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So in June 2008, more than two years after an internal policy group first started considering it, ICANN’s board approved recommendations to create a fourth set of new gTLDs. In June 2012, ICANN announced it had received a total of 1,930 applications for 1,410 unique domains from about 1,000 different entities.
But once the initial investment has been recouped, the profits, in theory at least, can be enormous. Advocates of new gTLDs also point to Juan Diego Calle, who won a contract from the government of Colombia to run its country domain, .co, in 2009. Yet the story of .co may prove more about the power of marketing than the need for more domains.
Another much-touted benefit of having more TLDs is that it will make it easier for search engines to find websites.
Meanwhile, there are also three main arguments against expanding the web’s naming system. The third argument is that web addresses have become meaningless, not least because of the increasing use of URL shorteners like bit.ly. To critics, that means the consolidation of the new web in the hands of the biggest players. Real-estate and infrastructure metaphors are to be found everywhere in the world of domains. But it is not a wide-open public beach that Namazi sees at the end the highway; it is beachfront property with a land title. Correction (Jan 22): An earlier version of this story misstated the availability of registering domain names in non-Latin scripts. DESCRIPTION: The culmination of indigenous Chinese cartography is found in the contributions of Chu Ssu-Pen and his successors who, beginning in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1260 -1368), established a mapping tradition that provided the basis of Chinaa€™s cartographic knowledge which was not seriously challenged until the early 19th century. It should be mentioned that, at least by the time of Chu Ssu-Pen, the Chinese cartographers knew the principles of geometry and possessed instruments that would greatly facilitate their mapping activities.
It may also be of some interest to note that Chu Ssu-Pen was himself a Taoist, and studied under famous Taoists such as Chang Jen-Ching and Wu Chhlian-Chieh. Regarding the foreign countries of the barbarians southeast of the South Sea, and northwest of Mongolia, there is no means of investigating them because of their great distance, although they are continually sending tribute to the court.
Chu Ssu-Pena€™s map was prepared by the method of indicating the distances by a network of squares, and thus the actual geographic picture was faithful. Apart from the General Map of China (#227), there were sixteen sheets of the various provinces, sixteen of the border regions, three of the Yellow River, three of the Grand Canal, two of sea routes, and four sheets devoted to Korea, Annam, Mongolia and Central Asia. Two pages or sheets from the Kuang YA? Ta€™u form the general map of China on a grid scale of 400 li to the division or square. As can be seen in the illustrations presented here, the 16th century printed edition of Chua€™s map employs quite modern symbolism to indicate physical features and sizes of settlements. In addition to those referenced by Chu Ssu-Pen, Lo Hung-hsien naturally drew upon many other Yuan and Ming sources in his revision, including the schematic grid-map Hsi-Pei Pi Ti-Li Ta€™u [Map of the Countries of the Northwest], in the Yuan Ching Shih Ta Tien [History of Institutions of the Yuan Dynasty], 1329. In spite of Chu Ssu-Pena€™s caution about far-distant regions, it is remarkable that, as Walter Fuchs has pointed out, Chu and his contemporaries had already recognized the triangular shape of Africa. On the upper right-hand corner of this map, one sees the southern portion of Asia, gridded by vertical and horizontal lines and bulging out toward Sumatra, the largest island on the map, with Java next on the right. In the absence of longitudinal and latitudinal estimations, distance between places is represented in two ways.
However, for distances over the ocean, the above methods are impractical in making approximations. A map based on the work of two other Chinese cartographers which appeared in Korea (Cha€™uan Chin and Li Hui) in 1402 even adds a stream emerging on the continenta€™s southwest coast in the approximate position of the Orange River. The four Khanates of the Mongol Empire (top); a geographical map from The Encyclopedia of Yuan Dynasty Institutions [Yuan Jingshi dadian], ca.
The a€?Geographic Map of the Land of China to the Easta€?, from Zhipana€™s General Records of the Founders of Buddhism, ca. A A A  A map based on the work of two other Chinese cartographers which appeared in Korea (Cha€™uan Chin and Li Hui) in 1402 even adds a stream emerging on the continenta€™s southwest coast in the approximate position of the Orange River. It could even mean an end to the increasingly silly names new businesses have to adopt just so they can secure a memorable web address. Rather than planning extensive consultations about what they should be, this time ICANN allowed the market to decide. Of the 1,930 applications, 751 names are contested by 231 applicants, which in the case of non-trademarked names will be decided by auction.
Namazi told Quartz that the organization is currently approving applications for new gTLDs at a rate of 20 every week. In addition to the $185,000 application fee to ICANN, the cost of lawyers, research, traveling to ICANN conferences, and other administrative expenses brings the total cost of an application up to about $1 million, according to one applicant. ICANN takes a cut of 25 cents per second-level domain sold, plus extra fees every quarter and every year. People will click on any old rubbish without noticing or caring what the actual web address is.


