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The Department of Computer Science hosts the world-famous computer scientist and inventor of Genetic Algorithms (GA's), Dr. Genalytics Model 6.0 transforms large amounts of transaction data into predictive intelligence and uses genetic algorithms to automatically search and identify key combinations of time series variables found in any dataset. Starting today, past and present IlliGAL lab members and affiliates will team up to blog on genetic algorithms, evolutionary computation, and related subjects. GECCO, I was re-reading Sam Mahfoud's paper titled "population sizing for Sharing methods". Since niching mechanism is one of the key components of hierarchical and multiobjective genetic algorithms, the population-sizing paper deserves renewed attention. Over a number of years, I've followed research in iGAs and some time ago, I started to collect information about market research and product development with the idea of founding a company to do just that using interactive GA technology. Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators Library (SPRNG): An RNG library that combines various available random number generators and supports both serial and parallel platforms.
Mersenne Twister (MT): An RNG which has a period of 2^19937-1 with an assured 623-dimensional equidistribution property (Thanks to Jaume for pointing me to MT). Experiments showed that a lower mixing rate increases both the population size needed and the convergence time. Business Week article gives an overview of BBN's Boomerang project now fielded in Iraq to protect Allied troops by detecting and locating sniper fire.
This story is fine as far as it goes, but as GA afficianadoes well know, the BBN effort was supported by a crack team of card-carrying genetic algorithmists.
This year's Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2005) is 25-29 June 2005 in Washington DC. Those with artistic or creative talent should try their skills at designing the new SIGEVO logo as the competition ends February 7th. Martin Pelikan's book titled "Hierarchical Bayesian Optimization Algorithm: Toward a New Generation of Evolutionary Algorithms" is now available. More details regarding hBOA and to download the software visit the hBOA page and Martin's webpage.
Lately, I have moved from WEKA to D2K, a data mining framework developed by the Automated Learning Group at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. We all know that computational complexity of GAs depends primarily on the population size and the number of generations. What I like on using the bisection method is that all parameter tweaking will be done automatically (and thus I don't have to do it myself), because the remaining GA parameters do not influence time complexity as much (mostly by some constant factor and that's not so important when we talk about asymptotic upper bounds).
Of course, the above thinking is correct only if larger populations lead to better solutions (given enough generations we should all be able to believe this fact) and if smaller populations do not significantly increase the number of generations (in all cases I studied, any sufficiently large population size lead to about the same number of generations, as can be expected for many variants of evolutionary algorithms based primarily on recombination). Technology Review article also highlights the history of evolutionary computation a€“ briefly mentioning the work of Holland, Goldberg, Koza, and others.
Theory and Applications of Efficient Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (CS, Feng Chia University, 2004) was ranked number one among all CS dissertations in a national competition held under the auspices of the Institute of Information & Computing Machinery (IICM).
Oregon Daily Emerald reports that James Bean, noted operations researcher, genetic algorithmist, and inventor of the random keys technique for permutation and other combinatorial problems, is using genetic algorithms to help develop sustainable automobile technology in his new role as Dean of the Lundquist College of Business. The usage of EDAs can help addressing two major issues in XCS: (1) knowledge extraction and (2) structure identification. Toronto Globe and Mail reports that researchers at Laurentian University are using genetic algorithms to schedule mining of ore deposits. Science Daily posts a University of Michigan press release entitled Falling Prey to Machines?
According to Holland, the problem with developing artificial intelligence through things like genetic algorithms is that researchers don't yet understand how to define what computer programs should be evolving toward. According to Holland, advances in software have not kept pace with the exponential improvements in hardware processing power, and there are many artificial intelligence problems that cannot be solved by simply performing more calculations. Acovea (analysis of compiler options via evolutionary algorithm) is an open source project which utilizes GAs to tune the optimization flags for GCC to yield the fastest code specifically for your computer. Another reason for the current situation is that human lifespans are no longer a good match to the turnover in intellectual ideas. So, it is in this sense, that the acceptance of SIGEVO by ACM couldn't come at a better time, and should be seen as a very positive thing. Of course, department heads when asked about tenure and promotion will tell you that each case is special and is scrutinized without regard for brand names. It will take some time to know the overall effect, and indeed, joining a large bureaucratic organization like ACM will come with its share of constraints and costs.
