First date lasted 8 hours,us christian dating free sites,free source code download c ,levi promotional code 2011 - .

Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. Methods for accurately reproducing and eventually printing maps in sufficient quantities to enable cartographical knowledge to a€?penetrate very deepa€™ are in fact a feature only of modern times.
It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the earth's landmass with data from ancient texts. Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K.
As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Although cuneiform maps may not be forerunners from which later Western maps originate, they share characteristics with other cartographic traditions in their graphic imaging of territorial, social, and cosmological space. Where once such maps would not have been admitted within a general history of cartography, a new view of the meaning of the map can embrace them. By no means do all ancient Near Eastern maps display metrological finesse or even the use of measurement, though some characteristically do, such as the agrarian field and urban plot cadastral surveys. The maps of cities with their waterways and surrounding physical landscape combine cartography of sacred space, seen in the temple plans, with that of economic space, seen in the field surveys.
The Babylonian world map is an attempt to encompass the totality of the eartha€™s surface iconographically: land, ocean, mountain, swamp, and distant uncharted a€?regionsa€? This said, it represents more of an understanding of what the world is from the viewpoint of historical imagination than an image of its topography against a measured framework.
The diversity of cultures that have sought to preserve their maps, putting them on clay, papyrus, parchment, and other writing media, points to a near universality of making maps in human culture.
Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) .
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period. To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy.
Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path.
Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator. Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity.
In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side.
Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere.
We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust.
The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator. Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions.
Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below.
It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top. During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions.
At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world.
But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk.
It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts.
There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge.
That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole.
The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence.
In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity. Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking. However, the date of 1500 was confirmed by a series of rigorous laboratory testing: radiography, reflection of rays and ultraviolet rays. The author of this map, regarded as one of the oldest cartographic documents relating to the voyages of Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) and John Cabot (ca 1455-1499), is Juan de la Cosa (c. This map is an excellent example of the portolan [nautical] charts that came into use among Italian sailors in the 13th and 14th centuries. The chief interest in the map is its delineation of the coastline of the New World so recently discovered and so little known at that time. The Caribbean islands already show, in contrast to Columbusa€™ ideas, clear hallmarks of the way they appear in much later maps. The earliest and, for more than half-a-century, the most complete description of Cuba is the one which is inserted in this famous planisphere.
Nomenclatures play such an important part in the identification of cartographical documents; they enable us to ascend so surely to the origin not only of names, but also of the configurations on which we find them inscribed, that no better means can be employed by critics to solve the numerous problems which are involved in every ancient map, chart, and globe, without a single exception. Cuba appears here for the first time under the name derived from the native word CubanacA?n; Columbus had called the land Iuna. While Cosa could draw upon the voyages of Columbus and Spanish explorers for the Antilles and much of South America, no Spanish ships had by 1500 visited Central and North America. Unfortunately, this cartographical data is not sufficiently precise to enable one to locate the landfalls with adequate exactness.
Much attention has been attracted to La Cosaa€™s representation of the northeastern coastline of America. The northwestern portion of La Cosaa€™s map sets forth twenty inscriptions, seven of which are the names of capes, whilst one refers to a river (rA° longo), another to an island (isla de la trinidad), and a third to a lake (lago fore?).
All that is clear in this vague description, and which must be retained just now, is that John Cabota€™s ultimate objective, when he set out from England in 1498, was an equatorial or southern region situated south of the point reached by him in 1497. In latitude the Old World portion of the map extends from the Scandinavian peninsula southwards to the African continent. The Cosa planisphere does not extend eastward beyond the northern border of the Arabian Sea, omitting, therefore, Hindostan, the Malay Peninsula and China.
As mentioned earlier, the map in fact has every appearance of having been put together from at least two sections: the western portion comprising the American discoveries and perhaps the West African coast having been joined to a portion of a world map resembling those of fifty years earlier which display the influence of Ptolemy.
Previous cartographic studies of the 1500 map by La Cosa have found substantial and difficult-to-explain errors in latitude, especially for the Antilles and the Caribbean coast. Alvarez, Aldo, a€?Geomagnetism and the Cartography of Juan de la Cosa: A New Perspective on the Greater Antilles in the Age of Discoverya€?. Davies, A., a€?The Date of Juan de la Cosa's World Map and Its Implications for American Discoverya€?, The Geographical Journal 142 (1) (1976).
Another theory claims that this is a copy by a draftsman who was unable to decipher La Cosaa€™s original lettering.A  This theory is born out by the many names, even on the South American coasts that had been explored by Cosa himself, that are unintelligible and meaningless. What is shown of South America also suggests that is probably a continental landmass.A  Off the coast of Brazil, the island with the legend, Ysla descubierta por portugal [Island discovered for Portugal], indicates La Cosaa€™s belief concerning the location of the land discovered by Cabral in 1500. The Caribbean islands already show, in contrast to Columbusa€™ ideas, clear hallmarks of the way they appear in much later maps.A  The Bahamas group is shown with some accuracy but necessarily on a small scale. La Cosa avoided the problem of the possible existence of straits in Central America that might provide a sea link to the Far East.A  Apart from its decorative function, the vignette that he inserted in Central America serves to hide the part of the new lands unknown when looking for a passage to Cathay. The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions.
