turkish Jews and Muslims is established three years before the 500th anniversary of Sephardi life in Ottoman lands and Turkey.
1990s Relations between Turkey and Israel become stronger when a strategic military bond between the two countries emerges. 1994 A modern Jewish school in Ulus opens its doors replacing the former school located in the old Jewish neighbourhood of Galata..
2001 The Zulfaris Synagogue is turned into the Quincentinal Foundation Museum of Turkish Jews providing space to commemorate Jewish Life in the former Ottoman lands and the modern Turkish state. 2002 Ishak Haleva is pronounced Chief Rabbi when Rabbi David Asseo dies after serving for more than 40 years.
2003 16 November Neve Shalom and Bet Israel synagogues are attacked during Shabbat prayers killing 23 people including six Jews .
2004 The European Day of Jewish Culture opens synagogues for the first time to the general Turkish public offering musical and educational activities. 250 the original tables were, themselves, copied from a larger original map of the first century A.D. After Peutingera€™s death, two of the twelve sections of the Colmar manuscript were engraved and published in 1591 with annotated text and place-names taken from the sections reproduced. It is merely a graphic compendium of mileages or basically an itinerary route map with the roads delineated predominantly by straight lines, often with curious jogs.
The archetype may well have been on a papyrus roll, designed for carrying around in a capsa [tool box].
France, Spain, and North Africa with roads, cities and some prominent buildings are also depicted, along with major Mediterranean islands being Corsica and Sardinia.
Its date of transcription is 12th or early 13th century, but it has long been recognized as a copy of an ancient map. It is not a military map, though it could have been used for military purposes but the words of Vegetius give an indication of its possible function. Constantinople is represented by a helmeted female figure seated on a throne and holding in her left hand a spear and a shield.
This system, extended under the late empire to troop movements, relied very largely on staging posts at more or less regular intervals; couriers traveled an average of fifty Roman miles (74 km) a day. This can be well illustrated by a name in Italy otherwise recorded only (in corrupt form) in the Ravenna cosmography. Instead it is made to rise in the mountains of Cyrenaica and to flow a€?eastwarda€? to a point just above the delta. According to the military manual of Vegetius (383a€“395), military commanders possessed itineraria that not only were written (scripta) but also contained drawings in color (picta). Also, the display of world maps was part of an ideology of extended rule, used both by the emperor Theodosius II at Constantinople, in the fifth century, and later by Pope Zachary II in the Lateran Palace at Rome, in the eighth. It contains the network the main roads (about 100,000 km), the network of settlements, of overnight stations (mansiones) and stations of horse changing that were found in the routes that crossed the late empire. The strongly deformed shape, mainly in terms of latitude, does not preserve any rational cartographic scale or orientation in any of Tabulaa€™s twelve sheets. In fragment XI, westwards the Euphrates River we find the text Areae fines Romanorum [end of roman limits] that is followed by representations of Mesopotamia, Persia and India. Exception constitute the regions of Galatia, measured in galloroman leyges (leugae = 2,222 km), the regions of the Persian empire in parasangas, (6 km) and India expressed where the distance are in Indian miles (2 km). These are: Aquila (with 7 towers and a big residential complex), Ravenna (5 towers), Thessalonica (5 towers), Nikomedeia (8 towers), Nicaea (6 towers and a temple or basilica) and Ankara (7 towers) (Figure 6). The basic functional uses, which incorporate corresponding social practices and are drawn with their shells are: 1) religious, 2) political, 3) defensive, 4) recreational and 5) remaining uses. In Italy 15 structures are found, in the Balkans five, in the Asia Minor and in Syria one each, while in Africa there are eight such thermal complexes (Figure 13). At the top are found three first level cities (Rome, Constantinople, Antiocheia) and then follow six second level cities (Aquilla, Ravenna, Thessalonica, Nicomedeia, Nicaea, Ancara).
The administrative organization and the provinces of late empire are not present and one would have to seek information in other texts of late antiquity (Laterculus Veronensis, Notitia Dignitatum and Hierocles Synekdimos) in order to have a picture of bigger administrative divisions.
A., Romea€™s World, the Puetinger Map Reconsidered, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 357pp. Indeed, Turkey could serve as a model to be emulated by any nation which finds refugees from any of the four corners of the world standing at its doors.In 1992, Turkish Jewry celebrated not only the anniversary of this gracious welcome, but also the remarkable spirit of tolerance and acceptance which has characterized the whole Jewish experience in Turkey. In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire.
In the early 19th century, Abraham de Camondo established a modern school, "La Escola", causing a serious conflict between conservative and secular rabbis which was only settled by the intervention of Sultan Abdulaziz in 1864. In 1926, on the eve of Turkey's adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights.During the tragic days of World War II, Turkey managed to maintain its neutrality.
The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Antakya, Bursa, Canakkale, Kirklareli etc. La Buena Esperansa and La Puerta del Oriente started in Izmir in 1843 and Or Israelwas first published in Istanbul ten years later.
The Community cannot levy taxes, but can request donations.Two Jewish hospitals, the 98 bed Or-Ahayim in Istanbul and the 22 bed KaratasHospital in Izmir, serve the Community. An essential prelude to any visit to any synagogue in Turkey is contact with the Jewish Heritage tour company in Istanbul . Jewish communities were invited to take up residence at HaskA¶y on the eastern bank of the Golden Horn. Indeed, Turkey could serve as a model to be emulated by any nation which finds refugees from any of the four corners of the world standing at its doors. The events being planned - symposiums, conferences, concerts, exhibitions, films and books, restoration of ancient Synagogues etc - commemorated the longevity and prosperity of the Jewish community. When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1326 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule.
In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration. In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire. Four Turkish cities: Istanbul, Izmir, Safed and Salonica became the centres of Sephardic Jewry. In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Samuel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul. As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces. In 1926, on the eve of Turkey's adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights. As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey. The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Antakya, Bursa, Canakkale, Kirklareli etc. Additionally, the Community maintains in Istanbul a school complex including elementary and secondary schools for around 700 students. La Buena Esperansa and La Puerta del Oriente started in Izmir in 1843 and Or Israelwas first published in Istanbul ten years later.
Both cities have homes for the aged (Moshav Zekinim) and several welfare associations to assist the poor, the sick, the needy children and orphans. Lucan lived during the first century and like Sallust, was of the opinion that Asia was the greatest continent of all and that Europe and Africa should be considered together as one continent.


One is a T-O map shown on top of the page, which is a typical Sallust map oriented with east at the top and showing the Mediterraneu, Tanais and Nilus, The last two legends appear under the arms of the T while inside the body of water the legends at the left read Fison [Ganges] and Fir-fir. We also see the island of Gades (port city of Cadiz in mainland Spam) at the western edge of the Mediterranean. Johna€™s College Map, the map in this German Bible is arranged in an abstract fashion, but it is more geographically accurate and is superimposed on a zonal format.
This untitled map is bound to the end of the Bible known as the Arnsteln Bible, kept in the British Library. Zonal maps we generally oriented with north at the top, but here the T-O model takes precedence and hence the map is oriented with East at the top. In order to accommodate all the information intended to go on the map the width of the Temperate Zone has been exaggerated, making it wider than all the other zones combined.
The northern part contains the provinces of Armenia, Brithinia, Frigia, Galacia, Lidia, Bactria, Pamphilia, Cilicia, Nyce and Troy. At the very edge of the map the provinces of Anglia, Scocia, Hyberia [Ireland] as well as Britannia are shown. In line with Sallust, who writes that the Persian and Armenian mercenaries of Herculesa€™ army settled in the northwest of Africa, this area of the map shows the name Perse [Persians] but no Armenians. From top, along the Mediterranean we note the tribes of Medi (Medes), Ubies (Libyans) and Armeni (Armenians), who according to Sallust had settled in North Africa after the death of Hercules. Instead of a pictorial representation of the world, a list of provinces, cities and islands is given, divided into the three continents. The surrounding ocean and the divisions between the continents are added to this map (the Nile, the Mediterranean and the Tanais [Don] with the additional refinement of the Sea of Azov [Meotites Palus, here: the lake or swamp of Maeotis]. 278a€“280, mischaracterizes the V-in-square figure as used to diagram the Noachide dispersion in copies of Isidorea€™s Etymologiae (Book 14), where it is almost always juxtaposed with a T-O map. The landmasses are colored in yellow, although the islands are in a variety of colors; the mountains are in a greenish-brown, the lakes in blue, and the rivers are colored brown.
The Holy Land, marked with the names of Jordan and Gorlan [Jerusalem], does not, as with many previous medieval maps, exactly occupy the center of the map.
Africa is decorated with the common representation of the Atlas Mountains, which spread over the northern part of Africa like a serpent, and by the Mountains of the Moon towards the south which surrounds twice the region where the Ylon [the river Nile] and several other rivers flow. There is also a plan for fortifications marked simply M[on]gol [Caracorum, in Greater Asia].
On the left is a table of 100 letters, alternating black and red, which allows the reader to calculate the date of Easter as either 2 April 1301 or 18 April 1400. It is known that he is also the author of a nautical map of the Mediterranean Sea, of the classical type, which has flowery ornamentation similar to this world map and signed in the same way: A. According to some scholars this remark could not possibly be written by a European, because if one looks at the map it is easy to see the furthest part from Europe is not the V-shaped land, but China, so obviously this remark is originally from the ancient Chinese. The Venetian cartographer Albertin de Virga does not loom large in medieval map literature: all we know of him is what we can learn from two of his maps. DA?rst notes renewed interest in the map after a recent claim by a researcher at the University of Hawaii, Gunnar Thompson, that de Virga indicated large parts of North and South America in the upper left section of the map, but DA?rst does not comment on Thompsona€™s theory. He contends that the continent labeled Norveca represents Americaa€™s east coast from Labrador to Florida, that the land northeast of Norway is Venezuela and Brazil, and that the island situated southeast of Asia delineates the coast of Peru. Nor is he the first to claim that an elusive medieval travel account of the Arctic, called Inventio Fortunatae (circa 1360), was written by Friar Nicholas of Lynn, who, according to Thompson, not only crossed to North America but also surveyed the lands well enough to later provide cartographical evidence.
