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Chinese paintings, and may also be of some assistance even to the more sophisticated scholar or collector of Chinese paintings in bridging some of the diverse gaps that still exist in our collective assessment of individual works.
Chinese ethnicity, and generally trained through the traditional private master-pupil relationship. This approach to learning by copying was the standard method by which all Chinese artists learned to paint.
Taipei Xiaozhong xianda album, does add some credence to the notion that the Taipei album may in fact be by Wang Shimin himself. Based on the theories of scholar painters of earlier periods, chiefly Su Shi (1036,1101) and Mi Fu (1051-1107) of the Song, Zhao Mengfu (125-1322) of the Yuan, and Dong Qichang (1555-1636) of the late Ming, the Qing dynasty literati painters, who generally were also connoisseurs and collectors, established an orthodoxy of correct models, techniques of painting, and most important, standards for brushwork.
A A A  This approach to learning by copying was the standard method by which all Chinese artists learned to paint.
A A A  In a remarkable set of twelve hanging scrolls, now in the Shanghai Museum, painted in 1670, Wang Jian transformed these compositions once again, but this time into full~size vertical scrolls of uniform dimensions. A A A  Based on the theories of scholar painters of earlier periods, chiefly Su Shi (1036,1101) and Mi Fu (1051-1107) of the Song, Zhao Mengfu (125-1322) of the Yuan, and Dong Qichang (1555-1636) of the late Ming, the Qing dynasty literati painters, who generally were also connoisseurs and collectors, established an orthodoxy of correct models, techniques of painting, and most important, standards for brushwork. DESCRIPTION: The culmination of indigenous Chinese cartography is found in the contributions of Chu Ssu-Pen and his successors who, beginning in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1260 -1368), established a mapping tradition that provided the basis of Chinaa€™s cartographic knowledge which was not seriously challenged until the early 19th century. It should be mentioned that, at least by the time of Chu Ssu-Pen, the Chinese cartographers knew the principles of geometry and possessed instruments that would greatly facilitate their mapping activities. It may also be of some interest to note that Chu Ssu-Pen was himself a Taoist, and studied under famous Taoists such as Chang Jen-Ching and Wu Chhlian-Chieh.
Regarding the foreign countries of the barbarians southeast of the South Sea, and northwest of Mongolia, there is no means of investigating them because of their great distance, although they are continually sending tribute to the court. Chu Ssu-Pena€™s map was prepared by the method of indicating the distances by a network of squares, and thus the actual geographic picture was faithful. Apart from the General Map of China (#227), there were sixteen sheets of the various provinces, sixteen of the border regions, three of the Yellow River, three of the Grand Canal, two of sea routes, and four sheets devoted to Korea, Annam, Mongolia and Central Asia. Two pages or sheets from the Kuang YA? Ta€™u form the general map of China on a grid scale of 400 li to the division or square. As can be seen in the illustrations presented here, the 16th century printed edition of Chua€™s map employs quite modern symbolism to indicate physical features and sizes of settlements. In addition to those referenced by Chu Ssu-Pen, Lo Hung-hsien naturally drew upon many other Yuan and Ming sources in his revision, including the schematic grid-map Hsi-Pei Pi Ti-Li Ta€™u [Map of the Countries of the Northwest], in the Yuan Ching Shih Ta Tien [History of Institutions of the Yuan Dynasty], 1329.
In spite of Chu Ssu-Pena€™s caution about far-distant regions, it is remarkable that, as Walter Fuchs has pointed out, Chu and his contemporaries had already recognized the triangular shape of Africa.
On the upper right-hand corner of this map, one sees the southern portion of Asia, gridded by vertical and horizontal lines and bulging out toward Sumatra, the largest island on the map, with Java next on the right. In the absence of longitudinal and latitudinal estimations, distance between places is represented in two ways. However, for distances over the ocean, the above methods are impractical in making approximations. A map based on the work of two other Chinese cartographers which appeared in Korea (Cha€™uan Chin and Li Hui) in 1402 even adds a stream emerging on the continenta€™s southwest coast in the approximate position of the Orange River. The four Khanates of the Mongol Empire (top); a geographical map from The Encyclopedia of Yuan Dynasty Institutions [Yuan Jingshi dadian], ca. The a€?Geographic Map of the Land of China to the Easta€?, from Zhipana€™s General Records of the Founders of Buddhism, ca. A A A  A map based on the work of two other Chinese cartographers which appeared in Korea (Cha€™uan Chin and Li Hui) in 1402 even adds a stream emerging on the continenta€™s southwest coast in the approximate position of the Orange River. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].
According to these documents Hiuen-tchoang, while on his travels in the Indies, found the original of the map, and, after having marked on it in vermilion ink the route he had followed, he placed it in the Ta€™sing-loung-tseu [Blue Dragon Temple] at Tcha€™ang-ngan, then the capital of China.
