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We are now proud to now offer for hire our 10m x 8m ProLyte Arc Roof Stage (in the past a product of this size and standard was only available to hire from the UK). With our vast knowledge we have been asked to specify and install light and sound solutions across the island. Many organisations use audio & video conferencing together with screen sharing tools to communicate and interact during meetings – this is good but imagine the impact when your meetings become active and you truly collaborate. The outcome is teams are fully engaged – sharing ideas and building on them creating something new and immensely powerful.
There is a wide range of SMART touch displays suitable for all applications and workspaces that can take you to the 4th Dimension of collaboration. This is a€?Creating Presentations: Sharing Your Ideasa€?, chapter 14 from the book Successful Writing (v.
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Identify opportunities to incorporate visual or audio media, and create or locate these media aids.
To deliver a successful presentation, you need to develop content suitable for an effective presentation. As with a writing assignment, determining the purpose of your presentation early on is crucial. Are you presenting information intended to move your audience to adopt certain beliefs or take action on a particular issue? As a manager, mentor, or supervisor, you may sometimes be required to teach or train other employees as part of your job. To plan your presentation, think in terms of three or four key points you want to get across. On the same paper, identify the steps you must complete before you begin creating your presentation. After you determine which ideas are most appropriate for your presentation, you will create an outline of those ideas. The introduction engages the audiencea€™s attention, introduces the topic, and sets the tone for what is to come. The body develops your point of view with supporting ideas, details, and examples presented in a logical order.
The conclusion restates your point of view, sums up your main points, and leaves your audience with something to think about.
Jorge, who wrote the research paper featured in Chapter 11 "Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?", developed the following outline. In Chapter 12 "Writing a Research Paper", you learned techniques for writing an interesting introduction, such as beginning with a surprising fact or statistic, a thought-provoking question or quotation, a brief anecdote that illustrates a larger concept or connects your topic to your audiencea€™s experiences. With the accessibility provided by the Internet, you can find interesting and appropriate audio and video with little difficulty. Jorge completed the introduction part of his outline by listing the key points he would use to open his presentation. If you have more time to work witha€”ten minutes or half an houra€”you will be able to discuss your topic in greater detail. The conclusion should briefly sum up your main idea and leave your audience with something to think about.
No matter how you choose to structure your conclusion, make sure it is well planned so that you are not tempted to wrap up your presentation too quickly. Time management is the key to delivering an effective presentation whether it is face-to-face or in PowerPoint.
Work with the list you created in Note 14.4 "Exercise 1" to develop a more complete outline for your presentation.
You may already have some ideas for how to incorporate visual and audio media in your presentation.
To set up your presentation, you will need to work with the content of your outline to develop individual slides. Using presentation software, such as PowerPoint, allows you to incorporate graphics, sounds, and even web links directly into your slides.
PowerPoint and similar visual representation programs can be effective tools to help audiences remember your message, but they can also be an annoying distraction to your speech. PowerPoint is a slideware program that you have no doubt seen used in class, seen in a presentation at work, or perhaps used yourself to support a presentation. At first, you might be overwhelmed by the possibilities, and you might be tempted to use all the bells, whistles, and sound effects, not to mention the tumbling, flying, and animated graphics.
Another point to consider is how you want to use the tool to support your speech and how your audience will interpret its presentation. Even if you do not use a slideshow to complement your presentation, you can include visual media to support and enhance your content. Image-based media, such as photographs or videos, often have little or no accompanying text. Even if your presentation addresses a less dramatic subject, you can still use images to draw in your audience. In addition, consider how you might incorporate informational graphics in your presentation.
Although audio media are not as versatile as visual media, you may wish to use them if they work well with your particular topic.
Identify at least two to three places in your presentation where you might incorporate visual or audio media. Determine whether you will use presentation software to deliver your presentation as a slideshow. In the workplace, employees are often asked to deliver presentations or conduct a meeting using standard office presentation software.
Write notes in brackets to any sections where you definitely plan to incorporate visual or audio media.