On the contrary, there are very good reasons to wonder why we should disregard the mapmakera€™s own nomenclature, particularly given the evident care with which de Virga executed the task he had set himself. De Virga appears to have had an unusual ability to calculate shapes and distances on the basis of second-hand information provided to him, most likely by sailors probing the African coasts and from reports by merchants familiar with the trans-Saharan gold route. Although the 1511 maps incorporate American discoveries, they indicate little knowledge of the Far North and are otherwise regressive, considering what de Virga knew a century earlier. Trouble comes after the Skaw (northernmost Jutland), where in order to enter the Baltic Sea a ship had to head south in the Kattegat (a strait separating Sweden and Denmark) before passing through a narrow sound separating the island of SjA¦lland from the Scanlan. The Scania herring trade was so important that this extra piece of Denmark would have been known to Venetian merchants, who flocked to the Flanders markets in order to trade with the Hanse bringing their cargo south.
Such information would have been available to de Virga either from Hanse merchants or through Venetian merchants returning from trips to the North to buy salted herring, stockfish (wind-dried cod), and other commodities. The entire northern arm (now called the Bothnian Bay), beginning at about 60 degrees North, lay outside the Hanse merchantsa€™ scope, as it was devoid of significant trading centers. Perhaps de Virga, after hearing a description of this assumed northward passage into the unknown (rather than a closed bay), decided it must lie just to the west of Scania, rather than to the east where the waters were much more familiar to the Hanse. That the land mass called Norveca has nothing to do with either Greenland or North America should be abundantly clear from the nomenclature alone; it also is firmly connected to the world Albertin de Virga and his contemporaries already knew. As the center of the stockfish trade, Bergen had served as the chief Hanseatic port in Norway throughout the Middle Ages, and any Hanse skipper worth his salt would have known the route there. Anyone living in Venice around 1415 who had commercial ties or who was curious about geography would have known that Norway lay far to the north, that it dominated the stockfish trade, and that the country was mountainous and probably very large. In reality, information flowed primarily in the opposite direction from the 11th century onward. Medieval readers must for themselves conceptualize distances and exotic locations, and as a result, their inventions wandered all over the map, both literally and figuratively. In addition to the regular Ireland associated with the British Isles, the Arabic geographer Abu-Abd-Allah Mohammed al-Idrisi, 1099-1180, (#219) noted a Greater Ireland in the northwest Atlantic, supposedly a reference to known land on the American side. Others have expressed a similar belief, including those who believe the Vinland Map at Yale University is a genuine mid-15th century expression of Norse discovery in America.
At first, the Austrian authorities refused to allow the collections out of the country, but after much legal wrangling and string-pulling, the well-connected Frau Becker-Walz managed to auction off the bulk of Figdora€™s art works and furniture in 1930. Why Margarete Becker-Walz withdrew the map at the last minute from such a distinguished antiquarian auction house is a matter of speculation. In 1932, besides being at the height of his reputation as a cartographic historian, he was no longer in von Wiesera€™s shadow.
Given his close relations with the auction house at the time the de Virga map was being offered for sale, it is highly likely he would have seen Auction Catalog Number 8 with its photograph of the map.
Arrests, boycotts of Jewish businesses, and dismissals from academic and other public positions began almost immediately after the Nazis came to power. Some of these stolen articles are slowly finding their way into the antiquarian market, and with luck we may again see de Virgaa€™s world map.
The island-continent is called a€?Ca-paru or Great India.a€? The map was made between 1410 and 1414. This fact not withstanding, it may also claim, during this rather short period, to have undergone more intensive scrutiny and examination in both technical and academic terms than any other single cartographic document in history.
This manuscript text and map were copied about the year 1440 by an unknown scribe from earlier originals, since lost. Whereas Carpinia€™s Ystoria is not considered a rare text, no manuscript or printed version of the Tartar Relation has survived, save the one bound with the Vinland map. It is because the Tartar Relation, one, had the good fortune to become embodied in a manuscript of this popular work (possibly a substitute for, or an addition to, Books XXX-XXXII, which also contained an abridgement of Carpinia€™s own account) and, two, because, in general, a bulky manuscript like the Speculum Historiale had a better chance of physical survival than a slender one like Tartar Relation bound separately.
Additionally the Tartar Relation does act, partially, as one of the chief sources for some textual legends on the Vinland map with regards to Asia.
As part of Vincenta€™s encyclopedia of human knowledge entitled Speculum Majus, Speculum Historiale was included as a chronicle of world history from the time of mana€™s creation to the 13th century, in 32 sections or books. The physical analysis, together with the endorsement of the map, points with a high degree of probability to the further conclusions that the map was drawn immediately after the copying of the texts was completed, and in the same workshop or scriptorium, and that it was designed to illustrate the texts which it accompanied.
Further evidence on their relationship and on its character must be sought in the content of the map.
The derivation of the map, in this respect, from a circular or oval prototype is betrayed by the general form of Europe, Africa, and Asia, which are rounded off (or beveled) at the four oblique cardinal points, although the artist had a rectangle to fill with his design. The whole design is drawn in a coarse inked line, with evident generalization in some parts and considerable elaboration in others. The features named are seas and gulfs, islands and archipelagos, rivers, kingdoms, regions, peoples, and cities. It is, of course, not to be supposed that its anonymous maker had direct access to all surviving earlier works with which his shows any affinity in substance or design; but identification of common elements will help us to reconstruct the source or sources upon which he drew. Even when the world maps of the late Middle Ages, drawn for the most part in the scriptoria of monasteries, attempted a faithful delineation of known geographical facts (outlines of coasts, courses of rivers, location of places), they still respected the conventional pattern which Christian cosmography had in part inherited from the Romans, and, in part, created. The traditional orientation, with east to the top, came to be abandoned by more progressive cartographers, who drew their maps with north to the top (following the fashion of the chart makers) or south to the top (perhaps under the influence of Arab maps). While the work of Leardo is considerably more sophisticated in compilation and more a€?learneda€? in its incorporation of varied geographical materials than that of Bianco, the world maps of both these Venetian cartographers plainly depend for their general design on models of the 14th century. Since the map is oriented with north to the top, the longer axis lies east-west, and the two greater arcs at top and bottom are formed by the north coasts of Europe and Asia and by the coasts of Africa respectively. In fact his map has striking affinities of outline and nomenclature with the circular world map in Andrea Biancoa€™s atlas of 1436 (#241).
His personal style of drawing, save perhaps in the outlines of certain large islands, shows no sign of the idiosyncrasies of the draftsmen of the portolan charts, although these have left a clear mark on the execution of Biancoa€™s world map. The orientation and outline of the Mediterranean agree exactly in the two maps, although in the Vinland map it has a considerably greater extension in longitude, in proportion to the overall width of Eurasia. Bianco shows Scandinavia as terminating in an indented coast projecting westward with a large unnamed island off-shore, divided from it by a strait; but the author of the Vinland map has altered the island to a peninsula and the strait into a deep gulf by drawing an isthmus across the south end of the strait. In both, Ireland has the same shape and coastal features, derived from the representation in contemporary Italian charts; and Biancoa€™s version of Great Britain also is that of the portolan chart makers, with the English coasts deeply indented by the Severn and Thames estuaries and the Wash, with a channel or strait separating England and Scotland, and with Scotland drawn as a rough square with little indentation. In view of the novel elements in the northwest part of the map, we must reckon with the possibility, but no more, that its author found this version of the British Isles in a map of the North Atlantic which may have served him as a model for this part of his work and from which may stem not only his representations of Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, but also his revisions of Scandinavia and Great Britain and of the islands between. The lower course of the Danube is correctly drawn as falling into the Black Sea; but the copyist or compiler appears to have erroneously identified it with the Don (which debouches on the Sea of Azov), for the name Tanais is boldly written just above the river, with a legend about the Russians. The only European city named in the Vinland map is Rome, while Biancoa€™s world map marks only Paris. The northwest coast was by this date known as far as Cape Bojador, and this section is traced with precision in both maps. Errors made by the anonymous cartographer in common with Bianco, or derived from their common prototype, are the transference of Sinicus mons [Mount Sinai] to the African side of the Red Sea and the location of Imperits Basora [Basra] in the eastern horn of Africa (Bianco also incorrectly places the Old Man of the Mountain (el ueio dala montagna; not in the Vinland map) in Africa instead of Asia).
It also seems, although no doubt deceptively, to provide the latest terminus post quem for dating both. The wealth of detail for this region recorded by Carignano, the Pizzigani, and the Catalan cartographers is wholly absent from Biancoa€™s world map and from the Vinland map.
Thus, in place of the steeply arched northern coast of Eurasia shown by Bianco, we have a flattened curve which abridges the north-south width of the land mass. The prototype is, in this region, not wholly set aside for traces of it remain but rather adapted to admit a new geographical concept which, significantly enough, can be considered a gloss on the Tartar Relation.
The most prominent of these is the Magnum mare Tartarorum [the Great Sea of the Tartars] set between the eastern shores of the mainland and the three large islands on the margin, and occupying an area approximately one-third of that of continental Asia.
Again, the northernmost of these islands on the Map has the inscription, Insule Sub aquilone zamogedorum, while the text states that the Samoyeds are a€?poverty stricken men who dwell in forestsa€™ on the mainland of Asia.
The three small islands in the Persian Gulf appear in both, though Biancoa€™s crescent outline for them (of portolan type) is not reproduced by the anonymous cartographer; the large archipelago depicted by Bianco (again in portolan style) in the Indian Ocean is reduced to four islands, and the two bigger oblong islands to the east of them are in both maps.
Instead of Biancoa€™s representation of the Arctic zones of Eurasia (with two zonal chords, delineations of skin-clad inhabitants and coniferous trees, and a descriptive legend), the Vinland map has only the two names frigida pars and Thule ultima. The nomenclature for Asia, with twenty-three names, is richer than that for the other two continents; some names come from the common stock found in other mappaemundi, but the greater number are associated with the information on the Tartars and Central Asia brought back by the Carpini mission. The cartographera€™s neglect to use any information from Marco Polo or from the travelers in his footsteps, notably Odoric of Pordenone, is common to all maps before the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (in which East Asia is drawn entirely from Marco Polo) and to most maps of the first half of the 15th century.