This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S.
On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American.
According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000.
An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation.
The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary.
The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings.
The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes.
With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation. The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v.
Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v.
The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation.
In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director.
In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president.
In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W.
The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W.
As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized. 21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000.
33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J. In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. ACTUALLY DIED AT AGH, WHICH OF COURSE THEY ACCOMPLISHED (even though Canonsburg General Hospital is the rehab's NEXT DOOR NEIGHBOR!).
It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation.
Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history.
Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. But the trans-local culture did not penetrate very deep The high culture owed this peculiar combination of wide expanse and superficiality to the nature of communications in the preindustrial world, in combination with scarcity and political factors. Ancient a€?educated mena€? covered huge distances in both place and time to debate scientific questions about geography. In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time. Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch.
It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic. In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Cuneiform texts provide several varieties of evidence for the ancient Mesopotamian efforts to express order by describing, delimiting, and measuring the heaven and earth of their experience, producing house, temple, plot, and field plans, city maps, and, with respect to the celestial landscape, diagrammatic depictions of stars.
The historiography of maps and cartography has emerged from criticisms similar in nature to those made against the modernist or presentist historiography of science, namely, that in reifying science or sciences such as cartography, false evolutionary histories are liable to be constructed. Concern for orientation is attested in a number of maps, but not always in the same way, although with a tendency toward an oblique orientation northwest to southeast. The cities of Nippur and Babylon had a religious and cosmological function as well as a political and economic one. It offers a selective account of the relationship of Babylon to other places, including those that were at the furthest reach of knowledge. Cognitive psychologists claim that we come into our physical world mentally equipped to perceive and describe space and spatial relationships. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C. Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther.
We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological.
It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era.
Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death.
The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years.
There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole. Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest. In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328).
The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense.
We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion.
Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps.
We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought.
In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice.
Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth.
With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions.
By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. Upon the death of Baron Walckenaer in 1853, the Queen of Spain purchased the map and, though greatly deteriorated, is now the chief treasure of the Museo Naval in Madrid. Moreover, as far as its publication date, not only does the map carry on it the date of 1500, but it has features that would have been utterly different had it been compiled in 1508. The map of La Cosa actually consists of two charts, one of the a€?Old Worlda€? and one of the a€?New Worlda€?, separated and plotted in two different scales, as is the case for a number of maps from this era. North America, which in most early maps (up to 1506) normally consisted of separate islands, only later fusing into a cohesive whole, is shown on the Cosa map as a solid landmass extending far into the North Atlantic. La Cosa was considered in Spain as the greatest cartographer of his day, and the pilot best conversant with the West India seas.
And even when the names are scarcely legible, or evidently corrupted by the inattention of cartographers, and their ignorance, oftentimes, of the language employed in the prototype, they still serve to indicate the source from which were borrowed important geographical averments.
The Cosa map represents them as a continuous landmass extending to the Arctic, which was cosmographically correct, but the actual coastlines are clearly hypothetical in outline and without nomenclature, proving they were not based on charts of actual voyages that had explored such coasts. It is known that he tacked against the westerlies for 54 days and made landfall on 24th June (Bristol records). Nor is the kind of projection adopted, without explicit degrees of latitude, of such a character as to aid someone much in determining positions. Although many of those designations convey no meaning to the scholar (apparently on account of imperfect transcriptions), and are not to be found on any other map, they must be considered as proving that the coast had been actually visited before 1500. To this interpretation must be added the fact that the line of British flags in La Cosaa€™s map, corroborates such an intention, as it indicates plainly a southward coasting. Taking the distance from the equator to the extreme north in La Cosaa€™s map as a criterion for measuring distances, and comparing relatively the points named therein with points corresponding for the same latitude on modern planispheres, the last English flagstaff in the southern direction seems to indicate a vicinity south of the Carolinas.


It is believed that La Cosa drew this portion of the coast from Cabota€™s map, now lost, which Pedro de Ayala, the Spanish Ambassador at London, sent to King Ferdinand.
The African coast as far as the Cape of Good Hope is represented with fair accuracy, apparently drawn from Portuguese sources. The non-peninsular coast of India is from the Ptolemaic cartographic tradition; the outline of the Asian coast, however, is no improvement on that of the Catalan Map of 1375 (#235). If we use the distance between the tropic and the equator to obtain a scale of degrees, and apply this to the map, we find that in the western section, though there are discrepancies, the general picture is not wildly inaccurate.
The general shape of the western coastline is good, though, in relation to the west-east extent of the Gulf of Guinea coast, the coastline southwards to the Cape is too short. In Luis Maciasa€™ study, a mathematical methodology was applied to identify the underlying cartographic projection of the Atlantic region of the map, and to evaluate its latitudinal and longitudinal accuracy. Breve historia del mundo y su imagen (Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1968), Figure 25. The first of a series on geographical misconceptions,a€? The Map Collector 2 (March 1978), 3 (a large portrait of Columbus dressed as Saint Christopher).
