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We suggest that you initially scan through the headlines of each paragraph to gain an overview of the act.
8 On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). 8 ACA REDUCES THE BUDGET DEFICIT: ACA is the largest deficit reduction bill in a generation, Landmark 59-60. 10 CHECK FOR THE TRUTH: ACA REQUIRES BOTH IMPLEMENTATION BY THE STATES AND THE VOTERS ONGOING SUPPORT. 14 2010 MEDICAID: States may opt out of the following program, but must adhere to its criteria if they opt in.
12 2009 RECOVERY ACT REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS TO STATE MEDICAID PROGRAMS has saved Minnesota (in a€™09 -a€™10), $1,673,476,158 thru Sept 30, 2010. 14 2010 FOR THOSE THAT CANNOT AFFORD INSURANCE; See link to a€?Find your Health Care Optionsa€? above, or click here. 2011 IF ENACTED INTO LAW, PROPOSALS TO REDUCE FEDERAL FUNDING FOR MEDICAID ARE EXPECTED TO SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE FUNDING TO STATE MEDICAID PROGRAMS AND ARE EXPECTED TO LEAVE 44 MILLION WITHOUT FUNDING FOR HEALTH CARE. 18 2014 EXCHANGE BUYING: To lower insurance premiums from what they would become under past practices, insurers are required to include everyone in a single risk pool, S.
18 2014 PENALTIES are monthly for the non-exempt individual who fails to insure themselves and their dependents. 18 2014 WITH THE HELP OF CONSUMER ASSISTANCE OFFICES, INSURANCE EXCHANGES WILL CREATE TRANSPARENCY AND COMPETITION AND THEREFORE LOWER RATES.
18 2011 AS PART OF TRANSPARENCY, INSURANCE COMPANIES MUST ADOPT UNIFORM EXPLANATIONS OF COVERAGE AND STANDARD DEFINITIONS prior to March 24, 2011. 20 2014 SUBSIDIES FOR THOSE UNDER 400% OF THE FPL limit premiums to between 2% to 9.5% of income, S 1401 and out of pocket costs to 30% of contract costs, S 1402. 21 2014 PRICE DISCRIMINATION OF ANY KIND except age and smoking is prohibited, S 2701 (A) (1). 22 2011, UNDER A PROVISION DRAFTED BY SENATOR FRANKEN (D MN), individual and small group plans (including grandfathered plans) must spend 80% of premium dollars, 85% in large group markets, on medical services, not administration, advertising, or profits, S 1001, sub 2718 amended by S 10101 sub 2718. 22 2014 ACA PROVIDES COST CONTROLS: By Jan 1, 2014, under Ss 1302(c) and S 1201 sub 2707(b) there will be annual out of pocket cost controls, and four cost levels of a€?essentiala€? benefits. 23 2010 SMALL BUSINESS WILL RECEIVE 35% TAX CREDITS NOW AND 50% IN 2014: employers with 25 or less full-time equivalent (FTE) employees with an average compensation of $50,000 or less can receive a tax credit beginning in 2010, S 1421, modified by S 10105.
27 2010 ACA CREATED A FEDERAL HIGH RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM FOR THOSE WITH PREEXISTING CONDITIONS and without insurance for six months. 29 2010 ENDS RESCISSIONS except for fraud or intentional misrepresent the law bans self funded and insured plans from dropping people from coverage when they get sick, S 1001, subs. 29 2010 BANS DUMPING which is the practice of raising premiums on the individual and small group market to discourage insureds from continuing the policy in question.