His delineation of them, indeed, closely resembles that in Biancoa€™s world map, which is in turn a generalization, with nomenclature omitted, from the fourth and fifth charts (or fifth and sixth leaves) in his atlas of 1436.
The two islands appear, in exactly the same relative positions, in Biancoa€™s world map, although they are absent from the charts of his atlas. These islands, the Azores of 15th century cartography and the Madeira group, are represented in the Vinland map, in more generalized form and without Biancoa€™s characteristic geometrical outlines, by seven islands, having the same orientation and relative position as in Biancoa€™s map, and with the name Desiderate insule.
Their agreement in outline with the two large islands laid down in exactly the same positions at the western edge of Biancoa€™s world map is striking: in particular, the indentation of the east coast of the more northerly island and the peninsular form of its southern end, the squarish northern end of the other (and larger island) and its forked southern end, are common to both maps.
That they lie outside the oval framework of the map suggests that they were not in the model, apparently a circular or elliptical mappamundi, which the cartographer followed in his representation of Europe, Africa, and Asia. For this part of the map there are no earlier or contemporary prototypes of kindred character for comparison, and indeed (except in respect of Iceland) no representations with much apparent analogy can be cited before the late 16th century.
It is drawn as a rough rectangle, with a prominent west-pointing peninsula in the northwest, the EW axis being considerably longer than the N-S axis. The northernmost point of Vinland is shown in about the same latitude as the south coast of Iceland and somewhat lower than the north coast of Greenland; and its southernmost point in about the latitude of Brittany.
Residual from the representation described under the previous name, the large elliptical island being suppressed. Buyslaua = Breslau (Bratislava), where Carpinia€™s party stopped on the outward journey and was joined by Friar Benedict. Ayran (NE of the Caspian) Perhaps Sairam in Turkestan, a station on the old highway, east of Chimkent and N.E. Vinlanda Insula a Byarno re pa et leipho socijs [Island of Vinland, discovered by Bjarni and Leif in company].
The links between the map and the surviving texts which accompany it strongly suggest that it was designed to illustrate C. There is a decided incongruity between, on the one hand, the care and finish which characterize the writing of the names and legends, with their generally correct Latinity, and, on the other hand, the occurrence of onomastic errors which knowledge of current maps and geographical texts or reference to the prototype used by the compiler would have corrected. If we are justified in supposing the scribe who made the surviving transcript of the map to have been ignorant or naive in matters of geography, the draft which he had before him for copying must have been the product of selection and combination already exercised by the compiler. The evidence, internal and external, which indicates that the manuscripts were produced in the Upper Rhineland in the second quarter of the 15th century can only apply to the map included in the codex.
In its representation of Europe, Africa, and Asia it can be referred to, and collated with, not only extant cartographic works of similar character and design, but also a text which is bound in the same volume and to which its content is clearly related.
This information was limited in its scholarly impact by the failure of historians to find any other evidence of continuity or to discover that the evidence contained in the Map had ever been known to anyone concerned with exploration either before Columbusa€™s voyage or after. In respect of toponymy, as of outline and design, the correspondences between this map and Biancoa€™s world map of 1436 are almost certainly too extensive to be explained by coincidence.
Some of these anomalies (Aipusia, aben, Maori) are plainly the product of truncation or corruption in transcription, and indicate that the draftsman lacked the knowledge to correct his own errors in copying. In Asia however, while a number of names and the basic geographical design derive from O1, the authority of the Tartar Relation of other Carpini information generally prevails in the toponymy. The names for Iceland and Greenland may point to literary sources, perhaps of Norse origin (these names, however may have been in cartographic sources used by the compiler); so, with more certainty, do the name and legends relating to Vinland.
For Europe and Africa, Biancoa€™s world map has considerably more names than the Vinland map; in Asia the balance is redressed by the introduction of names from the Tartar Relation.
The lucky accident that his sources for the Old World can be easily identified or reconstructed allows us to hazard some inferences about his treatment of his sources for the Atlantic part of his map. Patristic geography, as formulated in the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville (7th century, #205), envisaged the habitable world as a disc, the orbis terrarum of the Romans encircled by the Ocean and divided into three unequal parts, Europe and Africa occupying one half and Asia the other half of the orbis, with the Earthly Paradise in the east.
A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustos accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Ottoman Period,1299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands.
In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1326 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule. They find a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule.The Jews greet the Ottomans as saviours.
Some Jews and other non-Muslims are forced to work in labour camps to pay off debts to the Government.
Louis Fishman is assistant professor of Middle East history at Brooklyn College City University of New York. There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically). A second edition by Abraham Ortelius was published in Antwerp in 1598 as part of his Theatri Orbis Terrarum Parergon which contained eight of the twelve sections of the Table. Such dating is suggested by the three personifications placed on Rome, Constantinople (labeled Constantinoplis, not Byzantium) and Antioch; and it fits in well enough with biblical references on the map.
The second page, comprising Segments III and IV, shows Italy with surrounding islands and landforms bordering adjacent seas. In his will of 1508, the humanist Konrad Celtes of Vienna left to Konrad Peutinger (in whose hands it had been since the previous year) what he called Itinerarium Antonini.
They suggest that, whether or not the term itinerarium pictum [painted itinerary] was in current use, it is a convenient phrase for this unique map. But owing to the personification the city surround is formally shown as a circle, enlarged in proportion to the very narrow width of the Italian peninsula.
Nearby is a high column (rather than a lighthouse) surmounted by the statue of a warrior, presumably Constantine the Great. Apart from the personifications, cartographic signs include representations of harbors, altars, granaries, spas, and settlements. The most northerly place extant in Britain appears as Ad Taum; but it is very far removed from the river Tay. On the Gulf of Naples, marked as being six Roman miles from Herculaneum and three miles each from Pompeii and Stabiae [Castellammare di Stabia], is shown a large building with the name Oplont[i]s. The delta itself is shown in less compressed form from south to north than most parts of the Peutinger Map.
A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc.
Despite its overall deformation, the distances, at least between the main cities, are defined with sufficient accuracy. The deformations of the coastline course and of the geo-shapes in Tabula makes today its reading unfamiliar and complicated for the non-experts, but the thematic information contained is considered of great significance, mostly for the depiction and the semantics of the ancient road net- works in late roman antiquity.
From that port, travelers crossed by sea to Dyrrachion and Apollonia and then on to Clodiana, passing various stations on the way around Lake Ohrid to the north, entering Macedonia toward Thessalonike. A number of natural characteristics are represented also in graphic form, for example, mountain ranges (Monte Taurus), rivers (fl. We have to note the absence of Alexandria which is represented with the use of a big lighthouse as symbol, but without a name, fact that is considered a copyista€™s error.
The first, exterior harbor that later was used only as space of reception of boats they were separated from the interior with a peninsula with the imperial Palatium, the theatre, the baths and the Forum. Petrum, close to Rome, a reference to the Basilica that was built in the Vatican hill (Mons Vaticanus), by Constantine the Great and his mother Helen in the place of Circus Neronianus, inaugurated in the 326 A.D. Third level cities are numerous and constitute the provincial capitals, followed by groups of settlements with military, commercial, administrative, religious and recreational functions (walled cities, commercial centers, public administrative buildings, temples, thermal installations), while at the bottom of the hierarchy belong the towns (mansio) and villages (mutatio). However, at the settlements level, we consider that the map represents symbolically, but with precision, the hierarchy of network, fact that is particularly useful for the study of regional and urban organization of late antiquity. There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically).A  No copies of the original have survived but a copy of it, now in Vienna, was purportedly made in 1265 by a monk at Colmar who fortunately contented himself with adding a few scriptural names, and who seems to have omitted nothing important that appeared in the original.
A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc.A  The digital copy of the Biblioteca Augustana emanates from 1888 Konrad Millera€™s publication. The events being planned - symposiums, conferences, concerts, exhibitions, films and books, restoration of ancient Synagogues etc - commemorated the longevity and prosperity of the Jewish community. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire.
As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey. Now one newspaper survives: SALOM (Shalom), a fourteen to sixteen pages weekly in Turkish with one page in Judeo-Spanish. Both cities have homes for the aged (Moshav Zekinim) and several welfare associations to assist the poor, the sick, the needy children and orphans. A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustos accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Ottoman Period,299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands. Under Sultan Beyazit II ( 1481-1512 ) Jews persecuted in Spain and Portugal were encouraged to establish themselves in the Ottoman Empire.
As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire.
Shlomo haLevi Alkabescomposed the Lekhah Dodi a hymn which welcomes the Sabbath according to both Sephardic and Ashkenazi ritual. The same year the Takkanot haKehilla (By-laws of the Jewish Community) was published, defining the structure of the Jewish community. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was elected president, the Caliphate was abolished and a secular constitution was adopted. Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system. Fifty Lay Counsellors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen runs the daily matters.
Now one newspaper survives: SALOM (Shalom), a fourteen to sixteen pages weekly in Turkish with one page in Judeo-Spanish. There are several Jewish professors teaching at the Universities of Istanbul and Ankara, and many Turkish Jews are prominent in business, industry, liberal professions and journalism. This map is drawn on the last page of a heavily annotated manuscript below another, Sallust-type map. The original of the text of Lucana€™s Pharsalia (or, a€?Civil Wara€?, as many scholars call it) was written in 61-65 CE, approximately a century after the events it chronicles. There are two rivers emerging from the Tanais is and the Nile, connecting them to the surrounding ocean in a slanted path. These are the Numidi, Libie, Armeni and Medi (Numidians, Libians, Armenians and Medes), with Perse [Persians] further to the south, each shown with linear borders. It is accompanied by some other sketches, none of which contain any associated text in the Bible that houses them. The zones in the map are therefore shown as vertical divisions at the two extremities of which we intemperata [extreme] zones.