A critical, documentary and historic investigation, with an essay on the early cartography of the New World (Paris, 1892), pp. Robles, a€?Juan de la Cosaa€™s Projection: A Fresh Analysis of the Earliest Preserved Map of the Americasa€?, Coordinates, MAGERT, Series A, No. North America, which in most early maps (up to 1506) normally consisted of separate islands, only later fusing into a cohesive whole, is shown on the Cosa map as a solid landmass extending far into the North Atlantic.A  In the west are the discoveries of Cabot in the north and of Columbus and the Spaniards in the West Indies and along the northeastern coasts of South America. The news of this discovery was probably brought to Spain while La Cosa was still working on his map.
It includes the island Guanahani, Columbusa€™ first landfall, alternatively known as San Salvador and now identified with Watling Island. La Cosa uses a similar ploy by truncating the route from Asia to avoid the question of whether Columbus and Cabot arrived in the far eastern Asia or in a new land. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself.
In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms".
Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism.
In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring.
It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation.
Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004.
Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage.
Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. This upcoming sale holds true with an exciting potpourri to include fine art, silver, jewelry, antique furniture, lighting, antique guns, Oriental pieces, pottery, porcelains and glass.
They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. They communicated in the same a€?learned languagea€?a€” Greek a€” and discussed a€?the same body of ideasa€?.
The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material.
Only Senefeldera€™s invention of lithography in 1796, and the innovative use of it for the mass printing of graphics, including in color, In the century that followed, allowed maps to be printed and distributed in quantity.
Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist.
A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes.
Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships.
But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. Various orders of power are implicit in the expression of these aspects of order in the environment. Some originating point is identified, such as the origins of science in Greece, or of mapmaking in Babylonia, from which a continuous history may be written from a presentist perspective, a tale of a discipline's inexorable progress from its originating moment to the present. Ancient Near Eastern maps may not have invariably been meant as exact or direct replications of territory, but there can be little doubt that they distinctively reflect the conceptual terrain of their social community and culture at large.
In the periods of their supremacy each was viewed as the center of the universe, as the meeting ground between heaven and the netherworld. The linguistic act of spatial description is perhaps a proto-mapmaking function of our very desire and attempt to place ourselves in relation to the physical world.
The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries.
From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties. We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven.
On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan.
Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors.
Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them.
Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire. John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions.
In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps.
Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella.
Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation.
It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena.
On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places.
To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society.
Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence.
Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. Notwithstanding several large holes, the map may be said to be in a good state of preservation. Thus in 1501-02 Cosa explored the Gulf of Uraba and the coast of Darien, yet these are not shown on his map nor are there any names on the hypothetical coasts drawn thereon. La Cosa has been called a€?the most expert mariner and unrivaled pilot of his age.a€? He participates as a cartographer in the second voyage of Columbus, from 1493 to 1494, and not as a pilot and owner of the Santa Maria the first trip in 1492, a view often repeated in the historiography of the discovery of the New World. The scale is given by a line of dots, unnumbered and unexplained; the distance between the points however is apparently intended to represent fifty miles. This line is also plainly indicated with a suitable inscription on the Cantino map made in 1502 (#306). It is presented as an island and not as part of the Asian continent, a view contrary to the concept of Columbus who always considered Cuba a peninsular extension of Asia. This event took place three months before the same side is seen by the explorer Portuguese Pedro Alvares Cabral (ca 1467-1520) during his journey to India via the Cape of Good Hope. The one exception is the east-west coast in the northwestern portion of La Cosaa€™s map with the five English flags shown at about 52A° north. Sebastian Cabot, in his map of 1544 (#372), indicated this landfall as Cape Breton island: This land was discovered by John Cabot the Venetian and Sebastian Cabot, his son, in the year 1497 on the 24th June in the morning, to which they gave the name a€?Land First Seena€?. On the other hand, the northernmost names represent certainly the points marked by John Cabot during his first voyage, whether we place them on the north coast of Labrador or on the east shores of Newfoundland. This was a characteristic of early Portuguese charts of this region: owing to adverse sailing conditions, it was usual to underestimate distances run. The results obtained show that La Cosaa€™s latitudes are in fact reasonably accurate between the English Channel and the Congo River for the Old World, and also between Cuba and the Amazon River for the New World.
The Annual Public Lecture on Books and Bibliography given at the University of Kansas in October 1962 (Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Libraries, 1964), Figure 4.
La Cosa has been called a€?the most expert mariner and unrivaled pilot of his age.a€?A  He participates as a cartographer in the second voyage of Columbus, from 1493 to 1494, and not as a pilot and owner of the Santa Maria the first trip in 1492, a view often repeated in the historiography of the discovery of the New World.
On the coast of the mainland farther north is the legend: Este cavo se descubrio en aA±o de mily IIII XCIX por Castilla syendo descubridor vicenttians. No special emphasis is given to this memorable locality.A  Haiti and Cuba are located north of the Tropic of Cancer.
In the Cantino map (#306), drawn in 1502, the coastline, alleged as aforesaid to be a duplicate of the island of Cuba, contains also numerous nomenclature. The map exemplifies the problem of the exact concept of the New World and the perception of geographical discovery in the days of La Cosa.