Sam Williams's recent article "Unnatural Selection" in Technology Review is getting some blog traction. Another script I use very often is a perl wrapper for gnuplot, the plotting program from the GNU project.
This script receives as parameters a variable-length number of data files to overlap in the same plot. Don't forget, the new motherboards and processors drain a lot of power, so you need about 1.5 Amps per node.
ATA Engineering announced the release of version 1.0 of the Attune package for test-analysis correlation and model updating. In beta testing, a key aerospace customer used Attune to carry out hundreds of real-time correlation iterations during modal testing of a launch vehicle payload, whereas prior to this they were limited to less than a dozen manual correlations a week. Additional information is available from the Attune product website or the full press release.
Finally, a third way of approaching animation synthesis was presented by Torsten Reil, from Natural Motion.
By studying time series patterns, organizations can identify credit risks, anticipate customer attrition, and detect probable bankruptcies.
In April 1994, a graduate student named Kate Sherwood (Ducky) put up the first IlliGAL web page. In the last American election cycle, blogging grew as a force to rival the mainstream media.
The population-sizing estimate though derived for fitness sharing, also holds for other niching methods such as restricted tournament selection as well. Ever since Dawkins famous Blind Watchmaker code, and Caldwell and Johnston's Faceprints work at ICGA 91, the idea of having user-driven subjective functions in place of predetermined objective functions has opened the door to evolving art, music, poetry, and more. My dreams of a great startup were dashed one semester when during my genetic algorithms course, some students researching their class project uncovered a company that was already vigorously pursuing interactive GAs in marketing applications. A simple idea such as a round robin of small disjoint training sets greatly helps Pittsburgh classifier systems in the quest for generality. Not only is the math difficult, but the system also had to work in the cacophony of urban warfare, including echoes from shots -- and do it on the move.
An article written by BBNers Hussain, Montana, Brinn & Cerys entitled Genetic algorithms for UGV navigation, sniper fire localization, and unit of action fuel distribution was presented last June at GECCO 2004 at the Workshop on Military and Security Applications of Evolutionary Computation (MSAEC-2004). In his book, Martin presents a principled method for designing and analyzing scalable genetic algorithms that can solve boundedly-difficult, hierarchically-decomposable problems in polynomial (usually sub-quadratic) time.
I know Martin and Jaume have also been using some of this tools too in their data mining related papers. LIBSVM is an integrated software for support vector classification, (C-SVC, nu-SVC ), regression (epsilon-SVR, nu-SVR) and distribution estimation (one-class SVM ).
Given that we know the optimum, the number of generations can be determined by the GA itself---when the GA finds the optimum or the entire population converges to it (or gets close enough), we've got it. The basic idea is to first determine a reasonable initial interval (min,max) of population sizes where min is too small and max is too large. To eliminate noise, the bisection can be run several times and the results of all bisection runs can be averaged (right now I use 10 rounds of bisection, each with 10 runs).
To determine whether or not the second condition is at least partially satisfied, one can try one problem size (rather larger than smaller) and test whether the overall complexity decreases for larger populations than the one determined by the bisection. From jet engine fan blade design to minimizing power consumption of long-distance pipelines, the article cites several applications of genetic algorithms and genetic programming. Recently, such approaches are slowly infiltrating in the learning classifier systems world.
Knowledge extraction addresses the issue of mining problem knowledge from the final solution developed by XCS. He told me that the problematic GA runs would converge to a mediocre solutions, but different parts within those solution were of good quality. Thesis Symmetry in the Representation of an Optimization Problem and related papers, available as IlliGAL technical reports 2001020 and 2001030 are a good starting point for anyone interested in knowing more about symmetry and synchronization problems in optimization in general, and GAs in particular. While hardware performance continues to double almost every year and a half, the doubling time for software performance is at least 20 years.