If you are presenting a slideshow, add notes in brackets indicating which slides go with each section of your outline.
An effective presentation presents ideas more concisely than a written document and uses media to explain ideas and hold the audiencea€™s interest.
Annotating a presentation outline is a useful way to coordinate different parts of the presentation and manage time effectively. Determine how to create original visual aids and how to locate visual aids created by others. As you develop the visual side of your presentation, you will follow a process much like the process you follow when you write. In each case, the problem is that the media creator did not think carefully enough about the purpose and audience. In contrast, effective visual elements are chosen or created with the purpose and audience in mind. These visual aids serve two purposes: to add emotional impact to your presentation and to organize information more clearly. A striking photograph can capture your audiencea€™s attention far more successfully than words can.
Will this photograph be more effective if shown with only a caption, or does it need additional text? To illustrate the sense of helplessness people felt in the midst of tragedy, a student could use a photograph that shows fear, weariness, or defeat on the face of the photographa€™s subject.
Illustrations, such as editorial or political cartoons, serve much the same purpose as photographs. Even more than photographs, video footage can create a sense of immediacy, especially if your video includes sound. What will need to be explained, before or after showing the video, to ensure that your audience understands its significance?
Will it be necessary to edit the video to stay within time requirements or to focus on the most important parts?
Informational graphics, such as tables, charts, and graphs, do not provoke the same response that images do.
If you are working with numerical information, consider whether a pie chart, bar graph, or line graph might be an effective way to present the content. In this exercise, you will begin to refine your ideas for incorporating media into your presentation. Determine whether you will be able to create the visual aid yourself or will need to find it. You will include original visual aids in your presentation to add interest, present complex information or data more clearly, or appeal to your audiencea€™s emotions. Computer-generated visual aids are easy to create once you learn how to use certain office software.
Most personal computers come equipped with some basic image-editing software, and many people choose to purchase more advanced programs as well. To create a table within a word-processing document consult your software programa€™s help feature or an online tutorial.
If you plan to work only with hard copy graphics during your presentation, you may choose to create them as word-processing documents. Standard office presentation software allows you to create informational graphics in much the same way you would create them within a word-processing application. Most of the time, using computer-generated graphics is more efficient than creating them by hand.
Captions should always be used with photographs, and in some cases, they can be useful for clarifying informational graphics, which represent qualitative data visually.
Regardless of how you create your visual aids, be sure to test-drive them before you deliver your presentation. Depending on your topic, you may be able to find images and other graphics you can use instead of creating your own. It often pulls up hundreds or even thousands of images, which may be only loosely related to your search terms.
A more efficient strategy is to identify a few sources that are likely to have what you are looking for, and then search within those sites. You will often find what you are looking for faster because you are not wasting time scrolling through many irrelevant results. If you have chosen your sources well, you can be reasonably certain that you are getting accurate, up-to-date information.
Images and informational graphics produced by reputable sources are likely to be high qualitya€”easy to read and well designed.
If you do choose to use a search engine to help you locate visual media, make sure you use it wisely. If you are unable to find what you are looking for on the Internet consider using print sources of visual media. If you are working with images, audio, or video footage available online, you may wish to insert a link within your presentation.
To insert a hyperlink within your presentation, click on insert in the toolbar and then select hyperlink from the menu. Copyright restrictions are somewhat more ambiguous when you wish to download visual media for educational uses.
By following these guidelines, you are respecting the copyright holdera€™s right to control the distribution of the work and to profit from it. In some fields, such as teaching, job applicants often submit a professional portfolio to a prospective employer.
Write captions or other explanatory text for visual media created by others, just as you would for media you created. In this exercise, you will locate visual aids created by others and continue developing the work you began earlier. Use the search tips provided in this section to locate at least two visual aids from reputable sources that you can use. Take some time now to review how you will integrate the visual and verbal components of your presentation.
If you are not using presentation software, review the annotated outline you created in Note 14.24 "Exercise 1".