29 2010 ENSURES QUALITY OF CARE by requiring health care systems to report benefits and reimbursements that improve outcomes, follow up, prevent readmissions, improve patient safety, reduce medical errors and implement wellness and prevention activities. 29 2010 MUST PROVIDE AN INDEPENDENT APPEALS PROCESS: new individual and group plans must provide an internal and external appeals process,50 S 1001, sub 2719, that includes ongoing benefits during the appeal, S 1001, sub. 23 2010 SMALL BUSINESS WILL RECEIVE 35% TAX CREDITS NOW AND 50% IN 2014: employers with 25 or less full-time equivalent (FTE) employees with an average compensation of $50,000 or lessA  can receive a tax credit beginning in 2010, S 1421, modified by S 10105. This is what came to mind when I was browsing through my copy of MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers: Seventh Edition. I found a section with descriptions for formatting parenthetical notes (endnotes or footnotes) about cited sources. If a parenthetical footnote is provided, then the footnotes box will appear here between the bibliographic and the in-text citations. It seems that when we are all overwhelmed by information, much of it from other people like us, it is note merely a courtesy to cite our sources, but it is a practical measure to justify and invite readers to judge our sources’ accuracy, reliability and validity.
Chapter 15 of the 16th edition of the manual provides detailed examples of the correct way to cite specific types of content using the Author-Date (Chicago B) version of the style.
American School of Genealogy, Heraldry and Documentary Sciences - Program DescriptionsA MODULE DESCRIPTIONSA. In 1955, Isaac Asimov published a short story titled "Franchise", about a system that decides who should be elected president (in 2008) by picking a single voter to represent the whole population. If a single voter is regularly selected at random then, over time, a larger, more representative sample of the population will build up. Distributed systems say "after a certain amount of time, enough votes will have been cast to be sure enough of a consensus". Each voter must be selected at random, but if this selection is performed by a central machine, that machine must be trusted. The system will, generally, consume energy up to the value of the reward for casting each vote. To save energy, votes can instead be given to those who have purchased the most shares (stake) in the system (i.e.
Another alternative, valid for small populations, is to collect the sample in a single poll: invite all members to participate, and generate the consensus after a certain amount of time has passed. I didn’t know Aaron, personally, but I’d been reading his blog as he wrote it for 10 years.
Philip Greenspun, founder of ArsDigita, had written extensively about the school system, and Aaron felt similarly, documenting his frustrations with school, leaving formal education and teaching himself. In 2000, Aaron entered the competition for the ArsDigita Prize and won, with his entry The Info Network — a public-editable database of information about topics.
Aaron’s friends and family added information on their specialist subjects to the wiki, but Aaron knew that a centralised resource could lead to censorship (he created zpedia, for alternative views that would not survive on Wikipedia). In order to pull information in from other people’s databases, you needed a standard way of subscribing to a source, and a standard way of representing information. RSS feeds (with Aaron’s help) became a standard for subscribing to information, and RDF (with Aaron’s help) became a standard for describing objects. I find — and have noticed others saying the same — that to thoroughly understand a topic requires access to the whole range of items that can be part of that topic — to see their commonalities, variances and range. He found that it was difficult to make political change when politicians were highly funded by interested parties, so he tried to do something about that.
To return to information, though: having a single page for every resource allows you to make statements about those resources, referring to each resource by its URL. Aaron had read Tim Berners-Lee’s Weaving The Web, and said that Tim was the only other person who understood that, by themselves, the nodes and edges of a “semantic web” had no meaning. To be able to understand this information, a reader would need to know which information was correct and reliable (using a trust network?). He wanted people to be able to understand scientific research, and to base their decisions on reliable information, so he founded Science That Matters to report on scientific findings. He had the same motivations as many LessWrong participants: a) trying to do as little harm as possible, and b) ensuring that information is available, correct, and in the right hands, for the sake of a “good AI”. As Alan Turing said (even though Aaron spotted that the “Turing test” is a red herring), machines can think, and machines will think based on the information they’re given.
As much as individual, composable objects are interesting, the real understanding comes when a collection of items is analysed as a whole (or a part, if filtered). There’s more to a collection of items than is immediately obvious - it’s not just a [1, 2, 3] list, with "array" methods for filtering and iteration: the Collection itself is an object with its own set of observable properties - many of which are summaries, in some way, of the properties in the items in the collection.
These summaries describe some aggregate quality of the collection, and - ideally - an indication of the variance, or confidence intervals, for that value within the collection.