I've been heavily involved in the process of this transformation, and so my views are not entirely unbiased (no one's views are entirely unbiased or so any good postmodernist would claim), but I think this move is good for ISGEC, good for ACM, good for the field of genetic and evolutionary computation, and good for computer science. First wave evolutionary computation researchers (and cyberneticists of all stripes) in the late 50s and 60s were just getting their sea legs under them when Minsky and Papert's premature and misleading hatchet job on neural networks appeared and took the wind out of cybernetic sails generally.
With GECCO as an ACM conference proceedings, young faculty can safely put their work there without endlessly defending their choice.
Department heads have told me that the decision to move from ISGEC to SIGEVO will make absolutely no difference to them. But, in the end, I believe the young people in the PhD pipeline will benefit immensely through higher probability of hiring, better chances to tenure, and improved prospects of funding as the once outlaw field of genetic algorithms and evolutionary computation comes in off the range, hangs up its six-shooter, and becomes a law-abiding denizen of the mainstream of computer science. I have used it extensively to compute statistical tests, and I made a script to automatize most of the testing process. It uses the Bonferroni correction to ajust the significance level of the tests for the multiple comparisons. The script generates draft plots just to check how do the results look, without the overhead of launching other programs that can generate more fancy plots like Matlab. We mostly use the cluster to run multiple GA runs to collect statistics, and also for testing the effect of different parameters on the scalability of the algorithms (For example, see Martin's blog). That means they produce a lot of heat, but nothing that a few well placed fans and couple of ACs can't fix.
He tackled the problem by using a set of controllers and running it through a set of genetic algorithms to develop the motion he wanted out of them. Images,snapshots,and pics often capture a sentiment,a mood,a feeling,or even an idea of a person who's at the center of attention.


His talk on Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) will discuss the study of complexity, innovation, and relations between CAS and GA's.
To my discredit, I didn't understand why she was so fascinated by the web, but in my defense, I didn't get in her way.
In less well followed topics, blogging is growing at astonishing rates, and we hope that IlliGAL Blogging will become a resource and focal point for intelligent discourse in the growing community of genetic and evolutionary computation (GEC). Of course, a lot of water has passed over the iGA dam since the early days, and for those interested in a fairly recent update on the state of interactive evolutionary computation, I recommend Hideyuki Takagi's article. That company, Affinova, has married iGAs and practical market research and product development notions to create a unique line of products and services. On the Michigan approach, however, such issue was settled down after the idea of evolving classifiers based on accuracy by Wilson (now celebrating the 10th anniversary of its publication). The paper details the development of Boomerang and other GA-based military-security applications.
Written in Java, it is easy to use, providing a flexible environment for rapid preliminary filtering and analysis of raw data. The thing I like the most about D2K, and one of the reasons for switching, is the data flow oriented paradigm that it uses.
It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. Most likely, the complexity increases with the population size and thus the bisection can run the experiments for us. Chen takes the methodology of The Design of Innovation and applies it to understanding the approximate complexity of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs).
The goal is to identify most important features in the problem and the dependencies among those features. I remembered Clarissa's worka€”that she did during her visit to IlliGALa€”about how strong symmteries in problems such as Ising and other spin-glass models can cause synchorinization problems and how niching methods can be used to avoid them. Intelligence was just one of many traits that human beings exploited to increase their odds of survival, and the test for survival was absolute. For too long, GAs and EC more generally have lived in the backwaters of academic and industrial life. When he was asked how the acceptance of his revolutionary ideas in quantum physics was going, it is reported that he said, "Wonderful, lots of funerals." In Plank's day, perhaps the natural turnover in faculty matched the turnover of ideas, but in our time, rapid change in thinking has not been matched with a concomitant shortening of faculty life expectancy.
With ACM affiliated journals in EC and GP, department heads have the moral equivalent of a Good Housekeeping seal of approval on our field to rely upon instead of the pleas of a lone faculty member up for tenure. But consumers will tell you that their decisions to buy products are also made on a case-by-case basis without regard for brands--as their grocery baskets fill with Crest, Tide, Mach 3, Ragu, Pepsi, Twinkies, and Tide.