In the far northeastern corner of Asia, enclosed by a great semicircular river and split by a broad moat, a€?R[egio] Gota€? and a€?R[egio] Magota€?: above R. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909.
It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case.
Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low.
Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds.
Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent.
Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national.
A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh.
In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W. Images,snapshots,and pics often capture a sentiment,a mood,a feeling,or even an idea of a person who's at the center of attention. Of historical interest is a group of hand written Revolutionary War letters and a collection of 19th Master and Seaman contracts for New Bedford whaling vessels.It is always exciting and intriguing to see and hold actual pieces of history. This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
Their debate a€?did not penetrate very deepa€? within the culture, which is why one should draw a sharp distinction between descriptive geography, with its wide application, and mathematical or scientific geography, for which no such application was envisaged or achieved. The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation. After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text.
Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns.
They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. Administrative and economic powers support, or even require, the making of maps, as well as determining overtly the topographies that maps depict. Critical cartographic history, however, has laid aside such ideas, and we no longer look to (in the words of Denis Wood), a€?a hero saga involving such men as Eratosthenes, Ptolemy, Mercator, and the Cassinis, that tracked cartographic progress from humble origins in Mesopotamia to the putative accomplishments of the Greeks and Romansa€?. The maps of buildings and fields focus on the urban and agricultural environment, matters of critical importance to whatever political and economic powers prevailed.
The map of the principal temple in Babylon, E-sagil, which was the earthly abode of the national deity Marduk, represents the terrestrial counterpart to the celestial residence of the great god Enlil, designed, figuratively speaking, on the blueprint of the cosmic subterranean sweet watery region of the Apsu.
By extension, we should not doubt that mapmaking too, in all its historical subjectivity, is a universal feature of human culture.
The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens.
Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained.
Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean.
Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period.
Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret.
The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration.
In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances.
If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. Again Columbus in 1502-03 explored from Yucatan to Darien and his coasts and names are not shown on the Cosa map. From 1499 to 1500, La Cosa took part in voyages of discovery by Alonso de Ojeda (1471-1515), of Amerigo Vespucci (1451 - 1512) and Vicente Yanez PinzA?n (ca 1461-ca 1524). This position on the part of La Cosa must be regarded as indicating a change in design of the New World because at the behest of Columbus, he had, with other sailors, sworn in and signed the famous statement claiming that Cuba was part of Asia. The inscription Mar Duce refers to the mouth of the Orinoco River which La Cosa encountered during his voyage with Columbus. Five English flags in pale blue and brown, are planted in the North Coast with the inscription Mar descubierta ynglesie in [Sea discovered by the English].
On the other hand, the 1,200 miles of explored coastline is in all probability southern Newfoundland or Nova Scotia, so that the Cavo de Yngleterra must have lain further south, and Cape Race at once suggests itself, but as nothing more than a possibility. But as the line of English flagstaffs covers a space by far too extensive for the Cabot voyage of 1497, which lasted only three months, the legends placed further south necessarily apply to the expedition of 1498.
Well out in the Indian Sea, almost in the center, are two large islands, Zanabar and Madagascoa, as on Behaima€™s globe. Other important findings were that scale is mathematically consistent across the whole Atlantic basin, and that the line labeled Cancro on the map does not represent the Tropic of Cancer, as usually assumed, but the ecliptic.
The Italian portolan originated in the Greek periplus, a harbor-book or set of sailing directions describing harbors, shoals, distances, currents and winds, but containing no map.
A  Since Sebastian had no motive for lying about the location of the landfall there is no reason to doubt this statement. Well out in the Indian Sea, almost in the center, are two large islands, Zanabar and Madagascoa, as on Behaima€™s globe.A  La Cosa shows the coastline of Africa and the Cape of Good Hope with considerable accuracy. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D.
Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead.
Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel.
Throughout the years,pictures has become one of the most popular ways to capture memorable moments. Of historical interest coming up are six original hand written letters between Minuteman Captain Joshua Gray and his wife, Mary Gray (Yarmouthport, MA) during his absence fighting in the Revolutionary War.
Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. The reasons for this divide include the limited quantity of scientific geographic scholarship, the nature of communications and scarcity, and political factors. But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion. Any assumption that maps were widely available in the preindustrial world thus derives from anachronistic thinking based on later developments. There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing.
Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents. Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. The interest of the cuneiform maps lies in their rich articulation of such a feature, uniquely shaped by the particular social norms and forces that emerged and changed within ancient Mesopotamian history. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II.
There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e. At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres].
And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping. Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition.
The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history.
The weakest feature of the Cosa map is its grotesque representation of Brazil south of the equator. With others he signed the famous affidavit, demanded by Columbus, that he believed Cuba to be a part of the mainland of Asia. The scale on which the New World is drawn is larger than the Old World, the proportion is 1.4 to 1 with the consequent extension of the place America occupies in relation to Europe, Africa and traced part of Asia. The Costa de Perlas designates the north coast of South America discovered by Columbus in 1498 during his third voyage.
