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Cadmium Yellow, for instance, is made from the compound of cadmium zinc sulfide, and calcined iron oxide is the chemical name for Burnt Sienna.
A way to determine whether a tube of paint contains a genuine color is to look for the ASTM designation (usually on the back of the tube, and occasionally on the face).
If there is a single ASTM number, the paint is made from a genuine pigment of a single substance. If you find more than one ASTM number, it means several different pigments were combined to make the paint and it is not a genuine color.A An ASTM designation starts with the letter "P" for pigment, followed by a letter or set of letters for the color group, such as "Y" for yellow or "Br" meaning brown, and then a one to three digit number for the specific color. Kings Blue, for instance, is just Zinc White (PW1) or Titanium White (PW6) plus Cobalt (PB36) or French Ultramarine Blue (PB29), yet it saves the landscape painter much time by not having to mix it on the palette each time she needs a sky color.A Some convenience colors are intended to replace an obsolete but useful pigment.


For instance, the production of genuine Indian Yellow is now barred by law, so today producers create alternatives from mixtures of other colors.A imitationLike a convenience color, an a€?imitationa€? is a mixture, one that allows the manufacturer to offer an inexpensive alternative to a costly color. Also like a convenience color, properly labeled imitations are identified with two or more ASTM numbers. The coldest blue is French Ultramarine, followed by Cobalt, Cerulean, Manganese, and the warmest, Prussian and Phthalocyanine. Phthalocyanine may be labeled Phthalo, Thalo, Monstral, or Winsor)i»?The darkest blues are Prussian, then Phthalocyanine.
Both colors are so potent that even a tiny amount has a powerful impact upon other colors in mixtures.


Even though they are transparent, due to their intensity they effectively hide what they are painted over unless worked out into an extremely thin veneer.
Rich, vibrant blacks can be made with them when combined with a strong red like Alizarin Crimson, Cadmium Red Deep, or Indian Red. By adding white to these blackish mixtures, the blacks become handsome violet, pinkish, or greenish grays.



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