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First Generation biofuels are produced directly from food crops by abstracting the oils for use in biodiesel or producing bioethanol through fermentation[1].
Second Generation biofuels have been developed to overcome the limitations of first generation biofuels. Four Generation Bio-fuels are aimed at not only producing sustainable energy but also a way of capturing and storing co2.
Crops such as wheat and sugar are the most widely used feedstock for bioethanol while oil seed rape has proved a very effective crop for use in biodiesel. They are produced from non-food crops such as wood, organic waste, food crop waste and specific biomass crops, therefore eliminating the main problem with first generation biofuels[1]. It takes advantage of specially engineered energy crops such as algae as its energy source[3].

Biomass materials, which have absorbed co2 while growing, are converted into fuel using the same processes as second generation biofuels. Second Generation biofuels are also aimed at being more cost competitive in relation to existing fossil fuels[2]. This process differs from second and third generation production as at all stages of production the carbon dioxide is captured using processes such as oxy-fuel combustion[4]. There is much debate over their actually benefit in reducing green house gas and co2 emissions due to the fact that some biofuels can produce negative Net energy gains, releasing more carbon in their production than their feedstock’s capture in their growth.
It is predicted that algae will have the potential to produce more energy per acre than conventional crops.
The carbon dioxide can then be geosequestered by storing it in old oil and gas fields or saline aquifers.

Algae can also be grown using land and water unsuitable for food production, therefore reducing the strain on already depleted water sources.
As the majority of biofuels are produced directly from food crops the rise in demand for biofuels has lead to an increase in the volumes of crops being diverted away from the global food market.
A further benefit of algae based biofuels is that the fuel can be manufactured into a wide range of fuels such as diesel, petrol and jet fuel.

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