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High Court of Madhya Pradesh, Jabalpur notified Advertisement for recruitment additional district judges through M.P. There is a general consensus among both policy-makers and researchers that the lack of a genuinely European ‘public space’ or ‘public sphere’ (a concept coined by Jurgen Habermas and referring to a space where ‘discourses aimed at achieving self-understanding can be conducted more widely and expressively, collective identities and need interpretations can be articulated’) is one of the major deficits of the process of European integration.
The concept of ‘European public sphere’ is very often limited to purely political and economic issues, but according to Marianne van de Steeg, a public sphere exists if ‘the same topics are discussed at the same time with the same intensity and structure of meaning’. The FREE project contends that in the cultural field of football, such a European public sphere does exist. The FREE project is an opportunity to obtain deeper insight into the degree of ‘Europeanness’ of this sphere of communication, deliberation and exchange – within and beyond the political borders of the current EU – and may thus provide a better understanding of the conditions under which other European public spheres may effectively emerge, develop or deepen in other areas. Football offers a field for the study of overlapping and interacting identities which is as promising and exciting as it is under-researched. Over the last two decades the identification offer provided by European football has undergone significant transformation due to a range of simultaneous developments. This seemingly irreversible tendency of almost total ‘transnationalisation’ of top-level European club football has had a double effect. In other words: while club football follows (and sometimes even precedes) the process of full market integration, the national teams provide an outlet for traditional and reassuring allegiances. How do individuals and groups enact their overlapping identities with this specific public sphere of popular culture? Within the FREE project this research strand is tasked with designing and conducting appropriate quantitative surveys to take stock of the existing European public sphere of football and complement the qualitative data collected in the anthropological field work carried out jointly with other research strands.
The countries concerned are the countries covered by the consortium (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Turkey, the UK) plus another very topic-relevant mediterranean member-state (Italy). The collection of attitudinal and behavioural data at the individual level will be based on different methods(among which online and mass telephone surveys) and targeted at different audiences.


FREE has received funding from the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme for research, technological development & demonstration under grant agreement N°290805.
Established in 1972, SRPC has become one of the most important publishing houses in the Middle East. Therefore, the High Court could not have issued a Mandamus for renewal of the term of respondent Nos. Applying his normative concept to the specific case of the European Union, Habermas himself observed that a pan-European public sphere was needed as a response ‘to the problem of insufficient social integration in the processes of Europeanisation’.
This public sphere is admittedly limited to a specific field of popular culture, but one which is of utmost importance to a very large number of Europeans, which has a strong presence in their everyday lives, which contributes to shape their perception patterns of what being European actually means, and which allows even to citizens with limited means of expression to interpret and negotiate their social identities.
One of these are, for example, the overwhelmingly successful introduction of the European Champions League (which has consolidated a trans-European club elite). Firstly, it has not significantly altered traditional patterns of supporters’ loyalty to their clubs. Both are extremely successful in terms of media interest, as both seem to respond to contradictory but coexisting social needs and desires. Formerly ‘sacred’ symbols and emotionally loaded stereotypes are dealt with in an ironical manner, giving evidence to people’s capacity of ‘nonchalant consumption’ of identification offers and ‘oblique attention’ to the related discourse.
It describes the appropriation and interiorisation by social agents of knowledge generated by the social sciences. In his monumental history of European integration, the late Tony Judt identified football as the ‘one ubiquitous exception’ to a general pattern of mutual ignorance and indifference which he observed across Europe, an island of mutual interest, curiosity and dialogue in ‘the largely un-European mental universe’ of national communication spaces in which most Europeans continue to be raised, socialised and informed. Another development is the 1995 Bosman ruling by the European Court of Justice (which has, by applying the principle of freedom of movement to professional sports, accelerated and intensified the transnational mobility of players and thus granted club sides an increasingly multicultural character).
Secondly, it has produced a new transnational fandom for the most well-known global brands (e.g.


Both contribute to the continuous emergence and reinforcement of a cultural European public sphere of communication. There is evidence that research findings have percolated through mainstream media and that they have actually inflected the very attitudes and behaviour patterns they initially described and analysed. Since then, the list of publications has grown to consists of 15 daily, weekly and monthly newspapers and magazines. In this sphere, European football fans are increasingly aware of each other beyond national boundaries, thanks mainly to the omnipresence of football in popular mass media, football internet platforms and chat rooms.
To what extent does this capacity for ironical distance impact mutual perception patterns between Europeans? This evidence may make it possible to draw interesting conclusion for European studies as well and therefore produce relevant findings for policy-makers and actors of civil society. The wide range of publications have been successful in reaching practically all of the Arab and non-Arab reader categories throughout the world, offering a wealth of diverse topics and subject matters, acting as valuable sources of information providers, to suit individual needs and tastes.
Equally, this tendency has repositioned the national teams as non-commercial, ‘pure’ symbols of national identity. For the time being, does this capacity remain limited to Western Europe or can convergence in behaviour patterns be observed?



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