It supposes that the results are paired, like the results obtained, for instance, from a stratified ten-fold cross-validation test. Since then, quite a few people have asked me a how to build such a cluster, what components to buy, etc.
Throughout the years,pictures has become one of the most popular ways to capture memorable moments. Since then, the IlliGAL web site has grown and users from countries around the world generate some 8.4 million hits in nearly 200,000 visits annually. Subsequently I met company executive Rob Frasca in another context, and got the chance to tell him how Affinova was the company that broke my entrepreneurial heart. Like supersonic airplanes, bullets create shock waves -- mini-sonic booms -- as they speed through the air. These efforts are the result of longstanding GA work at BBN initiated by Dave Davis (now of NuTech Solutions) and carried on by Dave Montana and other hardworking GA types. Recently, I have notice the existence at least more than 20 different projects using such framework. Using an intuitive graphical editor, complicated analysis and visualization task are rapidly deployed by simple drag & drop.
I have been using it in some of my recent research, and if you are interested in such areas, I definitely recommend you to take a look at it. A "good" population size should be the one that ensures reliable convergence to the optimum (where "reliable may be defined any way we want, for instance, that the algorithm finds the optimum successfully in 9 out of 10 independent runs). Thereafter, he successfully applies carefully designed MOEAs to problems in production planning and design of nearest-neighbor classifiers.
Bean was on the faculty of the Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering (IOE) of the University of Michigan for many years, where he also held the position of Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.
The extracted knowledge may not only be used for further data mining, but may actually be re-fed into the system giving it further competence in solving problems in which dependent features, that is, building blocks, need to be processed effectively. So, I suggested him that there might be synchronization issues with the problematic instances and using a niching method might be the solution. No mention is made of who the reseachers are or what department, college, or lab they come from. Defining an equivalent test of fitness for targeting intelligence as an evolutionary goal for machines, however, has been elusive. Finally, the rise of symbolic AI and the subsequent cybernetics winter made it academically disreputable to persist in the "folly" of genetic algorithms and evolutionary computation, but persist the field did, and we are here today because of the courage of a small group who swam against the intellectual currents of the 60s, 70s, and 80s. The result is large numbers of powerful faculty in charge with ideas in mind that are more than a little behind the time.
In a busy world, trusted brands allow buyers to get quality products at low risk of error and low search costs.
And certainly,for a tantamount of consumer and shoppers you cant put a price tag on family and holiday pics.
The website has undergone kaizen or continual improvement since Ducky's early efforts, and this blog represents the latest in a series of new features to be added to the site over the years. For those interested in a nice case study of marrying GAs and business read the Affinova white paper here. So if engineers arrange seven microphones like the spines of a sea urchin, a shock wave from a bullet will hit each microphone at a slightly different time, like a wave lapping against different pebbles on a beach. It is difficult enough working in the obscure vineyards of GAs and EC, but when a group used to toiling in obscurity does something deserving of national recognition, it would be nice if the mainstream business press would get the story right and at least mention the names of the people who really got the job done. I have been heavily using D2K in the DISCUS project, and I have no regrets about not using WEKA anymore. Herb Simon talks about decomposability of most complex real-world systems, which is a feature that a good evolutionary algorithm should be able to exploit. The dissertation concludes with novel theory and empirical work that carry over the method of fitness inheritance to MOEAs. Lo and behold, he came back yesterday and said using niching significantly improved the GA performance! Nonetheless, a Google search on the search terms, "genetic algorithms," "mining," and "Laurentian University" quickly leads to the following link. Thus, it is difficult to draw comparisons between how human intelligence developed and how artificial intelligence could evolve. After all, evolution is one of the biggest ideas in all of science, and the impact of modern genetics is hard to overstate, so it seems quite natural that computations based on evolution and genetics should have an important place in science and technology. Unfortunately, the most obvious solutions to this problem are serious felonies, and no one is here suggesting that steps be taken to cull the herd.