These editors made history by quoting many Chinese books on the title of the map, which was originally Go Tenjuku Zu [Map of the Five Indiesa€?] and which, in their opinion, was not correct, since it dealt not only with the Indies but with the western regions also. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85). This map is a great example for Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology with real world cartography. On the other hand, this map is much more than a world map and the main concept by the author was to celebrate a historically very important event.
This all was based on the Japanese version of Hsuan-Tsanga€™s Chinese narrative, the Si-yu-ki, printed as late as 1653. In the preface, in the upper margin of the sheet, are listed the titles of no less than 102 works, Buddhist writings, Chinese annals, etc., both religious and profane, which the author consulted when making his map.
In the Buddhist world maps or Shumi world, the space for the regions called Nan-sen-bu and Nan-en-budai, etc. This map can be described as a characteristic specimen of the type of early East Asiatic maps whose main distinctive feature is their completely unscientific character.
From every point of view, however, the map preserved among the precious objects in the North Pavilion of the Horyuzi Temple at Nara is the most interesting. The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki. There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries. From Nakamuraa€™s examination of a many manuscript and printed Korean mappaemundi he has come to the conclusion that they cannot in themselves be dated earlier than the 16th century.
A hybrid map, forming a link between the Korean mappamundi and Hiuent-choanga€™s itinerary, which dates from the eighth century, causes one to seek further the connection between these two groups of maps to establish the parentage of the Korean mappamundi.
The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology. We do not know if Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary map was known from the commencement as The Map of the Five Indies, although it may commonly have been so called.
But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.
Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, a€?woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Contains a list of Buddhist sutras, Chinese histories and other literary classics on the left side of the map title. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps. Therefore, so far from the area described in Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels being the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the Thang period, the world they actually did know was very much greater.
The map covers almost the whole of Asia, from the extreme east to Persia and the Byzantine Empire in the west, from the countries of the Uigours, the Kirghis and the Turks in the north to the Indies in the south, an area incomparably wider than that covered by Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels.
This alone is sufficient to prove that the Chinese at this period well knew that the Map of the Five Indies was not of the whole world, but that it extended into the west and north beyond the areas indicated by the Si-yA?-ki. The fact that the Chinese represented the geographical content of the Si-yA?-ki in world form, without taking the slightest trouble to show the true shape of countries they knew well, not even China itself shows that, at the period of the Thang Dynasty, seventh to eighth century, they had a mappamundi of the Tchien-ha-tchong-do type in common use that they adopted it just as it was, without modifying it at all, and entered on it the Si-yA?-ki nomenclature.
Therefore it may be said that the Korean mappamundi had its beginnings at a period rather earlier that than of the Thang Dynasty; that a map very like it in form was introduced into Korea from China at a certain period and, thanks to the development of printing in the 16th century.
There is no doubt that the map by JA?n-cha€™ao, which also represented Jambu-dvipa as India-centric continent, utilized the Map of the Five Indies for reference, as we can see from the method of drawing both the boundary lines of the Five Indies and the courses of the four big rivers.
The map, however, has a distinctive feature of its own, namely, the outline of the continent in the center and a number of islands lying scattered around it.
Professor Nakamura treats this map in detail in his paper and states that the Ta€™u- chu-pien map is a hybrid between the Korean mappamundi of Tchien-ha-tchong-do type and the map of Jambu-dvipa. But neither JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map nor this Ta€™u-shu-pien map could not go beyond Asia in their representation. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.
Among the maps made by Japanese we find none which regard China as the center of the world. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].A  It is accompanied by two documents, also reproduced in the book.
This information is not easy to accept, since it often confuses the copy and the original.A  Moreover it is impossible that the map should have been of Indian origin, and it is doubtful that it was constructed by Hiuen-tchoang, seeing that it shows an area greater even than the Indies. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older.A  An example of Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology can be seen in the earliest map of this type, the Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu [Outline Map of All the Countries of the Jambu-dvipa]. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85).A  It is not a faithful copy of the preceding, but has many corrections and additions.
The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki.A  They are just the itineraries of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels.
There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries.A  This very precious geographical relic, though it may have undergone some slight alteration, remains nevertheless to shed much light on the development of the Korean mappamundi.
The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.A A  That is what is proposed for this final portion. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.A  Moreover, its central continent being always entirely surrounded by an immense ocean, it would seem that for its draughtsman this continent represented the whole of the then known world.
Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan.
Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps.A  Nevertheless certain scholars are doubtful about the positive knowledge of scientific cartography possessed by the Chinese of that period.
A  We cannot suppose, however, that JA?n-cha€™ao was the first to produce a map of this type.
Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.A  But so long as it remains a Buddhist map, dogmatism stands in the way of reality.
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4 In either case, the album embodies the attitudes of early 17th century literati towards the artistic process. The assumption was that a skilled artist was capable of capturing the essence of each large-format model and recreating the essential stylistic features and spirit of the original through his scaled-down copies. In the case of the literati scholar-painters, the student not only mastered the techniques of painting but also aligned himself, through the selection of appropriate models to copy, with the great masters of the past. 7 Wang ]ian probably painted this series, or other versions of the compositions depicted in this album, many times. The same composition could be ascribed to different artists, even by the same copyist, but this did not lessen the value of either the original or the copy.