The underlying projection found for La Cosaa€™s map has a simple geometric interpretation and is relatively easy to compute, but had not been described in detail until this study. In The Mappemonde of Juan de la Cosa he held that the map is a copy and not an original work of La Cosa, and that it probably dates from about 1508 instead of 1500.
The Italian portolan was made on the model of the periplus but contained a map or chart showing the coastline and a few places along the coast, but, as it was intended only for seamen, it gave little information of the interior of even the most populous countries. Mar Dulce commemorates the current of fresh water at the mouth of the Orinoco River seen by La Cosa far out to sea when he was with Columbus on his second voyage. Christopher, with a pine tree as a staff, carrying the infant Jesus over the deep water, as Christopher Columbus carried the knowledge of Christ over the sea to the natives of the newly discovered lands.A A  Below the drawing of St.


The inscription on the southern coast of Asia, tierra descubierta por el Rey don Manuel Rey de portugal, refers to Vasco da Gamaa€™s voyage to Calicut on the western coast of India from which he had returned to Portugal the previous year from his first voyage. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture.
While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G.
Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. 449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982. And certainly,for a tantamount of consumer and shoppers you cant put a price tag on family and holiday pics. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge.
Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world. There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world.
It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia. This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era.
The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes.
Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands.
Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions.
The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction.
The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps.
There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice.
With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. This was excusable in 1500, but by 1508 Amerigo Vespucci was pilot-major of Spain and his great voyage from 5A° South to 42A° South would have been available for La Cosa to correct his outlines of South America. In 1499, he was chief pilot of Ojeda's expedition along the northern coast of South America.
Another consequence is that Brazil is almost the same latitude as Cape of Good Hope and that Cuba is placed above the Tropic of Cancer. This area was also seen by La Cosa, with Alonso de Ojeda (1466-ca 1515) and Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512).
La Cosa here refers to explorations in British North America, made in 1497 and 1498, John Cabot (ca 1455-1499).
Williamson, however who credits this charting to the Cabots in 1497-8 believes that the Cavo was Cape Breton, while G. Whatever the reason for this, it would appear that the Central and South American portion is on a larger scale than the rest of the map. It may have emerged involuntarily as a consequence of the mapmaking methods used by the mapa€™s author, but the historical context of the chart suggests that it was probably the result of a deliberate choice by the cartographer.
Costa de perlas, or the Pearl Coast, on the northern coast of South America, was first discovered by Columbus on his third voyage in 1498 and had been visited again by La Cosa, with Ojeda and Vespucci, in 1499. Its representation as an island, instead of a part of the mainland of Asia, indicates that La Cosa had changed his opinion since he signed the famous affidavit.
Christopher in the neck of the skin, is the inscription Juan de la Cosa la fizo en el puerto de s. Magot is a humanoid monster whose face is in its chest and who holds in each hand what appears, from the color and shape, to be a piece of meat. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education.
The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. Decades after the invention of the first camera, a large number of consumers and shoppers continue to take pics, in a hgh tech fashion.
No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars.
Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface. Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged.
The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities. Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense.
The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South.
Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society.
In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. The liA±a meridional, which crosses the extreme east of Brazil, is the line fixed in 1494 by the Treaty of Tordesillas, dividing the territories between Spain and Portugal.
The source used by La Cosa for this part is presumably inspired by the map of John Cabot on his explorations in America and now lost. The historian Henry Harrisse sees in this insular character of Cuba strong confirmation of the much-disputed story of Vespuccia€™s voyage along the coast of the mainland in 1497. The topos of Gog and Magog as anthropophagi has been merged with Solinusa€™ blemmyae in the latter example, with another legend concerning men with doga€™s heads in the former. Instead of the antiquated bulky cameras with huge lenses,consumers and shoppers frequently use SmartPhones and digital cameras to capture images and to take holiday pics. There is mention of long marches to Boston and other military references, as well as personal reports of the childrens well being thankfulness for their blessings.
The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports.
If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him.
Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction.
Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world.
La Cosa returned to Spain with Alonso de Ojeda [Hojeda] in July 1500 and left again with Bastidas for Colombia in October of that year, which means that the map was drawn between these months.
Upon his return from this expedition in 1500, he made his famous marine chart for Ferdinand and Isabella. This feature of the map indicates that La Cosa himself traced only the New World section and an anonymous cartographer added the section on the Old World to allow users of the map to compare the two.
Indeed, it is almost certain that La Cosa copied this part of the coast of Cabota€™s map drawn in 1497 after his return to England and sent to King Ferdinand by the Spanish ambassador to England, Pedro de Ayala. He points out that there is no record of any other voyage prior to 1500, the date of the map, which had revealed the insularity of Cuba, and that La Cosa may have obtained his information directly from Vespucci, while they were together under Ojeda, in 1499, on the Pearl Coast.
If so, it seems strange that he placed no Asiatic names upon it as other cartographers did later on.
86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. From family gatherings,to family picnics to traditional weddings to the holidays,consumers and shoppers often seize the opportunity at planned events and during the holidays for instance Thanksgiving and Christmas to take pictures of loved ones,family,friends and co workers.
Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization.
Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias.
The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India.
The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps.
Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars.