Visual aids can be divided into two broad categoriesa€”image-based media and informational graphics. Widely available software programs make it relatively easy to create visual aids electronically, such as photo images, charts, and graphs. When using visual aids created by others, it is important to apply good research skills, follow guidelines for fair use, and credit sources appropriately. Plan for parts of the presentation that cannot be fully rehearsed in advance, such as a question-and-answer session. Like scientific papers, oral presentations at a conference or internal seminar are for sharing your research work with other scientists. In contrast, presentations differ from papers in at least three ways: They are more localized in space and time, they impose a sequence and rhythm to the audience, and they normally include some level of interaction. Unless they are recorded or broadcast, presentations have a more clearly defined audience than papers: They address "the people in the room," here and now. To structure your presentation, you can print the form shown here and write your ideas for each component in the spaces provided. Whereas papers can be read in any order and at the reader's own pace, presentations impose both the sequence and the rhythm of content on their audience. As a consequence, and even more strongly than papers, presentations can usefully break the chronology typically used for reporting research. All three speakers (John, Marie, and Jean-luc) closed their presentations with a review, a conclusion, and a close. The context as such is best replaced by an attention getter, which is a way to both get everyone's attention fast and link the topic with what the audience already knows (this link provides a more audience-specific form of context). The object of the document is here best called the preview because it outlines the body of the presentation. The opening of a presentation can best state the presentation's main message, just before the preview.
In other words, include the following five items in your opening: attention getter, need, task, main message, and preview.
Marie structured her presentation around three main points and, for each, she included either two or three subpoints. To make your body's structure easy to remember, for both you as a speaker and your audience, think of it as a tree (or hierarchy) rather than a chain. Even if you think of your presentation's body as a tree, you will still deliver the body as a sequence in time — unavoidably, one of your main points will come first, one will come second, and so on.
The first few sentences and last few sentences of an oral presentation are particularly important because they shape the first and last impressions you make on your audience.
At the beginning of any presentation, you must get the attention of the audience — and you must do so quickly. An effective attention getter can take many forms: It can be a question, a statement, an anecdote (humorous or not), an analogy, a quotation, an object, a picture projected on the screen, and so on.
An effective attention getter is relevant and appropriate, as opposed to out-of-place or overdramatic. At the end of a presentation, you must indicate elegantly yet unambiguously to the audience that you have said your last words, thus giving them the signal to applaud. Your attention getter and close should be your very first words and very last words, respectively.
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By planning carefully, applying some time-honored presentation strategies, and practicing, you can make sure that your presentation comes across as confident, knowledgeable, and interestinga€”and that your audience actually learns from it. Your ideas make up your presentation, but to deliver them effectively, you will need to identify key ideas and organize them carefully. You should incorporate other media, such as charts, graphs, photographs, video or audio recordings, or websites.
If you must deliver a face-to-face presentation, it is important to project yourself as a serious and well-informed speaker.
You want to inform your readers about the topic, but think about what else you hope to achieve. Usually the objective, the mission or purpose, states what students should know or be able to do after they complete the lesson. Your presentation, like a written assignment, should include an introduction, body, and conclusion. Jorge relied heavily on this outline to plan his presentation, but he adjusted it to suit the new format. Visual images such as a photograph or a cartoon can invoke an immediate emotional response. He also planned to show various web links early on to illustrate the popularity of the low-carbohydrate diet trend.
Determine the order in which you want to present these ideas, and flesh them out with important details. Your instructor will most likely give you a specific time limit or a specific slide limit, such as eight to ten slides.
More time also means you must devote more thought into how you will hold your audiencea€™s interest. In his outline, he made a note about where he would need to condense some complicated material to stay within his time limit. Inexperienced speakers, in a face-to-face presentation, sometimes rush through the end of a presentation to avoid exceeding the allotted time or to end the stressful experience of presenting in public. As you develop your outline, think about the amount of time you will devote to each section. As you speak, you use a computer and an attached projector to display a slideshow of text and graphics that complement the speech. Each slide should focus on just a few bullet points (or a similar amount of content presented in a graphic).