Namazi describes the changes as a “time for us to now to go from a two-lane highway that took us to this beautiful beachfront property to a multitude of roads that take us there. The Mongol conquests, besides promoting the unification of Asia and extending its sphere of influence as far as the boundaries of Europe, also combined growing commercial and intellectual contacts with Persians and Arabs to bring to China a wave of fresh information about the countries beyond its borders. The instruments included the gnomon, and a device similar to the groma of the Romans, with plumb lines attached. Chu says in his preface that among other sources he consulted the YA? Chi Ta€™u [Map of the Tracks of YA?] of 1137 A.D. Those who speak of them are unable to say anything definite, while those who say something definite cannot be trusted; hence I am compelled to omit them here. For about two centuries this great map remained only in manuscript or epigraphic form (rare copies in manuscript and the Kuang YA? Ta€™u inscribed on stone in a Taoist temple lasted until the 19th century). The scale used was usually 100 li to the division (square), but sometimes other scales such as 40, 200, 400 or 500 li were employed (3 li = 1 mile). The large black band running from the northeast to the southwest, just above the Hwang Ho and Great Wall, represents the Gobi Desert This famous and influential map of China contains most of the previously mentioned symbols that Lo Hung-hsien used for physical and cultural features. Thus, as explained on the table shown on the right of this page, cities of the first order are indicated by a white square, those of the second rank by a white lozenge, and those of the third by a white circle; post-stages are represented by a white triangle and forts by a black square, etc. Beginning with the one printed in Purchas his Pilgrimes, 1609 (#404, Book IV), and further editions of the Kuang YA? Ta€™u continued to be published until 1799. Among the map sheets of Lo Hung-hsiena€™s atlas, one is entitled The Countries in the Southwestern Sea that covers a considerable portion of the Indian Ocean and a large part of Africa. Chu Ssu-Pen admitted in his brief annotation under the caption of his map that a€?currents in the outer seas are difficult to predict and so is the estimation of distance.a€™ Also, it is curious to note the absence of the grid-system on the portion of Africa that is depicted.
Both maps place the southern part of Africa immediately opposite the Indonesian islands, with a string of smaller islands in between, and the tip of India tucked far away to the north.
Chu Ssu-Pen admitted in his brief annotation under the caption of his map that a€?currents in the outer seas are difficult to predict and so is the estimation of distance.a€™A  Also, it is curious to note the absence of the grid-system on the portion of Africa that is depicted. The infrastructure of the internet is rarely a sexy subject, except when it breaks spectacularly. Anybody could apply to run a new domain, so long as they met certain requirements and coughed up a $185,000 application fee.
Daniel Negari, a 28-year-old American who made his first fortune selling real estate, is planning to make .xyz a generic domain name that anyone can put at the end of any website. A survey by another applicant found that 45% of small businesses in the US do not have a website or blog and that half of those who do aren’t satisfied with the ones they have.
However, Matt Cutts, who works on search quality and webspam at Google, has publicly denounced the notion. But in cases where several applicants have claims on a gTLD, the only way to resolve the dispute is through an auction, which smaller competitors will almost certainly lose. It also incorrectly equated a domain name with a web address, when it is, rather, part of a web address.
The Chinese also used sighting tubes and something akin to the European cross-staff for estimating height, as well as poles for leveling and chains and rope for ground measurement. In 1541 the YA? Ta€™u was enlarged, dissected and revised by the Ming scholar, Lo Hung-hsien (1504-1564) and published in the form of a printed atlas in about 1555, under the title Kuang YA? Ta€™u [Enlarged Terrestrial Atlas]. His map was seven feet long and therefore inconvenient to unroll; I have therefore now arranged it in book form on the basis of its network of squares.
The treatment of the ocean with its a€?angry linesa€™, a common representation in Chinese cartography, perhaps suggests perceptions of the sea as a hostile environment.
The use of colors to indicate areas and frontiers are known to have been employed in a military map as early as 1084 A.D.
The atlas of Lo Hung-hsien also provided the foundation for the Novus Atlas Sinensis of Martin Martini published in 1655, the first European atlas of China.
In the case of this map, the grid system is imposed only upon the Asian continent, each division or square representing 400 li, or the equivalent of about 133 miles. Possibly this follows from the philosophy expressed by Chu that it is better not to relay any information unless it can be reliably confirmed. On the west side of the continent is San-pa nu (the source of the Zanzibar slaves) and on other copies this is Sang-ku-pa this means Zanguebar (wrongly put on the west coast). This could suggest that whoever supplied the data on Southern Africa did not get there from the Persian Gulf, by the established Muslim sailing route.
Furthermore, in the interior of the continent, two rivers are shown flowing north, one emptying into a large body of water and the other leading further north but terminated by the margin of the map. The empty portions in the lower left and at the bottom of the map naturally suggest areas totally unknown. 4, anybody will be able to create and start running a website on the first of the new domains.
Proponents argue that it will benefit people and businesses (small ones especially) by giving them more addresses to choose from. But trademark-holders are already allowed to register, and some sites may start going live in a matter of days.