The Mediterranean Sea, here called Affricum mare, separates Europe from Africa and the rivers Thanais and Nylus are the borders between Asia-Europe and Africa-Europe respectively. The central sector is topped by Paradise, followed up by the names India, Parthia, Assyria, Persida, Media, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Arabia, Syria, Palesinta, Ascelonia and Antiochia. Britannia, here most probably refers to the French region of Brittany rather than Britain, which is already shown with the names of its constituent provinces. The map is located at the end of the poem and contains 59 geographical names, in addition to the cardinal directions and the 12 winds. The book includes this map, which is a Sallust type of map and contains a few of the toponyms included in the poem.
In Europe the names shown include the river Danubius [the river Danube] Ungaria, Germania, Italia and Roma.
This feature is mentioned by Isidore in XIV.4, and in the diagram forms an elbow or Y-shape. The V-in-square figure does not correlate Noaha€™s sons with the worlda€™s partes, which are nowhere included: the name Shem written inside the a€?Va€? cannot be said to a€?indicatea€? Asia, nor Japheth at left Europe, nor Ham at right Africa. This map has a great deal of detail in Africa, as it was designed to illustrate Sallusta€™s history of Jugurthaa€™s revolt against Rome. The remaining part, the extension or neck, is occupied by a calendar and two tables with inscriptions relating to the calendar.
The names of various locations are written in either red or black ink, always on the inside of a small box or cartouche. The three known continents, Europa, Africa, and Axia, underlined on the map for emphasis, are harmoniously placed (in part) around the Mediterranean Sea, drawn tolerably with exactness like the European portolan [nautical] charts, and (on the other hand) around the Indian Ocean, which is decorated with multi-colored archipelagos similar to the Arab maps.
A large gulf that opens into the ocean carries the notation Dara Four Asiner close to some islands.
On the shores of the Indian Ocean there are the kingdoms of Mimdar and Madar [Malabar?], along with many islands with the following note which, without a doubt, relates to Sri Lanka: Ysola d alegro suczimcas magna.
This suggests that when making the de Virga map, the mapmaker copied a Chinese map and left this remark unchanged. The first, a 1409 sea chart, shows the Mediterranean and Black Seas as well as the eastern Atlantic shores up to the southern Baltic region, incorporating the British Isles. Medieval European cartographers knew the world was round and would have known how to represent areas that a€?spilled overa€? to the west or east. We also need to ask why a cartographer would fail to name a poorly known region if, indeed, he was familiar with it. However, de Virgaa€™s depiction of the Atlantic coast suggests that even this cartographera€™s ability to conceptualize coastlines could not entirely transcend gaps in the information available to him. Nevertheless, it would have been difficult for de Virga to visualize the intricacies of the Baltic entrance solely from descriptions of the rounding of the Skaw, the route south along the east coast of SjA¦lland taken to pass through the sound, and the passage east (actually, east followed by northeast) into the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, Bothnian Bay freezes over so early in the winter and is so often bedeviled by heavy fogs that few sailed those waters in the early 15th century. Repeated trade restrictions prevented trading farther up the coast, however, at least legally. Nobody could describe its shape and extent, but on several maps of the early 15th century Norway appears as a rectangle framed and bisected by mountains. Adam of Bremena€™s writing about the North depended more on the European accounts available to him than on the information brought to him by the Danes, and medieval Norse literature demonstrates greater awareness of Adama€™s writing, as well as other European geographical and cosmographical works, than of information derived directly from their own northern background. No published author has been more fervently convinced of a cartographical record of Norse transatlantic sailings than the German Ptolemaic scholar Father Josef Fischer, S.J.
The map was analyzed by Doctor Professor Franz von Wieser, of the University of Vienna, a well-known Austrian cartographical scholar. We can discount a sudden discovery that the map was fake, for no one doubts its authenticity. He may have found the time ripe to rebut his former mentora€™s criticism of his views on Norse cartography. Father Fischer was still at the Jesuit college of Stella Matutina in Feldkirch and would soon have felt both the worsening relations between Germany and Austria and the anti-Catholicism of the Nazis. It would have made little difference to Becker-Walz in the long run if she had converted to Christianity, as Figdor in his time had done.
Those wishing to hasten the process might start by looking into the fate of Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband Ernst Walz, an important Jewish citizen of Heidelberg and a defiant supporter of the Weimar Republic to the republica€™s bitter end.
It was not until more than a century later that Francisco Pizarro, a Spaniard, finally reached Peru. Interest has been virtually international in scope and has covered every aspect pertinent to a document purported to be of seminal historical significance: its historical context, linguistics, paleography, cartography, paper, ink, binding, a€?worminga€?, provenance or pedigree, etc. The Tartar Relation itself was initially bound as part of a series of volumes containing 32 books of Vincent of Beauvaisa€™ (1190-1264) Speculum Historiale [Mirror of History]. Clearly, Painter points out, any circulation that the Tartar Relation may have had in separate form was too limited, in view of the normal wastage of medieval manuscripts, to ensure its transmission to the present day.
Based upon various internal and external evidence, it is likely that the juxtaposition of the Speculum Historiale and Tartar Relation first occurred prior to the drafting of the Yale manuscript of 1440, but sometime after the 1255 date of the original production of the Speculum, so that the Yale manuscript is itself a copy of an earlier manuscript, now unknown, in which the Speculum Historiale, Tartar Relation and Vinland map were already conjoined. The Yale manuscript contains only Books XXI-XXIV, and comparative calculations indicate that 65 leaves are missing that could account for the table and text of Book XX (these four Books cover the history from 411 A.D. The physical association of the map with the manuscript is demonstrated beyond question by three pairs of wormholes which penetrate its two leaves and are in precise register with those in the opening text leaves of the Speculum.
These texts may have included, in addition to the surviving books (XXI-XXIV) of the Speculum and the Tartar Relation, other books of the Speculum conjectured to have formed the missing quires and a lost final volume of the original codex. The nomenclature is densest in Asia, where it is largely borrowed from the Tartar Relation or a similar text.
Moreover, in the light thrown on the cartographera€™s work-methods and professional personality by his treatment of sources which are to some extent known, we may visualize his mode of compilation or construction from materials which have not come down to us.
The elliptical outline is interrupted, in its western quadrant, by the Atlantic Ocean and by the gulfs or seas of Western Europe, and in its eastern by a great gulf named Magnum mare Tartarorum; the curvilinear outline is however continued southeastward from Northern Asia by the coasts of the large islands at the outer edge of this gulf. The features common to both maps, and in some cases peculiar to them, are sufficiently numerous and marked (as their detailed analysis will demonstrate) to place it beyond reasonable doubt that the author of the Vinland map had under his eyes, if not Biancoa€™s world map, one which was very similar to it or which served as a common original for both maps. Some apparent differences in the rendering of particular major regions in the Vinland map, which may be due to the use of a different cartographic prototype or simply to negligence by the copyist, are discussed in the detailed analysis which follows. The distinctive shapes in which Bianco draws the Adriatic, Aegean, and Black Seas reappear in the Vinland map. This seems a more probable explanation of the feature than to suppose that it represents the gulf of the northern ocean supposed by medieval geographers to cut into the Scandinavian coast and drawn in various forms by cartographers of the 14th and 15th centuries, from Vesconte to Fra Mauro. The a€?Danubea€? is shown as rising just south of the Baltic and turning eastward in about the position of Poland; at this point it forks, and a branch flows in a general southeasterly direction to fall into the Aegean. Beyond it the coast line, conventionally drawn, trends southeastward with two estuaries or bays similarly shown by both cartographers, although the anonymous map has a slight difference in the river pattern. They have in common the precise tracing of the northwest coast as far south as Cape Bojador, and if they shared a common prototype, this (it might be supposed) could not have been executed before the voyage of Gil Eannes in 1434. The latter repeats Biancoa€™s anachronistic reference to the Beni-Marin and his erroneous location of two names; but these aberrations, which appear to be peculiar to Bianco, do not help in dating.
This concept is the Magnum mare Tartarorum with, lying beyond it and within the encircling ocean, three large islands which appear to derive from the cartographera€™s interpretation of passages in C. This great sea is connected in the north with the world ocean by a passage named as mare Occeanum Orientale [the eastern ocean sea]. The Tartar Relation also states that the Tartars have one city called a€?Caracarona€™ (Karakorum) but this city does not appear on the Vinland map.
The elimination of East Asia by the western shoreline of the Sea of the Tartars has affected the distribution of place names in the Vinland map and its delineation of the hydrography.
The location and arrangement of the names cannot, in general, be connected with Carpinia€™s itinerary (or any other itinerary order), nor with any systematic conception of Central Asian geography.
The affinity between the two world maps, in this respect, is so marked as to distinguish them from all other surviving 15th century maps and to confirm the hypothesis that one has been copied from the other or that both go back to a common model for their drawing of the Atlantic islands. These islands (unnamed in the two world maps) are Satanaxes and Antillia, which make their first appearance in a map of 1424 and have been the subject of extensive discussion by historians of cartography. Greenland, somewhat larger than Iceland, is dog-legged in shape, with its greatest extension from north to south. Between these points Vinland is drawn as an elongated island, the greatest width being roughly a third of the overall length; the somewhat wavy details of the outline, if compared with this cartographera€™s technique in other parts of his map, seem to be conventional rather than realistic.
To facilitate location of the name and legends on the original map, numbers have been added, keying them to the reproduction at the end of this section.
Presumably intended for the Orkneys and Shetlands, or one of these groups and the Faeroes]. The form (for Dania) common in mediaeval cartography, and found in many charts and world maps. Mediaeval world maps commonly show a pair of such legends, indicating the regions, outside the oikoumene, too cold or too hot for human habitation.
Although the second word is truncated, no trace of further letters can be seen in ultraviolet light. The name is, however, placed too far inland and too far east for Mauretania, and this may be a corruption of another name in the prototype, e.g.