If you look around, you’ll see trees with different coloured leaves, depending on their genotype and phenotype. So: observed properties of a collection can vary over time, or over space, depending on the conditions in which they’re found and the conditions of observation. The observed colour of a tree - or a collection of trees - is a function with many inputs and one output: the wavelength(s) of light that leave the tree and enter your eye (or some other detector). For any collection of items, a function can be written that describes one of their properties under certain conditions.
For example, the value(s) that this function outputs might be the mean (average) and standard deviation of a series of measurements over time, or it may group those values into buckets (the sort of data that might be displayed as a bar chart).
If you’re working with JSON or HTML (which is probably the case), these interface names make no sense.
As is apparently the way with all DOM APIs, XMLHttpRequest wasn’t designed to be used directly. When an action (get, put, delete) is performed on a Resource, a Request is made to the URL of the resource. Instead of sending hundreds of requests to the same domain at once, send them one at a time: each Request is added to a per-domain Queue. Google Plus was formed around one observation: most of the people on the web don't have URLs. For example, to show you which restaurants people you trust* have recommended in an area you’re visiting, a recommendation system needs to have a latitude + longitude for the area, a URL for each restaurant (solved by Google Places) and a URL for each person (solved, ostensibly, by Google Plus). People might be leaving reviews in TripAdvisor, or Yelp, and there’s no obvious way to tie all those people together into any kind of coherent social graph.
Google Plus has an extremely clever way of linking together all those accounts, which involves starting with one trusted URL (Google Plus account), linking to another URL (GitHub, say), then linking back from that URL to your Google Plus account to prove that you own the GitHub account and can write to it.
The problem is (and the question “why” is an interesting one), even after people had their Google Plus account, they didn’t use it to post reviews. When Google tried to connect YouTube accounts to Google Plus accounts, and failed, it was because people felt that those personas were distinct, and wanted the freedom to do certain things on YouTube without having it show up on their “personal record” in Google Plus. This also perhaps explains why people are wary of using Google Plus authentication to sign in to an untrusted site - they’re not so much worried about Google knowing where their accounts are, but also that the untrusted site might create a public profile for them without asking, and link it to their Google Plus profile. Anyway, Google Plus is going away as a social network, and maybe even as a public profile, but the data’s still going to be connected together behind the scenes - perhaps using fuzzier, less explicit connections as a basis for recommendations and decision-making.
You might notice that the published property is represented as a String, when it would be easier to use as a Date object. From this definition, you can see that the publishedDate property has a dependency on the published property: any computed properties should be updated when any of its dependencies are updated. This is fine when the dependencies are all stored locally, but it’s also possible to imagine data that’s stored elsewhere.
The Resource object used above is a Web Resource, part of a library I built to make it easier to fetch and parse remote resources. In either of those cases, the data is being fetched asynchronously, and a Promise is returned. I talked about this kind of thing at XTech in 2008, illustrating the object as a Katamari Damacy-style of “ball of stuff”, being passed around various different services and accumulating properties as it goes. Talis’ data platform had a similar feature, where results from a SPARQL query could be augmented by passing each result through another data store, matching on identifiers and adding selected properties each time.
The SERVICE feature of Wikidata’s SPARQL endpoint is also similar: it takes an object in each result and passes it to a specific service, assigning the resulting data to a specified property. In OpenRefine, remote data can be fetched from web services and added to each item in the background.
The web is no longer a desktop publishing platform, it’s most often a networked medium for machine-machine communication. All the old “features” that came part and parcel with printed documents are relics of an age where information was fixed in stone (well, wood pulp).
Emscripten comes with its own SDK, which bundles the specific versions of clang and node that it needs. I’ve made a fork of xml.js which a) allows all the command-line arguments to be specified, so can be used for validating against a DTD rather than an XML schema, and b) allows a list of files to be specified, which are imported into the pseudo-filespace so that xmllint can access them. For third-party libraries, you can either download production-ready code manually to a lib folder and include them, or install with Bower to a bower_components folder and include them directly from there. The benefit of this approach is that you can edit the source files through GitHub’s web interface, and the site will update without needing to do any local building or deployment.