Using calligraphy as a model, the Qing literati reinforced the notion that brushwork should be the principal criterion for judging quality in painting. It is crucial, therefore, that the visual templates themselves are accurate representations of the categories they purport to represent. It is for this reason that it is useful to study copies and forgeries in addition to original works, using the former to chart the evolving image of early masters down through the subsequent ages.
Today, we fly all over the world to view blockbuster exhibitions in Shanghai, Beijing, Tokyo, New York, London, and Taipei. Wai-kam Ho, editor, The Century of Tung Ch'i.ch'ang 1555-1636, volume 2, Seattle and London, 1992, p. The Mongol conquests, besides promoting the unification of Asia and extending its sphere of influence as far as the boundaries of Europe, also combined growing commercial and intellectual contacts with Persians and Arabs to bring to China a wave of fresh information about the countries beyond its borders. The instruments included the gnomon, and a device similar to the groma of the Romans, with plumb lines attached.
Chu says in his preface that among other sources he consulted the YA? Chi Ta€™u [Map of the Tracks of YA?] of 1137 A.D. Those who speak of them are unable to say anything definite, while those who say something definite cannot be trusted; hence I am compelled to omit them here. For about two centuries this great map remained only in manuscript or epigraphic form (rare copies in manuscript and the Kuang YA? Ta€™u inscribed on stone in a Taoist temple lasted until the 19th century).


The scale used was usually 100 li to the division (square), but sometimes other scales such as 40, 200, 400 or 500 li were employed (3 li = 1 mile). The large black band running from the northeast to the southwest, just above the Hwang Ho and Great Wall, represents the Gobi Desert This famous and influential map of China contains most of the previously mentioned symbols that Lo Hung-hsien used for physical and cultural features. Thus, as explained on the table shown on the right of this page, cities of the first order are indicated by a white square, those of the second rank by a white lozenge, and those of the third by a white circle; post-stages are represented by a white triangle and forts by a black square, etc. Beginning with the one printed in Purchas his Pilgrimes, 1609 (#404, Book IV), and further editions of the Kuang YA? Ta€™u continued to be published until 1799.
Among the map sheets of Lo Hung-hsiena€™s atlas, one is entitled The Countries in the Southwestern Sea that covers a considerable portion of the Indian Ocean and a large part of Africa. Chu Ssu-Pen admitted in his brief annotation under the caption of his map that a€?currents in the outer seas are difficult to predict and so is the estimation of distance.a€™ Also, it is curious to note the absence of the grid-system on the portion of Africa that is depicted. Both maps place the southern part of Africa immediately opposite the Indonesian islands, with a string of smaller islands in between, and the tip of India tucked far away to the north. Chu Ssu-Pen admitted in his brief annotation under the caption of his map that a€?currents in the outer seas are difficult to predict and so is the estimation of distance.a€™A  Also, it is curious to note the absence of the grid-system on the portion of Africa that is depicted.
The entries in the boxes in the sea part of the manuscript are extracts from the Da Tang xiyu ji.
This traditional Buddhist depiction of the civilized world (mainly India and the Himalayan regions, with a token nod to China) divides India into five regions: north, east, south, west and central India. Huei-kuo (746- 805), chief priest of the temple, presented it to Kukai (774-835), his best Japanese disciple, when he returned to his own country. Here numerous details are given, including the interesting feature of the so-called a€?iron-gatea€?, shown as a strongly over-sized square, and the path taken by the monk whilst crossing the forbidden mountain systems after leaving Samarkand.
Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least i??from a cartographic perspective. They are based not on objective geographical knowledge or surveys but only on the more or less legendary statements in the Buddhist literature and Chinese works of the most diverse types, which are moreover represented in an anachronistic mixture.
Prior to this map America had rarely if ever been depicted on Japanese maps, so Rokashi Hotan turned to the Chinese map Daimin Kyuhen Zu [Map of China under the Ming Dynasty and its surrounding Countries], from which he copied both the small island-like form of South America (just south of Japan), and the curious land bridge (the Aelutian Islands?) connecting Asia to what the Japanese historians Nobuo Muroga and Kazutaka Unno conclude a€?must undoubtedly be a reflection of North Americaa€?. The map has been reproduced in Mototsugu Kuritaa€™s atlas Nihon Kohan Chizu Shusei, Tokyo and Osaka, 1932 and in color in Hugh Cortazzia€™s Isle of Gold, 1992. Their content however, their nomenclature, being for the most part that of the Han period, and taking into consideration the periods at which the few additions to that nomenclature have been made, is of a date not latter than the 11th century.
The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.