The concept of the Western Nile, or a€?Nile of the Negroesa€?, represented in mediaeval cartography arose from the identification of the Niger, by some classical writers, as a western branch of the Nile and from subsequent confusion of the Niger, the Senegal, and the Rio do Ouro (south of C. Although of diverse languages it is said that they believe in one God and in our Lord Jesus Christ and have churches in which they can pray].
The remaining children of Israel also, admonished by God, crossed toward the mountains of Hemmodi, which they could not surmount]. This name is placed in the approximate position of India media of Andrea Bianco, who (like most medieval geographers) distinguished three Indiasa€”minor, media, and superior. According to Carpini, one of the nations of the Mongols: a€?a€¦ Su-Mongal, or Water-Mongols, though they called themselves Tartars from a certain river which flows through their country and which is called Tatar (or Tartar)a€?. The Khitai, who ruled in China for three centuries before the Mongol conquests under Ogedei and Kublai, a€?originated the name of Khitai, Khata or Cathay, by which for nearly 1,000 years China has been known to the nations of Inner Asiaa€?. Carpinia€™s statement that a€?they called themselves Tartars from a certain river which flowed through their countrya€? (see above, under Zumoal) reflects the opinion of other 13th century writers, such as Matthew Paris. In medieval cartography generally Thule is represented as an island north or NW of Great Britain; some writers identified it as Iceland.
The name and delineation probably embody the mapmakera€™s interpretation of what he had read or been told of the Caspian Sea. The last phrase of the legend is inconsistent with the geographical ideas of the Mongols, contrasting with those of the Franks, as reported by Rubruck: a€?as to the ocean sea they [the Tartars] were quite unable to understand that it was endless, without boundsa€?. These islands, and the Postreme Insule, are associated with the cartographic concepts in the two preceding legends (see notes on Magnum mare Tartarorum and on Tartari a rmant . This is written in the center (between the fourth and fifth, counting from the north) of the chain of seven unnamed islands extending in a line N-S from the latitude of Brittany to that of C.
The name is placed westward of, and between, two large unnamed islands, to which it plainly refers. In no other map or text is the form Isolanda found, or the epithet Ibernica annexed to the name for Iceland. The Icelandic name Groenland, in variant forms (including the latinization Terra viridis), is used in all early textual sources.
1001 rest on the sole authority of the a€?Tale of the Greenlandersa€? in the 14th-century Flatey Book. What other undetected changes or corruptions the copyist may have introduced into the final draft we cannot tell, since his original, the compilera€™s preliminary draft, is lost. For its delineation of lands in the north and west Atlantic, the cartographic prototypes (if it had any) either have not survived or have been so transformed as to be difficult to identify; and if the codex once included a text relating to these lands, this too has now disappeared.
Finally, the inscriptions on Greenland and Vinland in the Map offered a few scraps of information which differed somewhat from what was commonly accepted. 1440 on the argument that it is in the same hand as the Tartar Relation, of which the Map is held to be an integral part. It seems to be an inescapable inference that the author of the Vinland map (or of its immediate original) employed no eclectic method of selection and compilation from a variety of sources, but was content to draw on a single map, which must have been very like Biancoa€™s, for the majority of the names, as well as the outlines, in Europe, Africa, and part of Asia. Thus, in Europe, Ierlanda insula may perhaps arise from his misinterpretation of O1 or of some other map in which the names for Ireland and for the islands north of Scotland misled him; and Buyslava may come from the reports of the Carpini mission. The degradation of names from this source points again to carelessness or ignorance in the copyist, although in one instance - Gogus, Magog - he, or the compiler of O2, has emended the debased form (moagog) in the Tartar Relation by reference to O1. In the absence of the prototype O1, we cannot say whether its author or the compiler of the Vinland map was responsible for introducing the few names in the Old World which must have come from classical or medieval literary sources and the nomenclature for the Atlantic islands. His apparent preference for the simple solution or the single source admits the possibility that the western part of his map also derives, in the main, from one prototype rather than that it combines features from several; it may have been modified by interpolation or correction from another source (as is the representation of Asia from the Tartar Relation), and this too must be taken into account. This theoretical and schematic construction did not necessarily imply belief in a a€?flat eartha€?, although it is uncertain whether Isidore himself admitted the sphericity of the earth. They are officially recognised as dhimmi,a protected non-Muslim community.,1326 The Ottoman capture Bursa and make in their capital.
A letter sent by Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati (from Edirne) to Jewish communities in Europe in the first part of the century"invited his co-religionists to leave the torments they were enduring in Christiandom and to seek safety and prosperity in Turkey". (3)When Mehmet II "the Conqueror" took Constantinople in 1453, he encountered an oppressed Romaniot (Byzantine) Jewish community which welcomed him with enthusiasm.
In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Samuel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul. Fifty Lay Counsellors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen runs the daily matters.
Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community. A Turkish militant Islamic group claims responsibility for the attacks but the level of sophistication suggest involvement of international terror organizations.
Numerous other engraved reproductions were made until 1753 when it was finally reproduced in its entirety. The map does not conform to the rules of any projection, nor is it possible to apply a constant scale to determine distances from place to place; for these measurements we have to refer to the figures written in by the author. In the extant map a north-south road tends to appear at only a slightly different angle from an east-west one, and distances are calculated not by the mapa€™s scale but by adding up the mileages of successive staging posts.
This was not justified as a title: it is indeed a road map, but not connected with the Antonine emperors and different from the Antonine Itineraries.
The distances are normally recorded in Roman miles, but for Gaul they are in leagues, for Persian lands in parasangs, and for India evidently in Indian miles.


The Via Triumphalis is indicated as leading to a church of Saint Peter; the words ad scm [sanctum] Petrum are given in large minuscules on the medieval copy. Antioch has a similar female personification, perhaps originating in a statue of the Tyche [fortune] of the city, together with arches of an aqueduct or possibly of a bridge.
This name, however, really consists of the ends of [Ven]ta [Icenor]um (Caistor Saint Edmund, Norwich), and the only unusual feature is ad, which may have belonged to an adjacent name. The distributaries of the Nile are shown to have many islands, three of them marked with temples of Serapis, three with temples of Isis, while the roads are somewhat discontinuous. The corpus of late antique cartography comprises two categories of sources: sources in written form (itineraria scripta) and depicted documents (itineraria picta).
The map depicts the road network in the Roman Empire, almost 70,000 roman miles long which equals roughly 104,000 km of roads length and sea routes.
This road was the continuation of the great military highway that began on the shores of the North Sea, ascended the valley of the Rhine, passed through Milan and Aquileia and then descended the valley of the Drava to cross the Sava River at Sirmium [Mitrovica]. It passed through Lychnidos and Herakleia Lynkestis (Bitola) and continued passing Lake Vegoritis and descending the upper valley of the Aliakmon to Pella.
The interior harbor was delimited by the deposits of unloading of boats and a gallery (porticus), which were renovated by Constantine the Great.
The presence of Jerusalem in the map is of small importance, as the text next to her, that a€?first was called Jerusalem, but now Aelia Capitolinaa€?, makes reference to the emperor Adrian who gave this name to the city. Developing further the information it contains, scholars generally think that the Tabula Peutingeriana, despite the inaccuracy of the design, despite the fact that it does not obey to any type of projectional system, still constitutes an epitome of geographic knowledge of late antiquity, knowledge that is precious for the study of the historical geography of the Roman Empire. Historisch-geographischer AbriAY ihres mittelalterlichen Staates im A¶stlichen Mittelmeerraum (Byz.
As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag.
The historian Josephus Flavius relates that Aristotle "met Jewish people with whom he had an exchange of views during his trip across Asia Minor."Ancient synagogue ruins have been found in Sardis, Miletus, Priene, Phocee, etc. The Pope had no other alternative than to release them, the Ottoman Empire being the "Super Power" of those days.y 1477, Jewish households in Istanbul numbered 1647 or 11% of the total. Jewish women such as Dona Gracia Mendes Nasi "La Seniora" and Esther Kyra exercised considerable influence in the Court.In the free air of the Ottoman Empire, Jewish literature flourished.
As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces.World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire. Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system.
There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi.Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi. They are officially recognised as dhimmi,a protected non-Muslim community.1326 The Ottoman capture Bursa and make in their capital. Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community.1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion.
Over time Judeo-Spanish would be phased out and Turkish takes hold as the Jewish communities mother tongue.1933 Turkey recruits German Jewish academics facing Nazi discriminative policies in order to strengthen Istanbul and Ankara universities.
A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.
Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties. During World War II Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi.
Representatives of Jewish foundations and institutions meet four times a year as a so-called ??think tank??
Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century. In the accompanying Flemish manuscript, as is common, the Jugurthine War is bound with Sallusta€™s account of the conspiracy of Catiline.
Above the left arm is a vignette of a castellated city, representing Jerusalem (somewhat rubbed).
According to Sallust these were the tribes, which form the ancestral line of the present day North Africans.
The map seems to have been prepared in Germany and above it there is a diagram showing the four branches and sub-branches of philosophical knowledge, though also have no connection with the map. The Temperate Zone, which includes the inhabited world, is widened and occupies a large portion of the map and is itself shown in the T-O format. The two sloping lines at the western end of the Mediterranean, near the ocean are named Calpes, to Rock of Gibraltar, with Gades [Spanish city of Cadiz] situated in their middle. The Biblical provinces of Samaria, Galylea, Judea and Hierusalem follow the inscription ASIA.
Oriented to the East, the areas marked off in the North and South may be the remnant of a zonal map. In addition to having the T-O map layout, the map also boasts two double vertical lines at the northern and southern fringes of the inhabited world, dividing the world into three climatic zones. The triangular shape at the western end of the Mediterranean, near the ocean is inscribed Calpe, Latin for the a€?Rock of Gibraltara€?.