Keep the config files in the root folder, but move the app’s source files into an app folder. Use Gulp to build the Bower-managed third-party libraries alongside the app’s own styles and scripts.
While keeping the source files in the master branch, use Gulp to deploy the built app in a separate gh-pages branch. The actual app source files (index.html, app styles, app-specific elements) are in the app folder.
Earlier this week I attended a “Big Data Investigation Workshop” run by British Library Labs as part of the International Digital Curation Conference. The workshop was an introduction to working with tools for cleaning, analysing and visualising collections of data: OpenRefine (which is great but showing its age), Tableau (which is ridiculously impressive) and Gephi (which has fast graph layout but lacks usability). As the workshop was co-organised by the Internation Crime Fiction Research Group, the theme of the data was “Crime Fiction”. Although the news story didn’t link to any source data, it almost certainly came from the Electoral Commision’s register of donations to political parties. Running a basic search of the Electoral Commision’s register, with no filters, produced a CSV file containing all registered donations since 2001, which we then loaded into Tableau Public (Tableau’s limited, free desktop application for data visualisation).
The first visualisation was a simple bar chart of the total donations to each party, including only “political party” recipients, coloured according to the type of donation. The next visualisation was a summary of the donations from the individuals named in the news story. Getting Tableau to recognise UK postcodes is a bit tricky, as it doesn’t recognise the full postcode - we had to write a function to separate out only the first part of the postcode. I’d been making graphs of Spotify’s “Related Artists” network, but was finding that pieces of the graph often remained disconnected. To connect these disparate parts of the network, I queried for the top tags that had been attached to each artist, and added those to the graph.
This brought the network together nicely, so I applied it to a larger data set: all the unique artists that had ever been played on a particular BBC 6 Music radio show.
The full graph of artists and their tags was interesting, but to get a clearer overview of the show’s musical themes, the artist nodes were hidden after the graph had been laid out (using Gephi's "Force Layout 2" algorithm). This left just the tags, laid out in two dimensions, where the most similar tags are closest together and the most frequently used are largest.
As some of the labels were overlapping, I used Gephi’s "Label Adjust" layout algorithm to shift their positions enough that most of the overlapping was avoided. One problem was that when several artists shared the same name, irrelevant tags would be attached to an artist. In a sense, the artists are the “dark matter” of the graph: they pull the tags together and organise their macroscopic structure, but remain invisible in the final, visible map. It may be that a highly-concentrated cluster of artists (as well as one or two very loosely-connected artists) pushed some tags further apart than they deserved to be. Process those two CSV files into a list of pairs of connected identifiers suitable for import into Gephi. Switch to the Preview window and adjust the colour and opacity of the edges and labels appropriately.
It would probably be possible to automate this whole sequence - perhaps in a Jupyter Notebook. Among CartoDB’s many useful features is the ability to merge tables together, via an interface which lets you choose which column from each to use as the shared key, and which columns to import to the final merged table. CartoDB can also merge tables using location columns, counting items from one table (with latitude and longitude, or addresses) that are positioned within the areas defined in another table (with polygons). I've found that UK parliamentary constituencies are useful for visualising data, as they have a similar population number in each constituency and they have at least two identifiers in published ontologies which can be used to merge data from other sources*. Once the parliamentary constituency shapefile has been imported to a base table, any CSV table that contains either of those identifiers can easily be merged with the base table to create a new, merged table and associated visualisation. So, the task is to find other data sets that contain either the OS “unit id” or the ONS “GSS code”. Given an index of CSV files, like those in CKAN-based stores such as, how can we identify those which contain either unit IDs or GSS codes? As Thomas Levine's commasearch project demonstrated at csvconf last year, if you have a list of all (or even just some) of the known members of a collection of typed entities (e.g. In a General Election, the residents of each UK parliamentary constituency elect one Member of Parliament to represent them in the House of Commons. Each party can nominate a maximum of one candidate per constituency, often chosen from a shortlist of potential candidates in a selection contest.