A land bridge connects China to an unnamed continent in the upper right corner, and the island of Ezo [Japan] with its fief of Matsumae is located slightly to the south of the mystery continent. Kia Tana€™s map is perhaps not a proof of this, since it no longer exists, and was always, in any case, kept secret at the Imperial Court, and so was not easily consulted even by those of the generation in which it was produced.
It proves finally, therefore, that Hiuen-tchoanga€™s map does not represent the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the time of the Thang Dynasty. Why, then, should the area described by Hiuen-tchoang have been represented in the form of a shield surrounded by an immense ocean? But the distinctive feature of the map is that China, which had till then occupied a purely notional situation, was represented as a vast country in the eastern part of the continent with place-names of the period of the Ming Dynasty. When we note that his map is not free from errors and omissions due to repeated transcription, and that almost contemporaneously there were maps of closely analogous type, such as the Ta€™u-shu-pien map mentioned below, there is little doubt that maps of this kind had already been produced before by somebody.
This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.
The continent as a whole is wide in the north and pointed in the south, and still shows the traditional shape of Jambu-dvipa. He rests this statement on the ground that a map closely resembling the Ta€™u-shu-pien map is to be found among the maps of the Tchien-ha-tchong- do type that were widely circulated in Korea.
Chan, Old Maps of Korea, The Korean Library Science Research Institute, Seoul, Korea, 1977, 249 pp. According to Nakamura, it was drawn by someone else, after his return, to illustrate the story of his travels, and that the map given to Kukai by his master was a copy, and not the original. Nansen Bushu is a Buddhist word derived from the Sanskrit, Jambu-dvipa, or the southern continent. The most striking innovation is an indication of Europe to the northwest of the central continent, and of the New World in an island to the southeast. Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least from a cartographic perspective.
Among several maps of this kind that of Horyuzi is certainly the oldest and the most authentic in existence, though even it is not quite free from alterations.A  The others are very far from being in their original condition. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.A  Which is, in Nakamuraa€™s opinion, still not correct, for it contains not only the Western Regions but India and China also, so that Terazima is right in calling it The Map of the Western Regions and of the Indies, the title he gives to his small reproduction of part of Hiuen-thoanga€™s map. This idea does not arise simply from the imagination, for the Hindus and the Chinese, like the Greeks, believed that an immense, unnavigable ocean entirely surrounded the habitable world. Yet in face of the number of early references to maps it cannot be doubted that they had, under the Tsa€™in Dynasty, maps sufficiently exact for their own purposes.
This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.A  With the exception of many quaint islands lying scattered in the surrounding seas, this map has much in common with JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s, the central continent consisting of India, with the place-names from the Si-yA?-ki, and of China under the Ming Dynasty. In the Ta€™u-shu-pien map the eastern coastline of the continent is represented with approximate accuracy, yet Fu-lin is drawn on the western side, is a fictitious peninsula similar to Korea on the east, so as to keep the symmetrical figure of the continent of Jambu-dvipa. Having found what I would love to do in life early enough in life, I am working as hard as i can towards my goal as a professional 3D designer and animator. Roosters are said to be the most stylish, with 25% of them buying a new outfit for the first date.
They attempted to transform the methods of their predecessors and use them for their own creative ends. The copyist hoped to penetrate the internal essence of the original artist's creation and transmit the spirit of the large compositions through his small copies that duplicated the external forms of each composition. Many artists of the same aesthetic persuasion as Wang Shimin produced versions of the same compositions featured in the Xiaozhong xianda album. 13) is a highly attenuated version of the now-familiar composition elsewhere ascribed to either Wu Zhen or Juran. Ming scholar painters, such as Shen Zhou (1427-1509) and Wen Zhengming (1470-1559) had modeled their styles primarily after Zhao Mengfu and the Four Yuan Masters. The connoisseur must constantly update his visual database as new discoveries are made and new evidence is revealed. Moreover, connoisseurship in general has been increasingly de-emphasized in art history programs worldwide, in favor of less object-oriented approaches to art. The Chinese also used sighting tubes and something akin to the European cross-staff for estimating height, as well as poles for leveling and chains and rope for ground measurement.
In 1541 the YA? Ta€™u was enlarged, dissected and revised by the Ming scholar, Lo Hung-hsien (1504-1564) and published in the form of a printed atlas in about 1555, under the title Kuang YA? Ta€™u [Enlarged Terrestrial Atlas]. His map was seven feet long and therefore inconvenient to unroll; I have therefore now arranged it in book form on the basis of its network of squares. The treatment of the ocean with its a€?angry linesa€™, a common representation in Chinese cartography, perhaps suggests perceptions of the sea as a hostile environment. The use of colors to indicate areas and frontiers are known to have been employed in a military map as early as 1084 A.D. The atlas of Lo Hung-hsien also provided the foundation for the Novus Atlas Sinensis of Martin Martini published in 1655, the first European atlas of China. In the case of this map, the grid system is imposed only upon the Asian continent, each division or square representing 400 li, or the equivalent of about 133 miles. Possibly this follows from the philosophy expressed by Chu that it is better not to relay any information unless it can be reliably confirmed. On the west side of the continent is San-pa nu (the source of the Zanzibar slaves) and on other copies this is Sang-ku-pa this means Zanguebar (wrongly put on the west coast). This could suggest that whoever supplied the data on Southern Africa did not get there from the Persian Gulf, by the established Muslim sailing route.