The text in the southern hemisphere describes the universe surrounding the earth a€?like the white of an egga€™. The scribe also included the cardinal directions and the names of Noaha€™s three sons, as well as a small cross in the East. Rather, the V-in-square functions precisely to offer an alternative to the tripartition of the T-O; the former epitomizes the distribution of peoples according to passages in Etym. These are sometimes capped by a crown or by a picture of a castle, which indicates the principle countries or kingdoms. According to its principle commentator Franz Von Wieser, the de Virga map presents itself in some ways a€?like a compromise between the classical medieval world maps and the map of seaportsa€?. In the southeast, out in the middle of the Indian Ocean, is a large island provided with the note: Caparu sive Java magna, which includes in only one piece of land the distinct geographic features of Zipangu [Japan] and of Java, gathered from Marco Polo. This entire portion of the parchment, separate from the map proper, seems to have been copied from part of some astronomical tables dating from the beginning of the 14th century. The second, a world map, dates from sometime between 1411 and 1414 (a fold of the parchment at the narrow strip between the zodiacal calendar and the map obscures the last digit(s) of the date).
The Inventio Fortunatae, though lost, appears to have been real enough, but it is highly unlikely that it was written by Nicholas of Lynn.
De Virgaa€™s fellow Venetian cartographers, Andrea Bianco (#241) and Fra Mauro (#249), accorded Norway plenty of space in 1436 and 1459, respectively. The Book of Roger, which accompanied al-Idrisia€™s maps, says that Ireland, which lies west of the a€?deserted islanda€? of Scotland, is a very large island. Gilhofer & Ranschburg announced an auction to be held on June 14-15, in Lucerne, featuring many rare items from the Russian Tsara€™s library at Zarskoje-Selo as well as the de Virga world map, a large photograph of which introduced the catalog. Nor would Becker-Walz have decided that she or someone close to her needed it for cartographical study, for there was no such scholar in her family. By April of 1934 Stella Matutinaa€™s large contingent of German students had to transfer to Saint Blaise in Switzerland because the Austrian Jesuit school could no longer grant them valid diplomas. He arrived at the shores of a southern mainland that was already named a€?Peru.a€? And it was already included on Chinese, Venetian, and Portuguese maps.
The choice of the name Vinland and the appearance of this Norse discovery prominently displayed on the map was what attracted such immense popular and scholarly attention. All indications (paper, binding, paleography, etc.) point to an Upper Rhineland (Basle?) source of origin for the present three-part manuscript.
This foregoing explanation or scenario has been the one put forward by the a€?believersa€™. The sources of all of the names and each of the legends are examined in great detail in Skelton, et ala€™s The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation. We may even catch a glimpse of these materials, as they are reflected in the Vinland map, and of the channels by which they could have reached a workshop in Southern Europe (this assumes that the ascription of the manuscript to a scriptorium of the Upper Rhineland is valid). The only parts of the design which fall outside the elliptical framework are the representations of Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, in the west, and (less certainly) the outermost Atlantic islands and the northwest-pointing peninsular extension of Scandinavia. If this original was circular, the anonymous cartographera€™s elongation of the outline to form an ellipse may be explained by his choice of a pattern into which elements not in the original, notably his delineation of Greenland and Vinland and his elaboration of the geography of Asia, could be conveniently fitted, perhaps also, or alternatively, by the need to fill the rectangular space provided by the opening of a codex. The Peloponnese and the peninsula in the southwest of Asia Minor are treated with the anonymous cartographera€™s customary exaggeration. On the source of this farrago, which is in marked contrast with the relatively correct river pattern drawn in Central Europe by Bianco and the chart makers, it is perhaps idle to speculate; it seems to involve a confusion of the Oder, the lower Danube, and the Struma.
Yet this section of coast had been laid down in very similar form on earlier maps; as Kimble puts it, a€?Cape Non ceased to be a€?Caput finis Africaa€™ about the middle of the 14th centurya€?, and a€?the ocean coast as far as Cape Bojador (more correctly, as far as the cove on its southern side) was known and mapped from the time of the Pizzigani portolan chart (1367)a€™a€™. Nor was the transference of the Prester John legend to Africa a novelty in the middle of the 15th century. Against the most northerly island is inscribed Insule Sub aquilone zamogedorum [Northern islands of the Samoyeds]; then in the center Magnum mare Tartarorum. It may be recalled here that there is nothing in the Tartar Relation referring to Greenland and Vinland. The four streams issuing from Eden, shown by Bianco as the headwaters of two rivers flowing west and falling into the Caspian Sea from the northeast and south, have disappeared from the Vinland map, in which we see only the two truncated rivers entering the Caspian from the east and south respectively. They appear, rather, to be dictated by the cartographera€™s need to lay down names where the design of the map allowed room for them. In point of date, Biancoa€™s atlas of 1436 is the third known work to show the Antillia group, and the fourth chart of the atlas names the two major islands y de la man satanaxio and y de antillia.
Its outline, on the east side, is deeply indented and in the form of a bow, the northeast coast trending generally NW-SE to the most easterly point, and the southeast coast trending NNE-SSW to a conspicuous southernmost promontory, in about the latitude of north Denmark; from this point the west coast runs due north, again with many bays, to an angle (opposite the easternmost point) after which it turns NW and is drawn in a smooth unaccidented line to its furthest north, turning east to form a short section lying WE. The island is divided into three great peninsulas by deep inlets penetrating the east coast and extending almost to the west coast.
This legend, the first part of it seems to be distilled from references to the defeat of a€?Nestoriansa€? by Genghis Khan and their diffusion in Asia.
The course of the river of the Tartars, as depicted in the Vinland Map, recalls Rubrucka€™s statement that the Etilia (i.e. The Vinland Mapa€™s location of the name, in the extreme north of Eurasia, places Thule (as Ptolemy and other classical authors did) under the Arctic Circle. The name Magnum Mare was applied by Carpini and Friar Benedict to the Black Sea while Rubruck called it Mare maius. As the examples already cited show, the name Insulee Sancti Brandani (in variant forms) is commonly ascribed by chart makers to the Azores-Madeira chain.
Medieval mapmakers, from the 10th century (Cottonian map, Book II, #210) onward called the Island or Ysland (v.l. This legend on Vinland Map, if it faithfully reproduces a genuine record, accordingly authenticates Bjarnia€™s association with the discovery of Vinland and adds the significant information that he sailed with Leif.
They also prompt the suspicion that missing sections of the original codex may have been illustrated by the other novel part of the map, namely its representation of the lands of Norse discovery and settlement in the north and west of the Atlantic. In a map of this form, drawn like the circular mappaemundi, on no systematic projection, we do not of course expect to find graduation for latitude and longitude, even if the quantitative cartography of Ptolemy had been known to its author. If Biancoa€™s world map be assumed to have resembled, in form and content, the model followed by the compiler for the tripartite world, we can however assess the performance of the final copyist by comparison of his work with Biancoa€™s map, so far as it takes us. Bjarni, it was implied, had accompanied Lief on his first discovery of Vinland; Bishop Henricus, the Eirik of the annals, who was said there to have gone to look for Vinland, was stated to have found it, and at a different date.
Some students have been reluctant to accept these propositions; the provenance of the Map had not been established, the nomenclature also presents difficulties, as does the representation of certain topographical features, in particular the accurate delineation of Greenland, a point heavily stressed by the editors of The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation. For convenience of reference, this Bianco-type original, which has not survived, will be cited as O.
In Africa, Phazania must have been taken by the author of O1 or from Pliny or Ptolemy; and magnus fluuius (if not a coinage of the cartographer) perhaps from a geographical text of the 14th or early 15th century.
The names for Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, with the legend on Vinland, must, like their delineations, be held not to have been in O1.
Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community.,1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion.
In the early 19th century, Abraham de Camondo established a modern school, "La Escola", causing a serious conflict between conservative and secular rabbis which was only settled by the intervention of Sultan Abdulaziz in 1864. Representatives of Jewish foundations and institutions meet four times a year as a so-called ??think tank??
Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century. As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag.,A History Predating 1492 The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties.Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there. Also the Table was not apparently designed for military use, but instead gives prominence to trading centers, mineral springs, places of pilgrimage, mountain chains (in profile) and in three great cities (Rome, Constantinople and Antioch) set three rulers, believed to represent the sons of Constantine enthroned as symbols of a tripartite empire. 330 as a new Rome on the site of Byzantium, Antioch was recognized as the important bastion against the Parthians. A royal figure, probably a Pope, or perhaps an allegory of Christ the King is portrayed as representative of the city along with a building which resembles St.
It was first published in 1591 by Markus Welser, a relative of the Peutingersa€™ and since 1618 n has generally been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or translations of that phase. Nearby is the park of Daphne, dedicated to Apollo and other gods and famous for its natural beauty and as a leisure center. But since 1964 a large palace, which probably belonged to Neroa€™s empress PoppA¦a, has been excavated at Torre Annunziata, and it seems to authenticate the detail on the map. On the Sinai desert we find the words desertum ubi quadraginta annis erraverunt filii Israelis ducente Moyse [the desert where the children of Israel who wandered for forty years guided by Moses], and there are other biblical references. The itineraria scripta, compiled in Latin, were works designed to provide assistance for travelers. From there it crossed the Axios and the Echedoros (Gallikos) River before arriving at Thessalonica. With simpler representations are portrayed the passages between Europe and Asia, in present day Istanbul: Sycas in Europe), Chrisoppolis, in the Asiatic side (Figure 10). It becomes comprehensible that in the period of mapa€™s creation, Christianity, even if present, is not found in the center of interest, in the context of later roman empire. Half a century later, 8070 Jewish houses were listed in the city.The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. During World War II Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. 1934 As a result of pogroms in Edirne and Canakkale the majority of the Jews A±f Thrace migrate to Istanbul. They will ask you to complete a form giving details of a reference your adress in Turkey and the dates and times you wish to visit particular synagogues,ISTANBUL,After the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in1453 , Sultan Mehmet II ( the Conqueor 1451-1481 ) encouraged immigration to repopulate the city. While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure. The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today. What is less common is that the map appears in the Catiline section rather than in the Jugurtha text. The other arm bears the legend Egiptus, near which appears the rectangular shape of Mare Rubrum [Red Sea]. Above the map is a diagram of the structure of knowledge or philosophy, divided into the theoretical, practical and mechanical branches. At its southern border is the perusta [scorched] zone, which is followed by the Southern Temperate Zone, all unknown to mankind. The third sector of Asia, at the far right, contains the inscriptions Alexandria, Egyptus and Babylonia (in reality Cairo).
