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The Presentation layer provides a way to present customized, secure, role-based views of a business model to users. After you have created the Business Model and Mapping layer, you can drag and drop entire business models to the Presentation layer in the Administration Tool. This chapter explains how to use the Administration Tool to create and edit objects in the Presentation layer of a repository. The Presentation layer provides a way to present customized views of a business model to users. Even though the Logical SQL requests from Answers and other clients query the presentation tables and columns, the real logic for entities, relationships, joins, and so on is in the Business Model and Mapping layer. Although each subject area must be populated with contents from a single business model, you can create multiple subject areas for one business model. For example, if you have a business model called ABC that contains the Geography and Products dimensions, you can drag it to the Presentation layer twice. Users in Oracle BI Answers can then run queries that span both the DEF subject area (containing the Products hierarchy), and the XYZ subject area (containing the Geography hierarchy). You can automatically create one subject area for each logical star or logical snowflake in your business model. To create a subject area for each fact table that is part of a logical star or snowflake, right-click the business model and select Create Subject Areas for Logical Stars and Snowflakes. For example, if you choose this option for the SampleApp business model with nine fact tables, nine corresponding subject areas are created, each with one fact table and its associated dimension tables.
One important reason to use a custom Presentation layer is to make the schema as easy to use and understand as possible. By default, presentation columns have the same name as the corresponding logical column in the Business Model and Mapping layer. In some cases, however, you may want a different presentation column name to be shown to users.
When you change the name of a presentation column, an alias is automatically created for the old name, so compatibility to the old name remains. Note that you cannot rename a Presentation layer object to a name that is already in use as an alias for an object of the same type.
For each subject area in the Presentation layer, you can decide whether to export any logical keys as key columns to tools that access it. When you select the option Export logical keys in the Subject Area dialog, any columns in the Presentation layer that are key columns in the Business Model and Mapping layer are listed as key columns to any ODBC client. If you are using a tool that issues parameterized SQL queries, such as Microsoft Access, do not select the option Export logical keys. There is no automatic way to synchronize all changes between the Business Model and Mapping layer and the Presentation layer. However, the Administration Tool can automatically synchronize the name of presentation columns with their corresponding logical column names.
In some cases, if there are many changes to a logical table or even to an entire business model, it is easiest to delete the corresponding presentation table or subject area, and then and drag and drop the updated logical objects to the Presentation layer. In the Presentation layer, subject areas enable you to show different views of a business model to different sets of users. Typically, subject areas are created automatically by dragging and dropping business models from the logical layer. Select Custom display name or Custom description to dynamically display a custom name or custom description based on a session variable, typically for localization purposes.
If you are using a tool that issues parameterized SQL queries, such as Microsoft Access, do not select the Export logical keys option. In the Presentation Tables tab, you can add, remove, edit, or reorder the presentation tables for this subject area. Presentation tables and presentation columns appear as folders and columns in Oracle BI Answers. You can use presentation tables to organize columns into categories that make sense to the user community.
Typically, presentation tables are created automatically by dragging and dropping logical tables from the logical layer. In the Columns tab, you can add, remove, edit, or reorder the presentation columns for this presentation table. In the Hierarchies tab, you can add, remove, edit, or reorder the presentation hierarchies for this presentation table.
You can use the Administration Tool to update Presentation layer metadata to give the appearance of nested folders in Answers. For example, to nest the Sales Facts folder in the Facts folder in Answers, place the Sales Facts presentation table directly after the Facts presentation table in the metadata and add -> to the Description field in the Presentation Table - Sales Facts dialog. Alternatively, you can prefix the name of the presentation table to be nested with a hyphen and a space and then place the table after the presentation table in which it nests. The presentation column names are, by default, identical to the logical column names in the Business Model and Mapping layer.
To provide a convenient organization for your users, you can drag and drop a column from a single logical table in the Business Model and Mapping layer onto multiple presentation tables.
When you drag columns to presentation tables, make sure that columns with the same name or an alias of the same name do not already exist. Typically, presentation columns are created automatically by dragging and dropping logical columns from the logical layer. In the Presentation layer, double-click a presentation column to display the Presentation Column dialog.
In the General tab, to specify a name that is different from the Logical Column name, clear Use Logical Column Name, and then type a name for the column. You can also use the Custom display name and Custom description fields to propagate UI hints (labels and tooltips) from an ADF data source to display in Oracle BI Answers. The Logical Column field displays the name of the logical column for this presentation column.
Presentation hierarchies and presentation levels provide an explicit way to expose the multidimensional model in Oracle BI Answers.
Be aware that members in a presentation hierarchy are not visible in the Presentation layer. As with other Presentation layer objects, you can also provide localization information and apply fine-grained access control to presentation hierarchies and levels. If you have a repository from a previous release, note that presentation hierarchies do not appear in the Presentation layer automatically as part of the RPD upgrade process.