Furthermore, in the interior of the continent, two rivers are shown flowing north, one emptying into a large body of water and the other leading further north but terminated by the margin of the map. The empty portions in the lower left and at the bottom of the map naturally suggest areas totally unknown. Each of these five regions is again divided into many kingdoms a€“ those current during the career of Buddha.
They all represent a large, imaginary India, where Buddha was born, as the heart of the world, but also depictions of Europe and the New World. The largest part of the map is dedicated to Jambudvipa with the sacred Lake of Anavatapta (Lake Manasarovar in the Himalayas, a whirlpool-like quadruple helix lake believed to be the center of the universe and, in Buddhist mythology, to be the legendary site where Queen Maya conceived the Buddha).
Also, in the upper left corner there are 102 references from Buddhist holy writings and Chinese annals that are mentioned to increase the credibility of the map. China and Korea appear to the west of Japan and are vaguely identifiable geographically, which itself represents a significant advancement over the Gotenjikuzu map. Thus, on this map we see, in addition to the mythical Anukodatchi-pond which represents the center of the universe and from which flow four rivers in the four cardinal directions, in the left-hand upper corner of the map a region designated as Euroba, around which are grouped, clockwise, the following named countries: Umukari (Hungary?), Oranda, Barantan, Komo (Holland, the country of the redhaired), Aruhaniya (Albania), Itaryia (Italy), Suransa (France) and Inkeresu (England). Whether this represents ancient knowledge from early Chinese navigations in this region, for which there is some literary if not historical evidence, or merely a printing error, we can only speculate.
Another, almost analogous edition of the same map, also dated 1710, but published by Chobei Nagata in Kyoto, is reproduced in George H. The names of the countries, written in the rectangles are in Chinese and Tibetan characters. Both maps came from the same temple so that they must have been co-existent there, and moreover, there is reason to believe that both had their origin at almost the same period. Evidently the composition of this map owed much to the ideas of Chih-pa€™an and JA?n- cha€™aoa€™s book contains another map entitled Tun-chA?n-tan-kuo-ta€™u [Map of the Eastern Region or China], which followed Chih-pa€™ana€™s Topographical Map of the Eastern Region or China. Possibly one such prototype of JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map, introduced into Japan and repeatedly copied, constituted the greatly transfigured SyA»gaisyA? map.
But instead of the geometrical figure, its coastline is drawn more realistically and is indented. But with regard to their representation of both the central continent and outlying islands, these two maps have very little in common and there seems to be no need to seek any particular relation between them. Certainly the map is full of inaccurate and even false information, but it gave the Chinese people a fresh conception of the world in contrast to their traditional view of their own country as the center of the world both culturally and geographically. There are not many of these Chinese world maps in Japan, but the remaining Daimin Kyuhen Bankoku Jinseki Rotei Zenzu, of various sizes, are common. The place names are derived from mythical places noted in Chinese classics and from known lands around China, which occupies the centre 'of the map.
But whatever the authorship of the map there is no doubt that it was brought from China by a religious student, whether Kukai or another. Jambudvipa is the Indian name for the great continent south of the cosmic Mount Meru, marked on this map by a central spiral. Even in those remote times, he says, there existed manuscript maps, named Go-Tenziku-Zu [Map of the Five Indies] in the most famous temples, but they were even worse than that of the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki.
But these maps treat India as the heart of their world, and consequently we can say that they never recognized the European world maps. On the verso is the title, Go Tenjiku-Zu, but neither authora€™s name nor date.A  The inscriptions are only partly completed. Japan and Korea, northeast of the central continent, having no connection with the Si-yA?-ki, must be later additions.
Under the Han Dynasty maps played a very important part in political and military affairs, and many of them covered a vast area. As for the contents of the map, more respect was paid to the old classical authority than to the new geographical findings, so that many quaint, legendary place-names were mentioned to advertise the bigoted belief that the world of Buddhist teaching included even the farthest corners.
More often than not in my spare time I am either listening to music while modeling, gaming or watching Anime . 960~980) and Wu Zhen i??(1280-1354) in the album on paper, but curiously assigned to Wu Zhen and Xu Ben (d.
Although Wang had to manipulate the proportions of the landscape elements in order to fit the vertical format, he retains all of the basic forms and compositional relationships among forms. In other words, a painter's individual personality was discernible and significant, but only within the context of a relatively narrow range of acceptable conventions of brushwork techniques and compositional modes. By adapting large vertical compositions on silk to smaller, less vertical formats, often on paper, the early Qing literati were able to expand the pantheon of acceptable models to include a broad range of artists from remote antiquity who worked in styles as diverse as those of Fan Kuan (c. We can exchange information twenty-four hours a day with colleagues halfway across the world by telephone, fax, and e-mail. 960~980) and Wu Zhen (1280-1354) in the album on paper, but curiously assigned to Wu Zhen and Xu Ben (d.