In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. Here again, if that region in the Cantino chart is really Cuba, we should find among its legends and designations the identical names that are inscribed on the Cuba of La Cosa, especially as both maps were crafted within a year of each other. These English coasts derive from the voyages of John Cabot from Bristol in 1497 and in 1498. In addition to Juan de la Cosa, some of the most distinguished makers of Renaissance portolan charts were Alberto Cantino (#306), Nicolo de Caveri (#307), Diego Ribero (#346), Vesconte de Maiollo (#328.2) and Battista Agnese (#371). The later world maps of Cantino, and of Caveri, 1502, agree with La Cosa in putting water and a mainland west of Cuba; indeed these two maps are even more explicit than that of La Cosa in that they place more than a score of names on the supposed mainland, which may be identified as Florida. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs.
Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?.
What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate.
They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form.
Skelton wrote: a€?The only map which unambiguously illustrates John Cabota€™s voyage of 1497 . Since founding csaccac Inc in 2010, as Founder and President,I fill many hats including Product Tester and photographer. These are the original letters which are reproduced in the Joshua Gray of Yarmouthport and His Descendents, compiled by Julia Edgar Thacher in 1914.
Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter.
It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement.
And truthfully speaking,in the beginning I experienced some difficulty;however,after I purchased my first digital camera I began to feel comfortable and enjoy the ease of taking pics with a digital camera. Months after I purchased my first digital camera,I set my sights on a tripod, a universal stand to hold my digital camera. Hathaway between May 1878 and January 1882 for the Bark Veronica out of the Port of New Bedford to the Western Islands and Madeira. The main reason I purchased a tripod__ at the time, I wanted to create high quality self pics and group pics.
The document records seamens, signatures, physical appearance, age, birth place, wages, capacities, etc. Eventhough, I've had my tripod for some months,I am still learning the ins and outs of both my digital camera and tripod.
Built in 1878, the Bark Veronica last sailed in November and was lost off the coast of Madeira on December 16th, 1885.
Williamson reveals that this voyage coasted from Greenland to New England and that Cabota€™s ship went down off Newfoundland, leaving the consort vessel to bring news of his end to England in the early summer of 1499. Well,if you havent guessed or envisioned what the featured product for the month of November 2013 looks like or remotely even resembles __then as productor tester I guess I'll do the honors first__it's my tripod.
Master & Seamans Agreements, New Bedford ships late 19th cUp for bid also is a collection of eight Agreements between Master and Seamen for the whaling schooner The Lottie Beard out of New Bedford. The English coasts on the Cosa map consequently represent the discoveries made in the 1497 voyage.
Cabot left Bristol on 2nd May 1497 in a little ship called the Matthew, with a crew of only eighteen men.
Information as to his discoveries in English records is meager but certain statements provide a skeleton by which they may be reconstructed. Eventually, I wanted to find out what the craze had been all about and the reason that consumers seemed to ofA  been trading in personal computers for Tablets,_well, at least leaving them at home. Voyages lasted for 6 to 8 months time and included ports in Africa, the North and South Atlantic, St. Ultimately, I placed online an order for a NookHD+ then opt to pick up the tech item from the store instead of waiting for it to be shipped to my place of residency. AA  few weeks with the NookHD+, I was hooked_eventhough, IA  wasna€™t a fan of touchscreen only. And in all honesty, since the beginning of the Smart Phone craze, I had insisted upon that all of my primary tech gadgets used for work, research and blogging had to be equipped with a QWERTY keyboard. However, in this particular instance,The NookHD+, again, touchscreen only, I made an exception. As I continued to learn the ins and outs of my newly purchased NookHD+ , at the same time, I began to inquire about the accessories compatible with the tech gadget. Sangler , John Clinton Spencer and Fannie Eliza Duvall, as well as, a finely executed signed French still life with a basket of plums.
In doing so, I foundA  the tech item had a Stylus Pen specifically made to use with the NookHD+.
Hardwick painting, Fall River artist Pauline Coylar and two watercolors by 19th century Dutch artists Louis Van Staaten and Francis William Van Vreeland 1902 Rookwood Pottery artist).
Weeks later, I purchased a different kind of Stylus Pen , I noticed while standing atA  the checkout counter at Walgreens,pictured next to this article is that Stylus Pen. Five Roger Etienne oils, an early 19th Chinese School oil painting, Old master style Madonna oil by E Bianchini (Ital.
Quite astonishing the Stylus Pen worked wellA  with both of my tech gadgets ( Smart Phone & Tablet). Also of interest is a Russian bronze sculpture, Crawling Soldier by Eveni Alexandrovich Lansere (Lanceray), Russian (1848-1886). A frequent question a tantamount of consumers and shoppers find themselves entertaining especially during the holidays when manufacturers and retailers offer what they consider to be great deals and bargains. After giving the device a run for its money as well as a brief critique of the various apps and functions,I stated in my review of the Nook HD+ how pleased I was with the tech gadget.
Further into the critique, I also commented that I was soooo pleased with the tech gadget that I wanted to protect my investment.