In the new world of ACM and SIGEVO, CS departments and their heads will be able to rely on a trusted brand in one of the most important decisions they make, the hiring, retention, and promotion of faculty. Decades after the invention of the first camera, a large number of consumers and shoppers continue to take pics, in a hgh tech fashion. Only good words is what I have about D2K's quality and how much effort the ALG people put into it to make a great package easy to extend and customize. I'd strongly suggest this book to anyone interested in somewhat a philosphical discussion of what types of problems we should be trying to solve with our optimizers.
The Laurentian University Mining Automation Laboratory (LUMAL) under the direction of Nick Vayenas is applying simulation, robotics, and genetic algorithms to various mining problems. Why, then, have GAmists and ECers been largely relegated to second tier schools, non-tenured posts, or non-CS departments (even, god forbid, engineering departments)?
And thanks to Srikant-Uni-of-Glasgow-Travails and SoloGen for the links to IlliGAL Blogging.
Instead of the antiquated bulky cameras with huge lenses,consumers and shoppers frequently use SmartPhones and digital cameras to capture images and to take holiday pics. We can pray for crisper reporting from the the Globe and Mail, but in the meanwhile, odds are that this is the GA mining work that was so cryptically cited. From family gatherings,to family picnics to traditional weddings to the holidays,consumers and shoppers often seize the opportunity at planned events and during the holidays for instance Thanksgiving and Christmas to take pictures of loved ones,family,friends and co workers. Since founding csaccac Inc in 2010, as Founder and President,I fill many hats including Product Tester and photographer.
And truthfully speaking,in the beginning I experienced some difficulty;however,after I purchased my first digital camera I began to feel comfortable and enjoy the ease of taking pics with a digital camera. Months after I purchased my first digital camera,I set my sights on a tripod, a universal stand to hold my digital camera. The main reason I purchased a tripod__ at the time, I wanted to create high quality self pics and group pics. Eventhough, I've had my tripod for some months,I am still learning the ins and outs of both my digital camera and tripod. Well,if you havent guessed or envisioned what the featured product for the month of November 2013 looks like or remotely even resembles __then as productor tester I guess I'll do the honors first__it's my tripod. Eventually, I wanted to find out what the craze had been all about and the reason that consumers seemed to ofA  been trading in personal computers for Tablets,_well, at least leaving them at home.
Ultimately, I placed online an order for a NookHD+ then opt to pick up the tech item from the store instead of waiting for it to be shipped to my place of residency. AA  few weeks with the NookHD+, I was hooked_eventhough, IA  wasna€™t a fan of touchscreen only. And in all honesty, since the beginning of the Smart Phone craze, I had insisted upon that all of my primary tech gadgets used for work, research and blogging had to be equipped with a QWERTY keyboard.
However, in this particular instance,The NookHD+, again, touchscreen only, I made an exception.
As I continued to learn the ins and outs of my newly purchased NookHD+ , at the same time, I began to inquire about the accessories compatible with the tech gadget.


In doing so, I foundA  the tech item had a Stylus Pen specifically made to use with the NookHD+. Weeks later, I purchased a different kind of Stylus Pen , I noticed while standing atA  the checkout counter at Walgreens,pictured next to this article is that Stylus Pen. Quite astonishing the Stylus Pen worked wellA  with both of my tech gadgets ( Smart Phone & Tablet).
A frequent question a tantamount of consumers and shoppers find themselves entertaining especially during the holidays when manufacturers and retailers offer what they consider to be great deals and bargains. After giving the device a run for its money as well as a brief critique of the various apps and functions,I stated in my review of the Nook HD+ how pleased I was with the tech gadget.
Further into the critique, I also commented that I was soooo pleased with the tech gadget that I wanted to protect my investment. Based on my income and budget,I considered the purchase of the Nook HD+ to be a major purchase of the year. Shortly after, I purchased the Nook HD+,I began to look at the recommended accessories for the tech gadget. Eventually, after I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange 14 day trial period,I chose to protect my investment with a Nook HD+ cover.