You can also work with available styles, color schemes, and fonts to give your presentation a polished, consistent appearance. PowerPoint and similar slideware programs provide templates for creating electronic slides to present visual information to the audience, reinforcing the verbal message. If used wisely, a dissolve or key transition can be like a well-executed scene from a major motion picture and lead your audience to the next point. The tool will allow you to show graphs, charts and illustrate relationships that words may only approach in terms of communication, but your verbal support of the visual images will make all the difference.
Most audiences wouldna€™t want to read a page of texta€”as you might see in this booka€”on the big screen. Consider how photographs, an illustration, or a video might help your audience connect with a particular person or place or bring a historical event to life. Informational graphics include diagrams, tables, pie charts, bar and line graphs, and flow charts.
If your presentation discusses trends in pop music or analyzes political speeches, playing an audio clip is an obvious and effective choice. It may not be as dramatic as a play or a movie, but it requires smooth coordination of several elementsa€”your words, your gestures, and any media you include. You can use this technique to plan how the different parts of your presentation will flow together. If you are using presentation software, you can annotate your presentation easily as you create your slides. It will serve to cue you during your presentation, so it does not need to look polished, as long as it is clear to you. Annotating your presentation before submitting it to your audience or your instructor will help you check for order and logical transitions. At the same time, you must make sure these media do not distract your audience or interfere with getting your point across. You will brainstorm ideas, form an organizational plan, develop drafts, and then refine and edit your work. Although a photo shoot for a magazine article might result in dozens of images, editors choose those few that work best with the article.
With that in mind, read to find out how specific types of visual aids achieve those purposes. Consider including photographs at the beginning or end of your presentation to emphasize your main ideas or to accompany a particularly important point in the body of your presentation. Consider using image-editing software to crop the photo, change the brightness, or make other cosmetic changes. Because an illustration does not capture a moment in time the way a photo does, it may have less impact. Keep this in mind if you are working with the stock images available in office software programs. Showing a brief video clip can help your audience feel as if they are present at an important event, connect with a person being interviewed, or better understand a process.
Tables are an especially good choice when you are presenting qualitative dataData or statistics that are not strictly numerical. A table can help you organize numerical information, but it is not the most effective way to emphasize contrasting data or to show changes over time. For example, you can use a pie chart to represent presidential election results by showing what percentage of voters voted for the Democratic presidential candidate, the Republican candidate, and candidates from other political parties. Horizontal or vertical bars help viewers compare data from different groups, different time periods, and so forth. You may wish to create some visual aids by handa€”for instance, by mounting photographs on poster board for display. Think carefully about how they will enhance your message, and choose a form that is appropriate for your content. You do not need the skills of a professional photographer or designer, but do take time to make sure your visual aids are neat, attractive, and legible.
The following guidelines describe how to work with word-processing software and presentation software.
You can upload photographs from a digital camera (or in some cases, a cell phone) or scan and upload printed photographs. Although you can create these graphics within a document, you will need to work with both your word-processing application and your spreadsheet application to do so. Keep the formatting palette, a menu option that allows you to customize the graphic, open while you use the software.