He died at age 38.A Eugeny Alexandrovich Lansere Russian guilded Bronze Figure"Crawling Soldier", 1848-1886. Based on my income and budget,I considered the purchase of the Nook HD+ to be a major purchase of the year.
Shortly after, I purchased the Nook HD+,I began to look at the recommended accessories for the tech gadget. Winslow, Wallace Grand Baroque, Manchester Gadroonette, Lunt English Shell, as well as, several miscellaneous flatware and hollowware lots. Eventually, after I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange 14 day trial period,I chose to protect my investment with a Nook HD+ cover. A fine Georg Jensen #141 salad set and other Danish and Norwegian pieces will be offered, as well as, an ornate Gorham Cherub bon bon spoon, Mexican sterling bowl and a large ornate. As I began to search and think of different items that could be the product of the month for September,I began to heavily weigh in on August's product of the month,the Nook HD+cover. Hours later,I arrived to the assertion that there's more than one way to protect your investment. With the assertion___, there's more than one way to protect your investment, I made the final choice to make Smart Phone covers as the product of the month for September.
Furthermore, within the past five years,Ive purchased several Smart Phones from Virgin Mobile. To be truthful, I've even purchased Smart Phone insurance,a good choice because a few months later my Smart Phone had an accident. Despite all of the stuff I tried, sampled, tasted and tested during the recent months, as a result of a long review and critique besides from featuring the Smart Phone as a product of the month,I began to think of the different ways Ia€™ve used to protect my Smart Phone as an alternative product of the month. For instance,Smart Phone insurance has been one the ways I protect my investment from unexpected accidents. Ostensibly, there's more than one way to protect your Smart Phone from accidents such as, for example, you accidentally drop and break your Smart Phone or in some weird, odd, freak accident as you rush out the door you accidentally step on your Smart Phone or heaven forbids the same thing happens to you that happen to me, a few months ago, I dropped my Smart Phone in the toilet. Other Chinese lots consist of an early Chinese School oil on canvas, a 19th century ornately carved dragon motif scholars paperweight or seal, a mid 19th c Japanese Imari bowl, 19th c Rose Medallion covered vegetable dishes, Chinese Export Celadon Melon jar and covered bowl. Without a question, eschewing further debate, Smart Phone insurance is a great investment for consumers and shoppers who use their Smart Phone daily and for work. Chinese Ming pottery glazed parrot and figure of Shou Lau (God of Immortality), three Seasons inlayed soapstone and hard stone panels and an early pair of monumental Chinese bronze Temple candlesticks (one with some loss). Best of all, Smart Phone insurance usually saves the consumer from digging deep into their pockets. So, what about before those mishaps and accidents, if you havena€™t figured it out__ there's more than one way to protect your investment. Even though, at first, I might of skipped over protecting my investments, I am more open to the idea of investing and protecting my major purchases. Here's an example of what I am talking about, I currently have several Smart Phone covers to protect my Smart Phone from breakage, moisture, and malfunctioning.
A documentationfrom the Cody Firearms Museum accompanies a custom made Winchester Model 21 skeet grade shotgun with inlayed gold monogram. Otis McIntyre.A Pair of cased Belgian Percussion Muff Traveling Pistols with concealed trigger marked "ELG" proof mark.
Varying in price,color,size and shape, most of today's Smart Phone manufacturers and retailers offer to consumers and shoppers Smart Phone covers as an accessory. From passwords, to anti-theft apps, to screen locks and codes, there's more than one way to protect your investment.
Regardless of the price, and hopefully it is within your budget, a true frugal savvy shopper knows the importance of protecting their investment.
Other lots of note include an 18th century wooden moulding plane by I Nicholson of Wrentham, Massachusetts (the first plane maker in the country), a Buckingham Plymouth cranberry scoop, Salesman's Sample "Relief Wringer" with tub, cast iron Black Cat with glass eyes doorstop, Leica DRP Ernst Leitz Wetzlar camera, 19th century Russian lacquer paper mache, Arts & crafts wrought iron log holder, FolkArt rooster weathervane, cobalt blue decorated crocksand G Bonner German silvered plaque. Above everything else,both I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange process,quite remarkable,I even have the receipt to prove it.
Unlike sooo manyA  items, I ve returned and exchanged in the past,__it,meaning my Nook HD+ survived the fourteenth days as printed on the receipt. A business practice that's part of Barnes and Noble store policy that allows customers fourteen days to return an item. In short,the 14th day, adhering to store policy was the final day that I couldA  actually return my Nook HD+ and get cash back. Please arrange your absentee and phone bid requests in advance with Kathryn (508) 269-9275.
It goes without saying ,I readA  the instructions,totally unavoidable with a new tech gadget,as well as,downloaded apps,and,uploaded wallpapers. Not quite sure,on the day I purchased my Nook HD+__ifA  in fact, I would be satisfied with my purchase,I chose at the time not to purchase any kind of accessories. As it turns out,I was soooo pleased with my purchase of the Nook HD+,I wanted to protect my investments.