Chu synthesized and collated the work of his predecessors with new knowledge acquired through both personal travel and the increased contact with the West to produce, between 1311 and 1320, a large roll-map of China and the surrounding regions. The odometer or carriage-measuring instrument, by which distance is ascertained by the revolutions of the wheels, is referred to in China at least as early as in Europe. The reliability of the information on which his map was based was of the greatest concern to Chu, whose attitude was quite modern in this respect.


This may be further evidenced by the rather generalized nature of the coastlines as compared to the detail of the interior possibly reflecting greater familiarity and concern for the land. The influence of this work can also be seen on Father Matteo Riccia€™s world map of 1602 (Ricci arrived in China a mere thirty years after the printing of the Kuang YA? Ta€™u) and the maps of China drawn by Michael Boym in the middle of the 17th century. The locations of major cities and states can best be ascertained in terms of their positions relative to major rivers and, to a lesser degree, mountains as well as coastlines. In the interior of Africa he shows two rivers flowing north, one emptying into a large body of water and the other leading further north, terminating at the margin of the map. Beneath this is written Zhebuluma or Che-pu-lu-ma (in the beginning of which we recognize from Arabic Djebel, mountain). But crossed from Sumatra and followed the chain of southerly islands, Maldives, Chagos and Mascarene, which stretch across the western Indian ocean at conveniently short intervals all the way to Madagascar.
The name of the latter river was rendered as Ha-na-i-ssu-chin, which is a possible corruption of the Arabic words Al-Nil-Azrak, meaning the Blue Nile. But crossed from Sumatra and followed the chain of southerly islands, Maldives, Chagos and Mascarene, which stretch across the western Indian ocean at conveniently short intervals all the way to Madagascar.A  There is really a good chance that this information came from Malay sailors going to their settlements in Madagascar and Africa. The Himalayas are shown as snow-capped peaks in the center of the map, and Mount Sumeru, the mythical center of the cosmos, is depicted in the whirlpool-like form. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo. During this time period Japan maintained an isolationist policy which began in 1603 with the Edo period under the military ruler Tokugawa Ieyasu, and lasting for nearly 270 years. From the quadruple beast headed helix (heads of a horse, a lion, an elephant, and an ox) of Manasarovar or Lake Anavatapta radiate the four sacred rivers of the region: the Indus, the Ganges, the Bramaputra [Oxus], and the Sutlej [Tarim].
Strong impression, printed on several sheets of native paper, joined; colored fully in yellow and ochre, and a few marks in red. Southeast Asia also makes one of its first appearances in a Japanese Buddhist map as an island cluster to the east of India.
Europe, which had no place at all in earlier Buddhist world maps, makes this one of the first Japanese maps to depict Europe. No one succeeded in deciphering these until Professor Teramoto did so, publishing his findings at the end of 1931 in an article entitled a€?Relations between Japan and Tibet in the history of Japana€? (#208). It is not very probable that the originators of these two maps tried deliberately to represent the world in two different ways. Did the draughtsman of this Buddhist pilgrima€™s itinerary exaggerate, making these travels represent the whole world?
The forerunner of these maps can therefore be traced back far beyond the end of the Ming Dynasty. What attracts particular attention is that Fu-lin [the Byzantine Empire], west of the continent, is represented as a peninsula symmetrical with Korea in the east.
It is true that among the Korean mappaemundi may be found one almost exactly like the Ta€™u-shuh-pien map.
Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.A  The latter, delighted with this wonderful Buddhist geographical treasure, and deeming it too rare and important to keep to himself, caused another copy of it to be made, for what he had received was only a rough sketch. In spite of this authora€™s boasting his map is, in reality, according to Nakamura nothing but a mutilated copy of the a€?Map of the Five Indies,a€? made up from a confusion of heterogeneous and anachronistic materials, and including topographic names from the time of the Chan-hai-king up to modern times, some betraying European influence. In their maps the Buddhists connected the Five Continents with the Spiritual World where the spirit of human beings must go after death.
In the Horyuzi and Hoyuzi and Hosyoin maps the Japanese Archipelago is shown by a birda€™s eye view, in Hotana€™s map and in its reduced reproduction it is shown in plan, adopted from a modern map, and in the SyA»gaisyA? map Korea has been placed in a rectangle to the northeast of the central continent in place of Japan. In putting forward the idea that the Chinese of the 7th and 8th centuries believed that the geographical knowledge acquired by Hiuen-tchoang in his travels was concerned with the whole of the then known world we are saying that their world had become smaller than that known in the Han period, which is impossible. The invention of paper at the beginning of the second century, by the eunuch Tsa€™ai Louen, made possible a great step forward in cartography, thanks to its handiness, and its cheapness compared with wooden or bamboo tablets, or the linen or silk stuffs in use up to that time. In the text of the Ta€™u-shu-pien is found a quotation from the prefatory note written by an unknown priest who drew this map. The problem now was to introduce heterogeneous information without conflict with the Buddhist teachings and to give the dogma some apparent plausibility.