Using office software programs helps give your graphics a polished appearance while also teaching you skills that are useful in a variety of jobs. However, informational graphics may not require a caption if the title and labels are sufficiently clear. Take your photographs, construct a 3-D model, create informational graphics, or work on your presentation slides. As you proceed through the rest of this section, continue to revisit your work to improve it as needed. Edit and proofread them, and if possible, show them to someone who can give you objective feedback. For instance, you can choose or create a theme and color scheme, modify how one slide transitions to the next, or even include sound effects. Use the customization options to help give your presentations a consistent, polished, appearance. For instance, you might use photographs from a reputable news source or informational graphics created by a government agency. You will search more efficiently if you start with a general idea of what you are looking fora€”a line graph of unemployment rates for the past twelve months, for example, or a video clip of the most recent State of the Union address. You may come across eye-catching graphics and be tempted to use them even if they are only loosely related to your topic, simply because they are attention getting. In addition to reading labels, headings, and captions, read any text that accompanies the visual. When you look for visual media to complement your presentation, you are conducting research. For instance, if you need a table showing average life expectancy in different countries, you might begin with the website of the World Health Organization. You may choose to mount these for display or scan them and incorporate the files into an electronic presentation. Then, during your presentation, you can simply click the link to open the website in a separate window and toggle between windows to return to your presentation slides. Doing so will open a dialogue box where you can paste your link and modify the accompanying display text shown on your slide. Some educational uses of copyrighted materials are generally considered fair useA legitimate use of brief quotations from source material to support and develop a writera€™s ideas. For video and audio footage, limit your use to no more than 10 percent of the mediaa€”five minutes of an hour-long television show, for example.
Recent college graduates may include relevant course work in their portfolios or in applications to graduate school. Even though you are using the work for your personal professional advancement, it is not considered an infringement on copyright as long as you follow the additional guidelines listed in the previous checklist. Follow the guidelines when you download images, video, or other media from the Internet or capture media from other sources. Choose at least two ideas for which it would make more sense to find the visual aid than to create it yourself.
This may involve preparing physical copies for display or inserting graphic files into an electronic presentation. They serve to add emotional impact to a presentation and to organize information more clearly. Captions, labels, and other explanatory text help make the connection clear for the audience.
It involves generating ideas, working with them in a draft format, and then revising and editing onea€™s work. You have organized your ideas and planned both the textual and visual components of your presentation. In fact, some researchers have found that a large percentage of people surveyed rate public speaking as their number one fear.
A human resource manager presents company policies and benefits plans to large groups of employees.
They, too, must convince the audience that the research presented is important, valid, and relevant to them.
Focus on identifying the content you will present: do not write down the full sentences you will actually say.
They are therefore harder to follow and should be much more selective in what they contain.
This is a great opportunity to provide whatever additional information the audience desires.
Instead of presenting everything that was done in the order in which it was done, a presentation should focus on getting a main message across in theorem-proof fashion — that is, by stating this message early and then presenting evidence to support it. Because he divided his presentation's body in two fairly separated parts, John reviews and concludes each separately, thus merging review and conclusion.
Still, the aim of this element is unchanged — namely, preparing the audience for the structure of the body. The main message is the one sentence you want your audience to remember, if they remember only one.
At the end of her opening, she previews her main points only (because the audience cannot assimilate more than one level at a time); then, as she starts each main point, she previews the corresponding subpoints.
Identify two, three, four, or a maximum of five statements you can make to support your main message: These are your main points. Organize your main points and subpoints into a logical sequence, and reveal this sequence and its logic to your audience with transitions between points and between subpoints. They are also particularly difficult since they correspond to moments of transition (starting and ending) during which your stage fright is likely to peak.
Whether audience members are still happily chatting or already silent (for example, because a chairperson introduced you), they are not yet engaged. It is not a goal in itself, but rather a means to focus the audience's undivided attention on the need (which is the true motivation for the work presented). It bridges the gap between something the audience is familiar with or cares about and the topic of the talk.
As a counterexample, starting your presentation with a joke unrelated to the topic will likely strike the audience as irrelevant. Resist the temptation to preface your attention getter with filler words ("well, um, so, yes") or unnecessary courtesies ("Good morning everyone. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (47 MB) or just this chapter (6 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Anticipating the audiencea€™s needs can be tough, especially when you are sitting alone in front of your computer.
The specific tasks involved in creating a presentation may vary slightly depending on your purpose and your assignment.
You will often speak extemporaneously, or in a rehearsed but not memorized manner, which allows for flexibility given the context or audience. Do you want your audience to come away from your presentation knowing how to do something they that they did not know before?