In short, this is a composite world map, drawn from a variety of sources and here included as relevant to the tale of Alexander, who conquered the world.
The two outer zones are the frigid zones, outside the habitable world and only the central part is shown as the habitable world, conforming to the T-O shape and divisions. This diagram appears for the first time in a pair of Spanish manuscripts from the 9th century. What is less common is that the map appears in the Catiline section rather than in the Jugurtha text.A  A teachera€™s notes on the details of Roman military organization, taken from Cincius, On Military Science, appear on the rim of the map. The omission of this island by any name also demonstrates, as does the rest of the map, that de Virga did not base his work on the Ptolemaic concepts that had barely begun to enter European thought at the time. Nevertheless, reports written by the Venetian nobleman Piero Querini and two of his crew about their enforced 1431 sojourn in the Norwegian Lofoten islands make it clear that Norway was as exotic to 15th century Italians as the Brazilian jungles were to 19th century European explorers.
As Father Fischera€™s mentor, von Wieser kindled the young scholara€™s interest in cartographical and historical material pertaining to the Norse discovery of America. The mapa€™s reserve price was set at 9,000 Swiss francs, and its connection with Figdor and von Wieser was noted. Most likely, someone gave her reason to believe the map would fetch a higher price if written up in a new study of hitherto unsuspected features in de Virgaa€™s work. All Jews at the university, including honorary professors like her husband, had to resign their positions by the end of that year. Western historians have given Pizarro credit for discovering Perua€”even though it was already discovered and mapped by somebody else. It must be noted that the textual content of these Books show no relationship with either the Vinland map or the Tartar Relation, but, instead, are to be seen within the context of all 32 Books of the Speculum Historiale. These two explanations, taken together, may account for a further modification probably made by the cartographer to his prototype. The outline of Spain is depicted with slight variation from Biancoa€™s, the Atlantic coast trending NNW (instead of northerly) and the north coast being a little more arched. Some have concluded that, if authentic, the Vinland map was not drawn primarily to illustrate the Tartar Relation.
The four longer legends written in Asia or off its coasts are all related, by wording or substance, with the Tartar Relation. Since the outline given to these two islands both in the world map and in the fourth chart of Biancoa€™s atlas is easily distinguishable from that in any 15th century representation of them, the concordance with the Vinland map in this respect is significant. Here we have at once the most arresting feature and the most exacting problem presented by this singular map.
The approximation of the east coast and of the southern section of the west coast to the outline in modern maps leaps to the eye. The more northerly inlet is a narrow channel trending ENE-SSW and terminating in a large lake; the more southerly and wider inlet lies roughly parallel to it. The second part of the legend relates to the medieval belief that the Ten Tribes of Israel who forsook the law of Moses and followed the Golden Calf were shut up by Alexander the Great in the Caspian mountains and were unable to cross his rampart.
The first to cross into this land were brothers of our order, when journeying to the Tartars, Mongols, Samoyedes, and Indians, along with us, in obedience and submission to our most holy father Pope Innocent, given both in duty and in devotion, and through all the west and in the remaining part [of the land] as far as the eastern ocean sea].
The cartographer has perhaps confused the Great Khan (Kuyuk) with Batu, Khan of Kipchak, whom the Carpini mission encountered on the Volga.
Hence their identification with the Tartars and their location by Marco Polo in Tenduc, with a probable reference to the Great Wall of China. Volga) flowed from Bulgaria Major, on the Middle Volga, southward, a€?emptying into a certain lake or sea .
Members of the Carpini party were somewhat confused about the courses of the rivers flowing into the two seas, supposing the Volga to enter the Black Sea. These are the Azores, laid down in charts with this position and orientation from the middle of the 14th century to the end of the 15th, and the Madeira group. The Vinland Map is the earliest known map to move the name further out into the ocean and apply it to the Antillia group, the word magnce being added to justify the attribution and make a clear distinction from the smaller islands to the east.
It might be said that the dominant interest of the compiler or cartographer lay in the periphery of geographical knowledge, to which indeed the accompanying texts relate; and such a polarization of interest is exemplified in the themes of the seven legends on the map.
He emerges from this test on the whole creditably, for the outlines of the two maps are (as we have seen) in general agreement. Much argument has centered around the possibility that Norse voyagers might have circumnavigated and charted its coasts, or provided a written description of them.
The fact that, in regard to a few names or delineations, the Vinland map seems to show affinities with charts in Biancoa€™s atlas of 1436, rather than with his world map, may suggest that O1 was of Biancoa€™s, or at any rate of Venetian authorship. Sinus Ethiopicus could have been deduced from Ptolemya€™s text; Andrea Biancoa€™s connection with Fra Mauro, in whose map this very name is found, and his conjectural association with O1 lend substance to the possibility that this name stood in O1, although corrupted in Biancoa€™s own world map. This hypothesis indeed, while it must be tested by collation of other extant maps from which the prototype may be reconstructed, has (prima facie) some support both from the analogy of the cartographera€™s treatment of the tripartite world and also from the uniformity of style which characterizes all parts of the drawing, alike in the east and in the west, in those parts where we know, and in those where we suspect, a cartographic model to have been followed. The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.,??The Museum of Turkish Jews??
Put the suggestion that this fourth century archetype was based on a much earlier map would account for the inclusion of Herculaneum, Oplontis, and Pompeii, which had been destroyed in the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D.
Peters Basilica (or the personage could be that of one of Constantinea€™s sons as previously mentioned). Even though the temple of Apollo was burned down in 362, there were many other temples, so that this is not necessarily a guide to the dating.
The sign for a spa is an ideogram of a roughly square building with an internal courtyard, often with a gabled tower at each end of the near side. Or again, a much earlier discovery near Aquileia in 1830 appears to correspond to an entry on the Peutinger Map.
There is also an area in central Asia labeled Hic Alexander responsum accepit usq[ue] quo Alexander [Here Alexander was given the oracular reply: a€?How far, Alexander?a€?]. They recorded a network of itineraries over a vast area and listed the cities and stations on the routes that crisscrossed the empire, together with the distances between them.
Then it followed the Lakes Koroneia and Volve before continuing to Apollonia and Amphipolis. The fact that Britannia, Spain and the western part of Africa are missing, leads scholars to suppose that part of the Tabula has been lost. Shlomo haLevi Alkabescomposed the Lekhah Dodi a hymn which welcomes the Sabbath according to both Sephardic and Ashkenazi ritual.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was elected president, the Caliphate was abolished and a secular constitution was adopted.
While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure. The column on the left begins with the region of Armenia and is then followed by Bitinia, Frigia, Galathya, Lidia, Boecia, Pamphilia and Niceia. Albertin diuirga me fecit in vinexia, the last number of the date having been erased by a fold in the parchment.
The Garden of Eden is depicted at the southernmost tip of Africa with the symbol of two concentric rings, from which emerge the four rivers mentioned in Genesis. This statement leaves no room for alternative interpretations of another a€?islanda€? that was supposedly North America. But in his 1912 published treatise on the de Virga map, von Wieser referred to Fischera€™s work only in a footnote, in which he refuted Fishera€™s conviction that the Danish cartographer Claudius Clavus had brought North America, as well as Greenland, into European cartography.
If so, a strong probability exists that those features had to do with the landmass in the northwest corner labeled Norveca.
Therefore, no proverbial rock has been left unturned in subjecting these manuscripts to all of the state-of-the-art technology and worldwide scholarly debate.
The Vinland map and Tartar Relation had become physically separated from the 15th century Vincent text and were later re-bound together as a separate volume in their present 19th century (Spanish) binding.
Some authorities speculate that possibly the link or actual reference to the Vinland portion of the map could be supplied in the missing 65 leaves. The northerly orientation of the map should perhaps be attributed to expediency rather than to the adoption of a specific cartographic model, for it enabled the names and legends to be written and read in the same sense as the texts which followed the map in the codex.
The latter, however, deserves credit for originality in his removal of the Earthly Paradise, an almost constant component of the mappamundi; for, as Kimble observes, a€?the vitality of the tradition was so great that this Garden of Delights, with its four westward flowing rivers, was still being located in the Far East long after the travels of Odoric and the Polos had demonstrated the impossibility of any such hydrographical anomaly, and the moral difficulties in the way of the identification of Cathay with Paradisea€?. Here again we have plain testimony to the derivation of the Vinland map from a cartographic prototype, and to the character of this prototype. The a€?shut-up nationsa€? were also identified with Gog and Magog and with the Tartars, who were held to be descended from the Ten Tribes.
In many 15th century charts the chain has (usually written in larger lettering to the north of Madeira) the general name Insule Fortunate Sancti Brandani, or variants. The alternative form Branzilio (or Branzilia), suggesting an association with the name of the legendary island of Brasil, is not found in any other surviving map. The chart-forms characteristic of Biancoa€™s style of drawing are not reproduced in the Vinland map; at what stage these disappeared we do not know, and they were not necessarily in the original model followed by the compiler. The historical statements about Vinland contained in the map, on the other hand, doubtless come from a textual source, as those in Asia and Africa can be shown to do. As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces.,,World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire. At the turn of the fifth - sixth centuries the world ocean was added and improvements were made to the seas; at about the same time, the influence of this map appears in a work by an anonymous cosmographer of Ravenna (#203), who made use of some new material recently added to his source.
Further south is the city of Naples drawn inland, next to it is a dark mound which might represent the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Inexplicably the word tabula has been translated a€?tablea€? rather than a€?picturea€? or a€?mapa€? in popular usage. There are fifty-two such buildings represented, of which twenty-eight are at places specifically called Aquae; in some other cases there is reason to think that a place so denoted had prominent baths. A large bathing establishment, mentioned also by the elder Pliny, was discovered on the lower reaches of the river Isonzo.
Perhaps these ample descriptions, whether Christian or pagan, were added on otherwise empty space about the fifth or sixth century A.D. The Itinerarium of Antoninus deals with the land and sea routes from western into Eastern Europe, from Gadeira (Cadiz, SW Spain) to Caesarea in Palestine and from the Crimea to Alexandria.