Countries like Korea, Japan and Ryuku are only described in the text and are not represented on the map.
1403) in the silk versions, were most likely part of a complete album on silk, or perhaps silk and paper.
The harsh, raw strength of the brushstrokes and the intimidating angularity of the forms in the original are entirely lacking.
Chinese paintings are sold at public auction and in galleries, and are available for study in museums throughout the world. Indeed Western knowledge of the geography of China, as expressed by or through the Jesuits, was derived exclusively from this atlas until the Jesuits themselves undertook their great survey of China for the emperor Cha€™ien-lung between 1756 and 1759. In the middle of the map is written twice Sang-ku or Sanggu [from Arab Zangue or black people]. The island off the east coast is called San-pa Nu, apparently designating the source of the Zanzibar Slaves. A much reduced China (Changa€™an is visible on the plain at the upper right) is labeled a€?Great Tanga€?.
Although knowing the world map by Matteo Ricci, published in Peking in 1602, Japanese maps mainly showed a purely Sino-centric view, or, with acknowledge-ment of Buddhist traditional teaching, the Buddhist habitable world with an identifiable Indian sub-continent. In essence this is a traditional Buddhist world-view in the Gotenjikuzu mold centered on the world-spanning continent of Jambudvipa.
Africa appears as a small island in the western sea identified as the a€?Land of Western Women.a€? Hiroshi Nakamura regarded this map, therefore, simply a mutilated copy of the Map of the Five Indies which is said to have come to Japan about 835, and a copy of which, dating from the 14th century, is preserved in the Horyuji Temple of Nara, Japan.
Moreover, the geometrical form of the Sino-Tibetan map was foreign to China, so that it must owe something to western influence.
Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.
Perhaps this indicates that people were no longer content with geographical representations in an unrealistic form, as the pilgrimage map of Holy India had been transformed into the map of the world, in which the intellectual interest requires a more objective and concrete image.
But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map. Ninkai, Ryoseki and Dyogetu drew the map, while Ryogetu, Keigi and Zyunsin added the place-names, collating and correcting them according to the Si-yA?-ki and other works. Drawn by a Japanese Buddhist monk of the Kegon sect and published in Kyoto in 1710, this map is based on earlier Japanese Buddhist world maps that illustrate the pilgrimage to India of the Chinese monk Xuanzang (602a€“664).
This map became the prototype of Buddhist world maps, the Nan-en-budai Shokoku Shuran no Zu (a world map), the date of which is still uncertain, and the Sekai Daiso Zu (a world map), En-bu-dai-Zu (a world map), Tenjuku Yochi Zu (a map of India), a trilogy by Sonto, a Buddhist, are derived from Hotana€™s world map. We shall presently see what really was the extent of geographical and cartographical knowledge in the Thang period. At the same time the expansion of geographical knowledge under the Han Dynasty brought out the importance of the invention of paper. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.A A  In this map the Han-hai [Large Sea] is represented as a desert and the River Huang rises in Lake Oden-tala.
According to it, the map was newly compiled on the basis three maps in the Fo-tsu-ta€™ung-ki, as well as many other materials.
But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.A  Any close relationship, beyond this, can hardly be imagined between the Chinese Buddhist World Map and the Korean Tchien-ha-tchong-do. So it was of course quite inconceivable that the compiler of this map should utilize the newly acquired information for the purpose of altering the dogmatic notion of the world. The fact that such dogmatic world maps were widely favored in old Japan shows that some Japanese in the Age of National Isolation believed China to be the center of the world and all the other countries to be in subordination to her.A  The sheet under discussion is a reprint by the book dealer Yahaku Umemura in Kyoto, which is tentatively dated 1700 by Professor Kurita.
6 In any case, Wang Hui's version reflects the same attitude of reverence towards the ancients and similarly attempts to faithfully convey the spirit and form of the original compositions. 1046-after 1100), and Gao Kegong (1248-1310), as well as the Four Yuan Masters and Zhao Mengfu. We have the tools to elevate connoisseurship to an unprecedented level of accuracy but, in order to do so, we must match the diligence, sensitivity, and passion of our predecessors. Although Pa€™ei Hsiua€™s work has long since been lost, the established tradition is, again, reflected in the previously mentioned source of Lo Hung-hsien, the Hsi-Pei Pi Ti-Li Ta€™u grid map and is further evidenced in the YA? Chi Ta€™u also previously mentioned as a source used by Chu, which employed the same unit scale as Pa€™ei Hsiu, 100 li (#218.1).