You might also consider actively engaging your audience by having members respond to questions or complete a brief activity related to your topic. A graph or chart can highlight startling findings in research data or statistical information. To keep the audience interested and engaged, you must frame the beginning and end of the clip with your own words. Chapter 10 "Rhetorical Modes" discusses several organizational structures you might work with, such as chronological order, comparison-and-contrast structure, or cause-and-effect structure.
If the time limit is very brief (two to three minutes, for instance), you will need to focus on communicating your point of view, main supporting points, and only the most relevant details. If your presentation is longer than five minutes, introduce some variety so the audience is not bored.
He also decided to focus only on cholesterol and heart disease in his discussion of long-term health outcomes. However, that does not mean you must fill all of that time with talk if you are giving a face-to-face presentation. Depending on your topic, you may also ask the audience to reconsider their thinking about an issue, to take action, or to think about a related issue. For instance, in a five-minute face-to-face presentation, you might plan to spend one minute on the introduction, three minutes on the body, and one minute on the conclusion. Presenting information in a variety of formats will help you keep your audiencea€™s interest.
Your audience will follow your ideas more easily, because you are communicating with them through more than one sense. Remember that your audience must be able to read the slides easily, whether the members sit in the front or the back of the room. You will be able to import or cut and paste words from text files, images, or video clips to create slides to represent your ideas. But if used indiscriminately, it can annoy the audience to the point where they cringe in anticipation of the sound effect at the start of each slide. You will facilitate the discussion, give life to the information, and help the audience correlate the content to your goal or purpose.


They will be far more likely to glance at the screen and assess the information you present in relation to your discussion.
Within the past decade, the images associated with major news stories, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the Abu Ghraib prison abuses from 2004 to 2006, and the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, have powerfully affected viewersa€™ emotions and drawn their attention to these news stories.
Informational graphics usually include some text and often work well to present numerical information. Clips from historical speeches, radio talk shows, and interviews can also be used, but extended clips may be ineffective with modern audiences.
One way to ensure that the performance goes smoothly is to annotateTo add comments or notes to a document. For instance, if you are working with slides, add notes to your outline indicating when you will show each slide.
However, keep in mind that reading your text aloud, word for word, will not help you capture and hold your audiencea€™s attention. Too much text or data may confuse your audience; strive for clarity and avoid unnecessary details. As adults, we graduate to denser books without pictures, yet we still visualize ideas to help us understand the text. Every decision they make on the page, from organizing an essay to choosing a word with just the right connotations, is made with their purpose and audience in mind. The following sections provide guidelines to help you make good decisions throughout the process.
Overusing these elements defeats the purpose because the viewer may become overwhelmed or distracted.
Web designers and video game creators have an audience test their products before they are released, to ensure that people will understand how to use them. However, depending on your topic and the effect you want to achieve, illustrations can still be very useful. For example, the line graph in Figure 14.7 shows changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Averagea€”an economic index based on trading information about thirty large, US-based public companies. You can print hard copies and display them large or include them in a handout for your audience. Be sure that the table has no more than six to seven rows or columns because you do not want to compromise the size of the text or the readability. The formatting menu provides options for inserting other types of graphics, such as pictures and video.
However, it may make sense to use hand-created visual aids in some casesa€”for instance, when showing a 3-D model would be effective. Each sheet of paper should contain one theme, idea, or sketch and must be penned in large letters to be seen by audience members farthest away from the speaker. For other visual media, such as video footage, providing explanatory text before or after the footage will suffice. On a separate piece of paper, note both the elements that catch your attention and those that would benefit from clarification.
If you hope to find images related to current events, news publications are an obvious choice. In general, you may not use other peoplea€™s visual media for any commercial purpose without contacting the copyright holder to obtain permission and pay any specified fees. This includes the use of other copyrighted media, even though the user has not formally requested the copyright holdera€™s permission to reproduce the media. Image use is harder to quantify, but you should avoid using many images from the same source. Keep track of where you accessed the media and where you can find additional information about it.