To create a presentation hierarchy, you can drag a logical dimension hierarchy from the Business Model and Mapping layer to a table in the Presentation layer. If a logical dimension spans multiple logical tables in the Business Model and Mapping layer, it is a best practice to model the separate logical tables as a single presentation table in the Presentation layer. When you drag an entire business model to the Presentation layer, the presentation hierarchies and constituent levels appear automatically, along with other presentation objects.


When you drag a logical dimension table to the Presentation layer, presentation hierarchies and levels based on those dimensions are created automatically.
You can also drag individual logical dimensions to the appropriate presentation tables to create corresponding presentation hierarchies within those tables.
As with most other objects in the Administration Tool, you can right-click a presentation table and select New Object > Presentation Hierarchy to manually define the object. You can also drag an individual logical level from the Business Model and Mapping layer to a presentation table to create a presentation hierarchy that is a subset of the logical dimension hierarchy. For example, suppose a logical dimension has the levels All Markets, Total US, Region, District, Market, and Market Key. For logical dimensions that contain multiple logical hierarchies, multiple separate presentation hierarchies are created. In the Business Model and Mapping layer, this logical dimension is modeled as a single dimension object that contains multiple hierarchies. You can edit presentation hierarchy properties, including setting permissions to apply role-based access control, setting a custom display name for localization purposes, and changing the levels in a hierarchy. In the Presentation layer, double-click a presentation hierarchy to display the Presentation Hierarchy dialog. In the Presentation layer, double-click a presentation level to display the Presentation level dialog.
The Drill To Levels and Drill From Levels tabs are reserved for a future release and are not currently used.
Use the Display Columns tab to define which columns should be used for display for that level (on drill-down). As an alternative to defining display columns in this tab, you can drag a presentation column directly onto the presentation level in the Presentation layer of the Administration Tool.
Note that the display columns that appear by default when a presentation level is created are based on which key columns for the corresponding logical level have the Use for display option selected. You can apply access control to restrict which individual users or application roles (groups) can access particular presentation layer objects. You can control what level of privilege is granted by default to users and application roles for repository objects without explicit permissions set. In the Presentation layer, double-click a presentation object, such as a subject area, table, column, or hierarchy. Note that any permissions applied to a presentation object also apply to its child objects.
You can generate a permission report for individual presentation layer objects to see a summary of how permissions have been applied for that object. There are three ways to sort by type, and two ways to sort the list of user and application role names. Each presentation object can have a list of aliases (synonyms) for its name that can be used in Logical SQL queries.
Because Presentation layer objects are often deleted and then re-created during the repository development process, it is best to wait until your logical business model is relatively stable before creating aliases for presentation objects. You can use this feature to rename presentation objects without breaking references that any existing requests have to the old names, including requests from Answers, Oracle BI Publisher, or other Logical SQL clients. For example, consider a subject area called "Sample Sales Reduced" that contains a presentation table called "Facts Other." If you rename the presentation column called "# of Customers" to "Number of Customers," any requests that use "# of Customers" fail. Aliases for presentation objects do not appear in Answers or other query clients when creating new queries. This feature works in a different way from SQL aliases or the alias feature in the Physical layer. You cannot rename a Presentation layer object to a name that is already in use as an alias for an object of the same type. To delete an alias, select the alias you want to delete from the Aliases list, then click the Delete button.
Scripting on this page enhances content navigation, but does not change the content in any way. Role-based views provide object security and also provide a way to hide some of the complexity of the business model.
You can have a subject area that is identical to your business model, or you can provide smaller, role-based subject areas that show a single subject, or that support a particular business role. Subject areas in the Presentation layer appear as catalogs to client tools that use the Oracle BI Server as an ODBC data source.
The primary function of the Presentation layer is to provide custom names, dictionary entries, organization, and security for different groups of users. The recommended method is to drag and drop a business model from the Business Model and Mapping layer to the Presentation layer, and then modify the Presentation layer based on what you want users to see.
For very large business models, you may want to do this to help users work with the content. One method is to drag a particular business model to the Presentation layer multiple times, then edit the properties or objects of the resulting subject areas as needed. Logical stars and logical snowflakes are both composed of a centralized fact table connected to multiple dimension tables.
The new subject areas are automatically created, each containing a fact table and only the dimension tables with which it is associated. It is recommended to keep presentation column names and their source logical column names synchronized to reduce maintenance. See "Creating Aliases (Synonyms) for Presentation Layer Objects" for more information about aliases. Exporting logical keys is irrelevant to users of Oracle BI Presentation Services, but it may be advantageous for some query and reporting tools. The implicit fact column is added to a query when it contains columns from two or more dimension tables and no measures. For example, if you add logical columns to an existing logical table, or edit existing columns, you must manually update the corresponding Presentation layer objects. To take advantage of this feature, ensure that Use Logical Column Name is selected in the Presentation Column dialog. For this reason, it is best to wait until the Business Model and Mapping layer is relatively stable before adding customizations in the Presentation layer. Note that aliases are created automatically whenever presentation objects are renamed, so that any queries using the original name do not break. For example, you cannot have a subject area called Customer that has a Customer table within it. See "Localizing Oracle Business Intelligence" in Oracle Fusion Middleware System Administrator's Guide for Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition for more information about localization.