As I began to search and think of different items that could be the product of the month for September,I began to heavily weigh in on August's product of the month,the Nook HD+cover. Hours later,I arrived to the assertion that there's more than one way to protect your investment. With the assertion___, there's more than one way to protect your investment, I made the final choice to make Smart Phone covers as the product of the month for September. Furthermore, within the past five years,Ive purchased several Smart Phones from Virgin Mobile. To be truthful, I've even purchased Smart Phone insurance,a good choice because a few months later my Smart Phone had an accident. Despite all of the stuff I tried, sampled, tasted and tested during the recent months, as a result of a long review and critique besides from featuring the Smart Phone as a product of the month,I began to think of the different ways Ia€™ve used to protect my Smart Phone as an alternative product of the month.
For instance,Smart Phone insurance has been one the ways I protect my investment from unexpected accidents. Ostensibly, there's more than one way to protect your Smart Phone from accidents such as, for example, you accidentally drop and break your Smart Phone or in some weird, odd, freak accident as you rush out the door you accidentally step on your Smart Phone or heaven forbids the same thing happens to you that happen to me, a few months ago, I dropped my Smart Phone in the toilet. Without a question, eschewing further debate, Smart Phone insurance is a great investment for consumers and shoppers who use their Smart Phone daily and for work. Best of all, Smart Phone insurance usually saves the consumer from digging deep into their pockets.
So, what about before those mishaps and accidents, if you havena€™t figured it out__ there's more than one way to protect your investment. Even though, at first, I might of skipped over protecting my investments, I am more open to the idea of investing and protecting my major purchases.
Here's an example of what I am talking about, I currently have several Smart Phone covers to protect my Smart Phone from breakage, moisture, and malfunctioning. Varying in price,color,size and shape, most of today's Smart Phone manufacturers and retailers offer to consumers and shoppers Smart Phone covers as an accessory.
From passwords, to anti-theft apps, to screen locks and codes, there's more than one way to protect your investment. Regardless of the price, and hopefully it is within your budget, a true frugal savvy shopper knows the importance of protecting their investment.
Above everything else,both I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange process,quite remarkable,I even have the receipt to prove it. Unlike sooo manyA  items, I ve returned and exchanged in the past,__it,meaning my Nook HD+ survived the fourteenth days as printed on the receipt.
A business practice that's part of Barnes and Noble store policy that allows customers fourteen days to return an item. In short,the 14th day, adhering to store policy was the final day that I couldA  actually return my Nook HD+ and get cash back.
It goes without saying ,I readA  the instructions,totally unavoidable with a new tech gadget,as well as,downloaded apps,and,uploaded wallpapers. Not quite sure,on the day I purchased my Nook HD+__ifA  in fact, I would be satisfied with my purchase,I chose at the time not to purchase any kind of accessories. As it turns out,I was soooo pleased with my purchase of the Nook HD+,I wanted to protect my investments. It doesnt matter if you're on lunch break,on a mini vacation,at a webinar or conference,filling out an online report or having to send emails can be a hassle if you don't have a wifi connection,a Broadband device is just one of the many tech gadgets that consumers and shoppers frequently use to get an internet connection. Constantly,on the go,I wanted to have access to wifiA  while away from my place of residency. Because,I perform an arrary task that frequently requires wifi access ,I purchased a Broadband to Go device from Virgin Mobile. Egregiously,as a Virgin Mobile customer and fan,I live by Virgin Mobile products except in the case of Virgin Mobile wifi devices. Recently,I purchased Virgin Mobile's MiFi 2200 to conciliate my worries about not being able to access wifi home. Aside from very slow internet speed,the device could only connect to one tech gadget and,the 3G USB plug n play stick broke too easily.
Affordable,great to have on hand for shopping emergencies,the latest in recycling,a recyclable tote makes shopping less of a hassle.