It also helps ensure that you are following fair use guidelines by presenting the media with your commentary, interpretation, or analysis. Papers can be forwarded in unpredictable ways and may be read many years from now, so they should be lasting and largely self-contained. The idea is not to say out loud everything that is already written in the proceedings paper or dissertation. For fear of omitting something important, most speakers try to say too much in their presentations.
Identifying this main message early in the preparation process is the key to being selective in your presentation. It is your main conclusion, perhaps stated in slightly less technical detail than at the end of your presentation. Next, think of two to five statements to support each main point: These are your subpoints. As a rule, place your strongest arguments first and last, and place any weaker arguments between these stronger ones. In contrast, Marie has a more detailed conclusion, in which she shows the outcome of her work visually.
As with a paper, you can spark their interest for your research by stating the need for your work, but you must first secure their full attention with an attention getter.
As a counterexample, beginning a presentation by saying "My name is Irma Kodowski and I would like to talk to you today about . Starting with a humorous anecdote directly related to the topic is at least relevant; whether it is also appropriate depends on the situation. The stress comes from the pressure of presenting your ideas without having a delete button to undo mistakes. What, specifically, do you want your audience to know (for instance, details of a new workplace policy) or be able to do (for instance, use a new software program)? How would you condense topics that might be too lengthy, or should you eliminate topics that may be too complicated to address in your presentation? For example, you may have your audience respond to a survey or tell about an experience related to your topic.
Brief video or audio clips that clearly reinforce your message and do not distract or overwhelm your audience can provide a sense of immediacy when you plan to discuss an event or a current issue.
Three minutes can feel like an eternity if you are speaking before a group, but the time will pass very quickly. Incorporate multimedia, invite the audience to complete an activity, or set aside time for a question-and-answer session.
Involving your audience can take some of the pressure off you while also keeping them engaged.
If you presented an attention-getting fact or anecdote in your introduction, consider revisiting it in your conclusion.
Later, when you rehearse, you can time yourself to determine whether you need to adjust your content or delivery. This danger is inherent in the tool, but you are in charge of it and can make wise choices that enhance the understanding and retention of your information. You do not want to be in a position where the PowerPoint presentation is the focus and you are on the side of the stage simply helping the audience follow along. Choose clear images that have an immediate connection to both your content and the audience, tailored to their specific needs. Should you need to communicate more technical, complex, or in-depth information in a visual way, consider preparing a handout to distribute at the conclusion of your speech.
Consider using them if you are presenting statistics, comparing facts or data about several different groups, describing changes over time, or presenting a process. Always assess your audiencea€™s demographics and expectations before selecting and including audio media.
As you deliver your presentation, your notes will be visible to you on the computer screen but not to your audience on the projector screen.
Use a larger-than-normal font size (14 or 16 points) if that will make it easier for you to read.
Let the pictures or graphics tell the story but do not overload your slideshow with visuals. Advertisers favor visual mediaa€”television, magazines, and billboardsa€”because they are the best way to hook an audience. Tables, charts, and graphs are intended to simplify complex information, but without clear labels and legible text, they will confuse the audience.
This may be fine for some topicsa€”for instance, a presentation on television shows for children. Table 14.1 "Example of Qualitative Data Table" was created for a presentation discussing the subprime mortgage crisis.
This graph shows where the Dow closed at the end of each business day over a period of five days.
Or, if you are working with presentation software, you can simply insert the graphics in your slides.
The use of color will help the audience distinguish information; however, avoid colors that are hard on the eyes, such as lime green or hot pink. You may insert pictures from an image bank available within the program, or insert images or video from your own desktop files. If you follow this route, be sure to devote extra time to making sure your visual aids are neat, legible, and professional.
Make sure your facts are correct, your words are clear and concise, and your language is free of errors. If the graphic is not clearly connected to your point, it does not belong in your presentation.
For informational graphics, make sure you understand exactly what information is being represented.
Choose reliable sources, such as reputable news organizations, government and nonprofit organizations, and educational institutions. The Library of Congress website includes many media related to American history, culture, and politics.