Negari thinks he can sell a million second-level domains in his first year of operation, at a price of less than $10 each. None of the niche names will ever be big on their own, says Mike McLaughlin of GoDaddy, but together they will drive substantial sales. Chu synthesized and collated the work of his predecessors with new knowledge acquired through both personal travel and the increased contact with the West to produce, between 1311 and 1320, a large roll-map of China and the surrounding regions.
The odometer or carriage-measuring instrument, by which distance is ascertained by the revolutions of the wheels, is referred to in China at least as early as in Europe. The reliability of the information on which his map was based was of the greatest concern to Chu, whose attitude was quite modern in this respect.
This may be further evidenced by the rather generalized nature of the coastlines as compared to the detail of the interior possibly reflecting greater familiarity and concern for the land.
The influence of this work can also be seen on Father Matteo Riccia€™s world map of 1602 (Ricci arrived in China a mere thirty years after the printing of the Kuang YA? Ta€™u) and the maps of China drawn by Michael Boym in the middle of the 17th century. The locations of major cities and states can best be ascertained in terms of their positions relative to major rivers and, to a lesser degree, mountains as well as coastlines.
In the interior of Africa he shows two rivers flowing north, one emptying into a large body of water and the other leading further north, terminating at the margin of the map. Beneath this is written Zhebuluma or Che-pu-lu-ma (in the beginning of which we recognize from Arabic Djebel, mountain). But crossed from Sumatra and followed the chain of southerly islands, Maldives, Chagos and Mascarene, which stretch across the western Indian ocean at conveniently short intervals all the way to Madagascar.
The name of the latter river was rendered as Ha-na-i-ssu-chin, which is a possible corruption of the Arabic words Al-Nil-Azrak, meaning the Blue Nile. But crossed from Sumatra and followed the chain of southerly islands, Maldives, Chagos and Mascarene, which stretch across the western Indian ocean at conveniently short intervals all the way to Madagascar.A  There is really a good chance that this information came from Malay sailors going to their settlements in Madagascar and Africa. The number of alphabets in which you can create a web address will be at least a dozen including Chinese and Arabic. Critics call it a massive land grab by both entrepreneurs and some of the world’s most powerful internet companies. Indeed Western knowledge of the geography of China, as expressed by or through the Jesuits, was derived exclusively from this atlas until the Jesuits themselves undertook their great survey of China for the emperor Cha€™ien-lung between 1756 and 1759. In the middle of the map is written twice Sang-ku or Sanggu [from Arab Zangue or black people].
The island off the east coast is called San-pa Nu, apparently designating the source of the Zanzibar Slaves.
Although Pa€™ei Hsiua€™s work has long since been lost, the established tradition is, again, reflected in the previously mentioned source of Lo Hung-hsien, the Hsi-Pei Pi Ti-Li Ta€™u grid map and is further evidenced in the YA? Chi Ta€™u also previously mentioned as a source used by Chu, which employed the same unit scale as Pa€™ei Hsiu, 100 li (#218.1). Also on the east coast is an island called Ti-pa-nu [Island slaves, Ti-pa from diva and nu meaning slaves) and Shih-a-la ta€™u-li-cha€™ih meaning Siela-diba being Ceylon. On the upper left corner of the map, the coastline turns sharply westward, suggesting the orientation of what appears to be the Guinea coast.
Between the west coast and the inland water body, one sees an area named Sang-ku, a Chinese transliteration of the Arabic term Zangue, or the Black People, hence the Congo.
These, then, are the principles underlying Lo Hung-hsiena€™s atlas and, indeed, those of others such as Cha€™uan China€™s early 15th century map of the world (#236) that conceivably could have been seen by Lo Hung-hsien, especially with regards to its portrayal of Africa. Below the inland water area and to the southwest of the river discharging into the lake is a name pronounced as Che-pu-lu-ma. The first three syllables combined are recognizable as a corruption of the Arabic word djebel, meaning a€?mountainsa€?. An obvious conjecture is that it is an elevated area that the Arabs called the Ma Mountains, corresponding closely to the titled plateau of the Drakensberg, and evidenced by a later map produced in 1402 by the Ming cartographer named Cha€™A?an Chin (#236). They became lifelong friends, and in 1929 Wade helped renovate the 153-acre farm in Sftsbury, Vermont, known as The Gully. They shared a passion for all things natural and living.When Wade moved to Clearwater, he met Tom and joined the poetry readings at Beaux Arts. Wade judged many of the poetry competitions at Beaux Arts and was honored at the 39th annual competition.Wade was one of Tom's closest friends. They shared many passions - a love of life, cats, poetry, and a genuine concern about nature and the environment. It was this love of nature and that drove them to sound the alarm over our fragile eco system decades before Al Gore made his movie about the threat of global warming.
They would no doubt be pleased to see their ideas being espoused daily by the media in 2008.Wade wrote his own versions of the "Declaration of Dependence", which Tom kept around in duplicate. PETERSBURG For Designers, Dealers and Collectors of Fine Furnishings About Us - Antiques St. Taxidermy Military CollectiblesMilitary Collectibles - Additional Nautical Collectibles Outdoor and Patio Furnishings May we help you?



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