It doesnt matter if you're on lunch break,on a mini vacation,at a webinar or conference,filling out an online report or having to send emails can be a hassle if you don't have a wifi connection,a Broadband device is just one of the many tech gadgets that consumers and shoppers frequently use to get an internet connection. Constantly,on the go,I wanted to have access to wifiA  while away from my place of residency. Because,I perform an arrary task that frequently requires wifi access ,I purchased a Broadband to Go device from Virgin Mobile. Egregiously,as a Virgin Mobile customer and fan,I live by Virgin Mobile products except in the case of Virgin Mobile wifi devices. Recently,I purchased Virgin Mobile's MiFi 2200 to conciliate my worries about not being able to access wifi home. Aside from very slow internet speed,the device could only connect to one tech gadget and,the 3G USB plug n play stick broke too easily. Affordable,great to have on hand for shopping emergencies,the latest in recycling,a recyclable tote makes shopping less of a hassle. Ditching the old biodegradeable plastic bags for a recyclable tote,it's a smart move and a great investment for frugal,savvy,and environmentally conscious consumers and shoppers.Available in most local chain stores and at grocery stores,recyclable totes are becoming the better choice than leaving stores with the traditional biodegradeable plastic bag. Part of a movement to get consumers and shoppers involved in recycling and to think about going green,consumers and shoppers now have the option of trading in those plastic bags for a recyclable tote. A frequent shopper,I usually purchase a couple of recyclable totes to hold store purchases and other stuff. Eventhough,I like having the choice to purchase a recyclable tote,I havent completely stop using biodegradeable plastic bags. However,I have to point out the fact that when a consumer and shoppers purchase a recyclable tote they're not limited to using the tote only in that store,that's why they're called recyclable totes because they can be used more than once. In fact, most recycable totes last for more than a week,I should know because I still have a few leftover from the previous month.
A great deal,a really good find,a price you wont find anywhere else,and the best price among competitors,I love a great sale and I love rewards for shopping. Savings and Rewards,for most consumers and shoppers,it's all about getting the best price for items purchase daily.
From household supplies to groceries,anyone who shops frequently knows consumers and shoppers love a really good sale_,the economic recession of 2008 could be the culprit. In fact,since the 2008 economic recession savings and rewards has become extremely important to American families on a budget. For many American consumers and shoppers,the unexpected downturn of the American economy caused a disruption in their daily activies thus forcing consumer and shoppers to rethink the way they shop and how they shop. As a frequent shopper and consumer,I am constantly looking for a great deal and sales on items I purchase regularly,mainly because I do live on a strict budget. Admittedly,after the 2008 economic recession,I rediscovered coupons,and began clipping coupons frequently. In addition to clipping coupons,I also began to check sale ads at home and at the door of stores before shopping. Along with making a shopping list,clipping coupons at home,checking sale ads at the door and comparing prices,these days one of the best ways to save and get the best deals,I feel without a question has to be with a savings and reward card.
And speaking honestly, a savings and rewards card from your local chain store should be a consumer or shoppers BF(bestie).
A must have for consumers and shoppers who seriously want to save,a savings and rewards card. Throughout the years, my experience with last minute shopping in most instances was not too pleasant. Admittedly,I empathize as well as concur with consumers who express sentiments that last minute shopping makes the shopper(consumer) feel uncomfortable and forlorn with the just thought of buying a gift at the last minute. Often tight on funds to purchase a gift ahead of time,last minute shopping for an overwhelmed consumer with a limited budget could cause the consumer to be late and in some instance not to attend the event or special function. Subsequently, over the years, I have come to realize that last minute shopping it's not the best of fun.
As a result, I definitely would not recommend last minute shopping to a consumer as a shopping tip.
Unequivocally, shopping for special events and functions such as finding an appropriate could take several visits different stores.
Finding the appropriate could mean spending an entire day in a Hallmark store reading cards, it could also mean spending all day on the phone with friend or relatives discussing gift registry,preferences,stores,likes and dislike of the recipient.
Ostensibly,the older you get the adults in your life expect two things from you one not to embarrass them in public and two if you don't have a gift to bring at least show up at special functions on time.
Indeed, an earnest shopper as well as a meticulous shopper knows finding the right gift or card for a special function could require hours of shopping and visiting different stores.
Shopping done precipitously could result in purchasing the wrong size,color, or something way out in left field.
Don't wait until the last minute to shop for a party,baby showers,bachelorette bash,birthdays,holidays ,and anniversaries avoid uncomfortableness and the feeling of being inadequate,plan the week before. On certain days, I have even shopped the day of the event that often leaves me feeling embarrassed ashamed, and guilty about my finances even worse depress.
Incontrovertibly,last minute shopping in many instances could causes the consumer to become distraught,exasperated, and disconcerted not surprisingly all the emotions take away from the planned day. What's more important being punctilious for the planned event or arriving with a hand picked gift for the recipient or recipients?
Ultimately,the answer remains with the shopper (consumer) The answer should be non bias and based on the event as well as the recipient and not the shoppers wallet .
The meticulous consumer that normally keeps track of birthdays, holidays,and anniversaries with calendars,through emails,P DA's ,Smart phones and other tech savvy gadgets of courses would not necessarily share the same feelings of a last minute shopper .



Did you have a girlfriend in high school
Free site to upload pictures and videos