Many educational uses of visual media are generally considered fair use as long as the user scrupulously follows certain guidelines.a€”meaning that it is legally and ethically acceptable to use the material in your work. In addition, avoid any uses that would allow other people to easily access and reproduce the work.
You may also provide a references page at the end of the presentation to cite not only media and images but also the information in the text of your presentation. In your caption or elsewhere in your presentation, note the source of any media you did not create yourself. A better approach is to be selective in the presentation itself and to allow enough time for questions and answers and, of course, to prepare well by anticipating the questions the audience might have. For example, when reporting on materials and methods, include only those details you think will help convince the audience of your main message — usually little, and sometimes nothing at all. Together, these main points and subpoints represent about as much detail as your audience can absorb in a single oral presentation. Usually, less specialized audiences require more creative attention getters because they are more distant from the topic. Outside the classroom, you may be asked to give a presentation, often at the last minute, and the show must go on. A PowerPoint presentation allows you to integrate many of these different media sources into one presentation. Just as you have learned about an essaya€™s conclusion, do not add new content to the presentationa€™s conclusion. A listener who momentarily loses track of what you are saying can rely on the slide to cue his or her memory. When using any software program, it is always a good idea to experiment with it long before you intend to use it; explore its many options and functions, and see how it can be an effective tool for you. After the images, consider using only key words that can be easily read to accompany your pictures.
You may also consider using a printout of your slide show with a section for taking notes, but if you distribute it at the beginning of your speech, you run the risk of turning your presentation into a guided reading exercise and possibly distracting or losing members of the audience. The use of the tool should be guided with the idea that its presentation is for the audiencea€™s benefit, not yours. Boldface or italics will set off text that should be emphasized or delivered with greater emotion. After a few practice sessions, when you are more comfortable with your material, switch to working from an outline. Websites rely on color, graphics, icons, and a clear system of visual organization to engage Internet surfers. However, if you need to project a more serious tone, make sure you choose images to suit that purpose. It presents information about people who have held powerful positions both in the government and at one of the investment banking firms involved in the subprime mortgage market.
Shape your use of multimedia in accordance with the message your presentation is trying to convey, the purpose, and your audience. However, do not assume that because you are using the media for an educational purpose, you are automatically in the clear. See Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting" for more information on creating a reference page. You do not need to provide a full bibliographical citation, but do give credit where it is due. For example, a presentation at a conference normally aims to present recent advances, whereas a presentation at a Ph.D. For audiences of specialists, a simple link with a familiar context ("As most of you know, . Presentations can be stressful, but planning and preparation, when the time and opportunity are available, can make all the difference.
Just as there is a number one rule for handouts (do not pass them out at the start of your presentation), there is also one for PowerPoint presentations: do not use PowerPoint slides as a read-aloud script for your speech. People often understand pictures and images more quickly and easily than text, and you can use this to your advantage, using the knowledge that a picture is worth a thousand words. Jotting a€?Start video at 3:14a€? can spare you the awkwardness of searching for the right clip during your presentation. Write out main points, as well as your opening and closing remarks, in complete sentences, along with any material you want to quote verbatim. Look for consistency in the time limit of your presentation to gauge your level of preparedness. Finally, read the sitea€™s copyright or terms of use policya€”usually found at the bottom of the home pagea€”to make sure you may use the material. In some fields, such as training and teaching, speaking in public is a regular job requirement. In some presentations, if time allows, you may choose to have your classmates complete an individual or group activity.
The PowerPoint slides should amplify and illustrate your main points, not reproduce everything you are going to say. You do not want to be in the position of going back and forth between slides to help people follow along. If it does, you can be reasonably confident that it would be considered fair use in a court of law and always give credit to the source.
To make sure you start and end your presentation sharply, you might want to learn your first few and last few sentences by heart.
Using key words provides support for your verbal discussion, guiding you as well as your audience.
Highlighting, all capital letters, or different-colored font will help you easily distinguish notes from the text of your speech.



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