Many client tools differentiate between key and nonkey columns, and the option Export logical keys provides client tools access to the key column metadata. This column is added to a query when it contains columns from two or more dimension tables and no measures.


This description appears in a mouse-over tooltip for the subject area in Oracle BI Answers. You can customize presentation tables and presentation columns to help users craft queries based on their business needs.
To do this, open the Properties dialog for the presentation table that corresponds to the folder you want to nest and add -> to the beginning of the Description field. To nest a second folder called Marketing Facts in the Facts folder, add -> to the Description field for the Marketing Facts presentation table and place it directly after Sales Facts. For example, to nest Sales Facts within Facts, place Sales Facts directly after Facts and change its name to - Sales Facts.
If you move the parent presentation table, the "child" presentation tables do not move with it. However, you can present a different name by clearing both the Use Logical Column Name and the Custom display name options in the Presentation Column dialog.
See "Propagating Labels and Tooltips from ADF Business Component Data Sources" for more information about how to set up ADF data source UI hints. When presentation hierarchies and levels are defined in the Presentation layer, roll-up information is displayed in the Oracle BI Answers navigation pane, providing users with important contextual information.
Presentation hierarchies expose analytic functionality such as member selection, custom member groups, and asymmetric queries.
You must manually create these objects by dragging logical dimensions from the Business Model and Mapping layer to the appropriate presentation tables. The presentation hierarchy object must be located within a presentation table, unlike in the Business Model and Mapping layer, where logical dimensions are peer objects of tables. Because parent-child hierarchies do not contain levels, display columns are defined for the presentation hierarchy object as a whole.
Presentation levels are typically created automatically when presentation hierarchies are created. An additional option called Generate Drill Graph, available as a right-click option for any Presentation layer object, is also reserved for a future release.
For example, if two columns called "Name" and "ID" exist at the same level, you can choose to display "Name" because it is the more user-friendly option. For example, you can provide read-only access to a set of presentation tables for a particular application role, read-write access for a second application role, and no access for a third application role. The Identity Manager is useful for setting permissions for individual application roles to many objects at once, unlike permissions in the Presentation layer, which you can only set for one object at a time. Enter * to retrieve all users, or enter a combination of characters for a specific set of users, such as A* to retrieve all users whose names begin with the letter A. For example, permissions applied to a presentation table also apply to any presentation columns, hierarchies, and levels in that table.
To create the list of aliases, use the Alias tab in the Properties dialog for the appropriate presentation object (subject area, presentation table, presentation hierarchy, presentation level, or presentation column).
If you are still developing a new repository, you might want to wait until the repository is stable before renaming objects. However, if you add "# of Customers" to the list of synonyms in the Alias tab for the "Number of Customers" column, then queries containing both "# of Customers" and "Number of Customers" succeed and return the same results.
For example, if you change Catalog to Catalog1, the original name Catalog is added to the Aliases list. The Presentation layer also provides some of the functionality of the metadata model, such as the ability to set an implicit fact column. Create subject areas that help you organize your content in a way that makes sense for your users.
You can move columns between presentation tables, remove columns that do not need to be seen by the users, or even present all of the data in a single presentation table.
Users in Oracle BI Answers can create queries that span multiple subject areas, as long as the subject areas correspond to the same business model.
This feature provides another way to create multiple subject areas from a single business model. This option is available for any business model that contains logical stars or logical snowflakes. Figure 11-1 shows exactly how the logical fact tables and dimension tables are modeled in the Presentation layer. To do this, ensure that Use Logical Column Name is selected in the Presentation Column dialog.
If you decide to export logical keys, make sure that the logical key columns exist in the table folders. Any join conditions the client tool adds to the query, however, are ignored, because the Oracle BI Server uses the joins defined in the repository. The names and object properties of the presentation tables are independent of the logical table properties. When Answers displays the folder name in the left pane, it omits the hyphen and space from the folder name. For example, you can create several presentation tables that contain different classes of measures: one containing volume measures, one containing share measures, one containing measures from a year ago, and so on.
Presentation hierarchies are also displayed within their associated tables in Oracle BI Answers, providing a conceptually simpler model.
Use the Display Columns tab to define which columns should be used for display for this parent-child hierarchy. See "Setting Up Object Permissions" for information about setting up object permissions in the Identity Manager. See Oracle Fusion Middleware System Administrator's Guide for Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition for more information.
The default access control for this user or application role, as defined in the Identity Manager, controls what the user or application role can do with this object. The first column has no heading and contains an icon that represents the type of user or application role. You can create presentation tables to organize and categorize measures in a way that makes sense to your users. It is used to specify a default join path between dimension tables when there are several possible alternatives or contexts. For a full description of data access security in Oracle Business Intelligence, see Chapter 13.




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