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We’ll be using Java 7 and the Apache CXF framework for implementing a web service and client within the Eclipse IDE.
After reading this article and following the examples, the reader should be able to create a bottom-up (code first) SOAP web service, along with a client which utilizes the web service, while implementing message-level encryption to protect the message payload. When I first encountered SOAP web services, I spent a significant amount of time searching the internet, reading articles, and reviewing technical specifications in hopes of understanding and ultimately being able to connect to existing web services and stand up my own web services. While my goal is to provide a cohesive example of a SOAP web service, I will not be explaining, in detail, most aspects of SOAP messages, the WSDL file, the Apache CXF libraries, or the WSS4J libraries. In addition to creating a basic web service and client, the article goes a step further by showing how to encrypt the web service message payload, providing message-level encryption for web services. This article will be using the Eclipse IDE (Kepler), Java 7, and the Apache CXF framework for implementing a web service and client.
A top-down web service starts with the creation of a WSDL (Web Service Definition Language) file, followed by the generation of Java code conforming to the specifications set by the WSDL. A bottom-up web service starts with the creation of Java code, followed by the generation of a WSDL file describing the operations and messages necessary to interact with the Java code.
For this example, we'll be creating a MathUtility class which exposes two methods for manipulating numbers. The Apache Tomcat server, which will host the web service, needs to be configured in the Eclipse IDE. The Eclipse IDE needs to be configured to use the Apache CXF web service framework for creating and communicating with web services. After creating the logic that we'd like to expose as a service, along with configuring the Eclipse workspace to use Tomcat and CXF, we are able to build the Web Service and run it. At this time, the Eclipse IDE uses Apache CXF to generate a WSDL file and associated schema to create a web service based on the MathUtility logic. After the web service creation is completed, the web service is started, along with a utility allowing us to verify that the logic is exposed as a web service and works correctly.


Once the web server has started, a Web Services Explorer window will appear with service details. While the Web Services Explorer allows us to interact with the web service and test functionality, in order to programatically interact with the utility, a web service client needs to be created. Now, use the wsdl2java tool to generate the Java classes needed for interacting with the web service. The generated classes have been created and placed in the directory which we defined when executing the wsdl2java command. Copy all the generated files from the temporary directory into the empty Eclipse package within the MathUtilityClient project which was created earlier.
We need to create a test class which will connect to the MathUtility web service using the generated classes and return a result.
Add logic to the main method for connecting to the SOAP web service and executing an operation. The Apache Tomcat console shows the SOAP Payloads, including both the Inbound and Outbound SOAP messages, from the web service server perspective. We have now connected to a SOAP web service hosted on an Apache Tomcat server and executed an operation exposed by that web service. There are several ways to secure SOAP web services, but this article will focus specifically on message-level encryption. As an important note, when applying message-level encryption in a production setting, both the request and corresponding response would likely be encrypted, protecting the contents of the message, roundtrip. In this example we will just encrypt the traffic from the web service client to the web service, showing basic encryption and decryption.
A pair of keys will be necessary for encrypting and decrypting the message at their respective locations. In the Client example, we will programmatically add the WSS4J interceptor in our main method.


A properties file is required to specify the keystore file to be loaded along with properties regarding this keystore. Although the keystore password is provided in the keystore properties file, WSS4J requires that the password for accessing a keystore is loaded through the use of a Password Callback class. For our client, the WSS4J output interceptor will be added programmatically, instead of using Spring Inversion of Control. In the sample code, I have also added Logging Interceptors which will show the outbound and inbound messages. Even though the keystore password is provided in the keystore properties file, WSS4J requires that the password for accessing a keystore is loaded through the use of a Password Callback class. The cxf-beans.xml file must now be updated to include the relevant components which have been added for applying message-level security. Everything is configured, now the Web Service can be launched and the client can be connected. The first time you sign in to developerWorks, a profile is created for you, so you need to choose a display name. Keep up with the best and latest technical info to help you tackle your development challenges. There is nothing inherently special or web service-related about this logic; it could easily be used, on its own, outside of the context of SOAP web services. Your display name must be unique in the developerWorks community and should not be your email address for privacy reasons. In the Architecture area on developerWorks, get the resources you need to advance your skills in the architecture arena.



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