After that it crossed the lower course of the Strymon River and the north slopes of Mount Pangaion on its way to Philippoi, after which it headed south toward the sea again, reaching it at Neapolis (Kavala). Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Amman, 7-9 April 1997 (SBF Collectio Maior 40), Jerusalem 1999, p. 79 and not rebuilt, except for parts of Pompeii.A  It is also perhaps easier, on this supposition, to see why certain roads are omitted, such as the major routes through the Parthian empire mentioned in the Mansiones ParthicA¦ [Parthian Stations] of Isidorus of Charax. A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Sauel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul. Inside Europe there are only a few legends, the important ones being Europa, Hispania and Roma. The right column begins with Paradisus and is followed by India, Parthia, Media, Assiria, Persida, Mesopotamia, C[h]aldea, Arabia, Siria, Palestine, Anthiochia, Ascolonia, Samaria, Asia, Judea, I[e]r[usa]lem, Galilea and the legends in South Asia read Egypt, Alexandria, Babilonia.
Early exegetical tradition hesitated too rigidly to align Noachide inheritance with the geographic division of lands. That notwithstanding, the parchment is generally in good condition with some folds and tears that inhibit its readability. Those who remained after the infamous Kristallnacht (9a€“10 November 1938) were moved into a€?Jewish Housesa€? the following year. The result has been a polarization of many prominent authorities from many disciplines into three camps: the a€?believersa€™, the a€?nonbelieversa€™, and the a€?undecideda€™. Only through extremely fortunate circumstances did the ultimate reunion with this particular copy of Vincenta€™s manuscript occur, also in 1957, in Connecticut. The classical Insulae Fortunatae were the Canaries, the only group known in antiquity, and the association with St. The name Brasil, in many variants, was generally applied by cartographers of the 14th and 15th centuries (a) to a circular island off the coast of Ireland, and (b) to one of the Azores, perhaps Terceira; the variant forms of the name include Brasil, Bersil, Brazir, Bracir, Brazilli.
Eric [Henricus], legate of the Apostolic See and bishop of Greenland and the neighboring regions, arrived in this truly vast and very rich land, in the name of Almighty God, in the last year of our most blessed father Pascal, remained a long time in both summer and winter, and later returned northeastward toward Greenland and then proceeded [i.e. All the major divergences, in the geographical elements of the Vinland map, from the representation in Bianco can be traced to its compilera€™s reading of the Tartar Relation or to changes forced upon him by the design adopted. These instances suggest that the draftsman of the Vinland map, as we have it, may not have been its compiler, but that the map may have been copied from an immediate original or preliminary draft (having the same content) by a clerk or scribe who was no geographer and did not have access to the compilation materials.
Kemmodi) montes, where a borrowing from a classical text (such as Pomponius Mela), in which the rendering of the initial aspirate was retained, may be suspected; the form in the Vinland map could hardly have been derived from Ptolemya€™s.
Since the Ravenna cosmographer names a certain Castorius as the author of his source in connection with material also found in the Tabula Peutingeriana, it has been inferred by early historians that this was the makera€™s name for the original.
Segments V and VI illustrate the eastern Mediterranean by prominently showing the Grecian archipelago and present-day Turkey and Crete.
It is now time to call it the a€?Peutinger Mapa€? to avoid any misconception that the original image was somehow carved on a table or was like a statistical table. 365-66 all three personified cities were important, since the pretender Procopius had his seat of power in Constantinople, Valentinian I in Rome and his brother Valens in Antioch. There are also in the Peutinger Map places with cartographic signs for granaries, denoted as rectangular roofed buildings. This is probably the place given the cartographic sign for a spa, with the words Fonte Timavi [spring of the river Timavus]. In several areas research is in progress combining fieldwork with study of the Peutinger Map and of the history of place-names.
It must have taken its final form between 280 and 290 and is thought to be based on the figures provided by the department responsible for the cursus publicus, the roman imperial road office. After Neapolis, the Via Egnatia headed northeast, through Akontisma (3 km from modern Nea Karvali) and turned inland to Topeiros, where the Nestos River was crossed. In Istanbul the new immigrants settled mostly near the Balat quarter on the western bank of the Golden Horn where a Jewish community had existed since Byzantine times. The right side carries some tears that indicate that the map was nailed on this side to a wooden piece around which it was evidently rolled.
Bjornbo, as well as on personal correspondence with him, which ceased just before Bjornbo acknowledged that he had been wrong about Clavus. After 1940 most were deported to the Gurs concentration camp in the Pyrenees and to extermination camps in Germany. While the coupling of this name, in the Vinland map, with one from the Tartar Relation (Nimsini) may however mean that Hemmodi too came from a Carpini source, it is more likely that the cartographer was here trying to integrate his two sources. Additionally, the Community maintains in Istanbul a school complex including elementary and secondary schools for around 700 students. The overall form of the Colmar edition, which is the basic form of the Tabula as it has reached us today, must have been fixed at this period, about A.D.
The seventh Segment shows Cyprus, present-day Saudi Arabia, a large allegorical representation of the Holy City, and the area southeast to Mesopotamia.
The alternative naming of the Peutinger Map as the a€?world map of Castoriusa€? has met with very little support. But in fact, although Valens set out for Antioch, he was diverted to fight Procopius and he cannot be correctly associated with the last-named city. Its fresh waters by the sea were regarded as an unusual phenomenon and obviously worth mapping. Then continued eastward along the coast to Traianopolis and through Heraclea arrived to Constantinople (Figure 3). To the political and economic incentives was now added the desire of the pilgrims of the new Christian world to travel east to the Holy Land.
Jews also settled in villages along the western shore of the Bosphorus.GALATA,The area around the Galata Tower in Beyoglu is of prime interest to visitors touring the Jewish interest sites. The whole map is framed with a double line and the laced corners between the figures are adorned with oriental-style decoration.
It is unlikely that any of these Heidelberg Jews escaped the confiscation of their homes and property by the National Socialists that became the lot of almost every Austrian Jew after the Anschluss in 1938. The general name Desiderate insule given in Vinland Map to these islands is not found in any other map; the only explanation we can hazard is that it may allude to the Portuguese attempts at discovery and colonization of the Azores from, probably, 1427 onward. Turkish is the language of instruction, and Hebrew is taught 3 to 5 hours a week.,While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino). 500; although a few local corrections were made subsequently, for example, in the eighth and ninth centuries. Variants of a two-gabled building were used to depict some settlements, but most were distinguished by no more than a name. Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties.Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there.
Salahattin Ulkumen, Consul General at Rhodes in 1943-1944, was recognized by the Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile "Hassid Umot ha'Olam" in June 1990. The neighborhood has bustling street life the synagogues have great historical and artictic value,and all sites are within easy walking distance of one another.BALAT,This is another of the quarters in which Jews were settled after their expulsion from Spain enlarging a community which had lived here since Byzantine times. Turkey continues to be a shelter, a haven for all those who have to flee the dogmatism, intolerance and persecution.
The original roll at the time of its transcription in the early Middle Ages was of eleven sheets, but as such it was incomplete, since much of Britain, Spain, and the western part of North Africa were already missing at the time of copying; there may also have been an introductory sheet forming part of an earlier prototype version.
Attempts to differentiate between types of settlements on the map and to establish criteria for the attribution of signs have not been entirely successful. Turkey continues to be a shelter, a haven for all those who have to flee the dogmatism, intolerance and persecution. Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century. The handwriting is similar in character to that of the manuscript and shows the same idiosyncrasies in individual letters.a€™a€™ The map was therefore probably prepared by the scribe who copied the texts of the Speculum and the Tartar Relation.
The inner or western coasts of the three islands and the eastern coast of the mainland, fringing the Sea of the Tartars, have no counterpart in any known cartographic document, but are drawn with elaborate detail of capes and bays. This river has many other very large branches, besides that of Senega, and they are great rivers on this coast of Ethiopiaa€?. Now one newspaper survives: SALOM (Shalom), a fourteen to sixteen pages weekly in Turkish with one page in Judeo-Spanish.
It was evidently not, as was once thought, the work of the Dominican monk Konrad of Colmar, who in 1265 quite independently produced a mappamundi that he says he copied onto twelve parchment pages; the paleography suggests an earlier date. The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.??The Museum of Turkish Jews?? Though it once has as many as nineteen synagogues,only two of importance remain the famous Ahrida and the neighboring Yanbol. Considering that this sea represents (so far as we know) the cartographera€™s interpretation of a textual source, it may be suspected that the outline of its shores was seen by him in his minda€™s eye and not in any map. The second sheet of the Peutinger Map was treated as if it had been the first, with spellings of truncated names containing false initial capitals (for example, Ridumo for what was originally Moriduno). Hence a total of twelve sheets extant at the time of copying can be accounted for only by assuming that, when the copyist mentioned this number, he was including a title sheet. It is interesting to see that, just as there is one personification in the West and two in the East, so two cities of the second rank, symbolically given walls, are in the West and four in the East. Important cities like Carthage, Ephesus, and Alexandria are not shown with a distinctive sign. A letter sent by Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati (from Edirne) to Jewish communities in Europe in the first part of the century"invited his co-religionists to leave the torments they were enduring in Christiandom and to seek safety and prosperity in Turkey".
Today Ortakoy has become part of the Istanbul metropolis and is a fashionable place to live winter or summer. Mr. Salahattin Ulkumen, Consul General at Rhodes in 1943-1944, was recognized by the Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile "Hassid Umot ha'Olam" in June 1990.
Turkish is the language of instruction, and Hebrew is taught 3 to 5 hours a week.While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino). Though the Jewish orphanage here is gone and the Historic ETZ Ahayim Synagogue building burnt in 1941 and there is stilla synagogue here and many order historic Ottoman sites in the vicinity.PRINCESS ISLANDS,Some historians say the Princes' Islands ,a half hour's voyage southeast of Istanbul in the Sea of Marmara were named for their use as a place of exile for wayward or inconvinent Byzantine princes.



Make a website in wordpress
Amazon promo codes for free shipping 2013
Play free dating sims