Also on the east coast is an island called Ti-pa-nu [Island slaves, Ti-pa from diva and nu meaning slaves) and Shih-a-la ta€™u-li-cha€™ih meaning Siela-diba being Ceylon. On the upper left corner of the map, the coastline turns sharply westward, suggesting the orientation of what appears to be the Guinea coast.
Directly across from China, over the stormy seas, the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku and the form of Honshu can be detected.
The map was drawn by the scholar-priest Zuda Rokashi, founder of Kegonji Temple in Kyoto, and illustrates the fusion of existing Buddhist and poorly known European cartography. For it is a historical fact that, under the Thangs, the Chinese, having conquered the eastern Turks, annexed an immense territory, stretching from Tarbagatai in the north to the Indus in the south, and their national prestige was then at its zenith. This could not have been so, for Hiuena€™s travels were not always mapped in the form of a shield. And this growth of geographical consciousness led to a fresh demand for maps to comprise the whole of the known world. Hotan has not drawn the route of this famous pilgrim here, but the toponymy of India and Central Asia accords with Xuanzanga€™s account. The special features of these maps are the representation of an imaginary India, where Buddha was born, and the illustration of the religious world as expounded by Buddhists.
All these heterogeneous elements, so different from the other parts of the map are clearly the result of retouching at a later date, so that, in its most authentic form, the map of Hiuen-tchonga€™s itinerary had doubtless the shape of a shield, with a few small, rocky islands near the south and southeast coasts of the central continent, but without showing either Japan or Korea.
But it was not until the middle of the third century that the correct scientific principles for the production of a good map were enunciated.
Therein lies the character and limitation of the Buddhist maps.A  The Ta€™u-shu-pien map was rough and small, but as it appeared in a popular encyclopedia, it attracted wide attention, which in time came to affect even the maps produced in Japan.
Between the west coast and the inland water body, one sees an area named Sang-ku, a Chinese transliteration of the Arabic term Zangue, or the Black People, hence the Congo.
These, then, are the principles underlying Lo Hung-hsiena€™s atlas and, indeed, those of others such as Cha€™uan China€™s early 15th century map of the world (#236) that conceivably could have been seen by Lo Hung-hsien, especially with regards to its portrayal of Africa.
The language is Chinese, except for a few Japanese characters on the illustrations of European countries. They were constantly in touch diplomatically and commercially with Tibet, Persia, Arabia, India and other countries both by land and sea. There is one map of his journeys, drawn as an itinerary, preserved in the Tongdosa Temple in the province of Kei-shodo (south) in Korea. The shape of the central continent is just the same as in the Korean mappamundi, as was demonstrated also by the hybrid map. It was Pa€™ei Hsiu, 234-271, who formulated them so that he may rightly be called the father of Chinese cartography. To sum up, taking over Chih-pa€™ana€™s view of China as equal with India, and on the basis of the theory of four divisions of the world implicit in the Map of the Five Indies, JA?n-cha€™ao tried to reunify the world which had been disintegrated into three regional maps in the Fo-tsu- ta€™ung-ki, and he thus succeeded in offering an image of the whole of Jambu-dvipa anew.
Below the inland water area and to the southwest of the river discharging into the lake is a name pronounced as Che-pu-lu-ma. Europe is shown at upper left as a group of islands, which can be identified from Iceland to England, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary and Turkey, but deliberately deleting the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Thangs China had attained to a high degree of civilization, perhaps the highest it has ever reached, and cartography then made remarkable progress. The first three syllables combined are recognizable as a corruption of the Arabic word djebel, meaning a€?mountainsa€?.
At the lower right South America is featured as an island south of Japan with a small peninsula as part of Central America, carrying just a few place-names including four Chinese characters whose phonetic Japanese reading is a€?A-ME-RI-KAa€?. The scroll begins on the extreme right with the Touen-houang region and finishes with Ceylon. Historical differences in scale, function, and artistic intent were subordinated to the promotion of a universal aesthetic based on brushwork. An obvious conjecture is that it is an elevated area that the Arabs called the Ma Mountains, corresponding closely to the titled plateau of the Drakensberg, and evidenced by a later map produced in 1402 by the Ming cartographer named Cha€™A?an Chin (#236). North of Japan, a land bridge joins Asia with an unnamed landmass, presumably North America. It is dated April 1652, lunar calendar, is roughly drawn and has no special interest from the geographical point of view, but it serves to prove that the map of the travels of Hiuen-tchoang was not always drawn in shield form. It may be because the Buddhist Holy Writings referred to some islands belonging to Jambu-dvipa that the compiler of this map arranged islands around the central continent so as to represent the various data obtained from sources other than the Si-yA?-ki or the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. To our great regret is has disappeared without any trace, but the author of the stela map at Si-gna-fou, engraved in 1137 (#217), of which the original drawing was made before the middle of the 11th century, said that he had consulted it, and that it contained many hundreds of kingdoms.




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