Ditching the old biodegradeable plastic bags for a recyclable tote,it's a smart move and a great investment for frugal,savvy,and environmentally conscious consumers and shoppers.Available in most local chain stores and at grocery stores,recyclable totes are becoming the better choice than leaving stores with the traditional biodegradeable plastic bag. Part of a movement to get consumers and shoppers involved in recycling and to think about going green,consumers and shoppers now have the option of trading in those plastic bags for a recyclable tote. A frequent shopper,I usually purchase a couple of recyclable totes to hold store purchases and other stuff. Eventhough,I like having the choice to purchase a recyclable tote,I havent completely stop using biodegradeable plastic bags. However,I have to point out the fact that when a consumer and shoppers purchase a recyclable tote they're not limited to using the tote only in that store,that's why they're called recyclable totes because they can be used more than once.
In fact, most recycable totes last for more than a week,I should know because I still have a few leftover from the previous month.
A great deal,a really good find,a price you wont find anywhere else,and the best price among competitors,I love a great sale and I love rewards for shopping. Savings and Rewards,for most consumers and shoppers,it's all about getting the best price for items purchase daily.
From household supplies to groceries,anyone who shops frequently knows consumers and shoppers love a really good sale_,the economic recession of 2008 could be the culprit. In fact,since the 2008 economic recession savings and rewards has become extremely important to American families on a budget. For many American consumers and shoppers,the unexpected downturn of the American economy caused a disruption in their daily activies thus forcing consumer and shoppers to rethink the way they shop and how they shop.
As a frequent shopper and consumer,I am constantly looking for a great deal and sales on items I purchase regularly,mainly because I do live on a strict budget.
Admittedly,after the 2008 economic recession,I rediscovered coupons,and began clipping coupons frequently. In addition to clipping coupons,I also began to check sale ads at home and at the door of stores before shopping. Along with making a shopping list,clipping coupons at home,checking sale ads at the door and comparing prices,these days one of the best ways to save and get the best deals,I feel without a question has to be with a savings and reward card.
And speaking honestly, a savings and rewards card from your local chain store should be a consumer or shoppers BF(bestie). A must have for consumers and shoppers who seriously want to save,a savings and rewards card.
Throughout the years, my experience with last minute shopping in most instances was not too pleasant. Admittedly,I empathize as well as concur with consumers who express sentiments that last minute shopping makes the shopper(consumer) feel uncomfortable and forlorn with the just thought of buying a gift at the last minute. Often tight on funds to purchase a gift ahead of time,last minute shopping for an overwhelmed consumer with a limited budget could cause the consumer to be late and in some instance not to attend the event or special function. Subsequently, over the years, I have come to realize that last minute shopping it's not the best of fun. As a result, I definitely would not recommend last minute shopping to a consumer as a shopping tip. Unequivocally, shopping for special events and functions such as finding an appropriate could take several visits different stores. Finding the appropriate could mean spending an entire day in a Hallmark store reading cards, it could also mean spending all day on the phone with friend or relatives discussing gift registry,preferences,stores,likes and dislike of the recipient. Ostensibly,the older you get the adults in your life expect two things from you one not to embarrass them in public and two if you don't have a gift to bring at least show up at special functions on time. Indeed, an earnest shopper as well as a meticulous shopper knows finding the right gift or card for a special function could require hours of shopping and visiting different stores. Shopping done precipitously could result in purchasing the wrong size,color, or something way out in left field. Don't wait until the last minute to shop for a party,baby showers,bachelorette bash,birthdays,holidays ,and anniversaries avoid uncomfortableness and the feeling of being inadequate,plan the week before. On certain days, I have even shopped the day of the event that often leaves me feeling embarrassed ashamed, and guilty about my finances even worse depress. Incontrovertibly,last minute shopping in many instances could causes the consumer to become distraught,exasperated, and disconcerted not surprisingly all the emotions take away from the planned day.
What's more important being punctilious for the planned event or arriving with a hand picked gift for the recipient or recipients? Ultimately,the answer remains with the shopper (consumer) The answer should be non bias and based on the event as well as the recipient and not the shoppers wallet .
The meticulous consumer that normally keeps track of birthdays, holidays,and anniversaries with calendars,through emails,P DA's ,Smart phones and other tech savvy gadgets of courses would not necessarily share the same feelings of a last minute shopper .



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