Candidates who wish to stand for election must submit their nomination papers within one week after the notice of election has been published (i.e. However, candidates usually start their campaigning several months earlier, and their intention to stand for election will often be announced in a local newspaper. AndyJS’ spreadsheet and a derived list of candidates by constituency, via the Vote UK Forum.

Dods People, a commercial monitoring service, used as the data source for the MHP General Election Campaign Outlook (GECO).
As well as prospective parliamentary candidates, some MPs will be contesting their seats again, and some will be standing down. Every 5 years, the Boundary Commissions for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland review the UK parliamentary constituency boundaries.
The last completed Boundary Review recommended 650 constituencies, and took effect at the General Election in 2010. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has produced a guide to parliamentary constituencies and a map of the current constituencies. The Office for National Statistics publishes a CSV file listing the names and codes for each parliamentary constituency (650 in total), under the Open Government License. The parliamentary constituencies of England are named in The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007. The Ordnance Survey produces the Boundary-Line data, which includes an ESRI Shapefile for the boundary of each parliamentary constituency. The Ordnance Survey’s administrative geography and civil voting area ontology includes a “hasUnitID” property, which provides a unique ID for each region, and a “GSS” property that is the ONS’ code for each region.
The Boundary-Line Shapefile includes the Unit ID (OS) and GSS (ONS) code for each constituency, so they can easily be used to merge the boundary polygons with other data sources in CartoDB. If using CartoDB’s free plan, it is necessary to use a version of the Boundary-Line Shapefile with simplified polygons, to reduce the size of the data. Following the next Boundary Review, the number of constituencies will be reduced from 650 to 600 by the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act, introduced by the current coalition government. Via Nautilus’ excellent Three Sentence Science, I was interested to read Nature’s list of “10 scientists who mattered this year”. One of them, Sjors Scheres, has written software - RELION - that creates three-dimensional images of protein structures from cryo-electron microscopy images. I was interested in finding out more about this software: how it had been created, and how the developer(s) had been able to make such a significant improvement in protein imaging. I was hoping for a link to GitHub, but at least the source code is available (though the “for free” is worrying, signifying that the default is “not for free”). On the RELION Wiki, the introduction states that RELION “is developed in the group of Sjors Scheres” (slightly problematic, as this implies that outsiders are excluded, and that development of the software is not an open process). The file is downloaded over HTTP, with no hash provided that would allow verification of the authenticity or correctness of the downloaded file.
There’s an AUTHORS file, but it doesn’t really list the contributors in a way that would be useful for citation.
Original disclaimers in the code of these external packages have been maintained as much as possible.
The source code for RELION should be in a public version control system such as GitHub, with tagged releases.
The CHANGELOG should be maintained, so that users can see what has changed between releases. There should be a CITATION file that includes full details of the authors who contributed to (and should be credited for) development of the software, the name and current version of the software, and any other appropriate citation details. Each public release of the software should be archived in a repository such as figshare, and assigned a DOI. There should be a way for users to submit visible reports of any issues that are found with the software. The parts of the software derived from third-party code should be clearly identified, and removed if their license is not compatible with the GPL. For more discussion of what is needed to publish citable, re-usable scientific software, see the issues list of Mozilla Science Lab's "Code as a Research Object" project. I used a PHP client to connect to Twitter’s streaming API as I was interested in seeing how it handled the connection (the client needs to watch the connection and reconnect if no data is received in a certain time frame).
The streaming API uses OAuth 1.0 for authentication, so you have to register a Twitter application to get an OAuth consumer key and secret, then generate another access token and secret for your account. The dat server that was started earlier with dat listen is listening on port 6461 for clients, and is able to emit each incoming tweet as a Server-Sent Event, which can then be consumed in JavaScript using the EventSource API.
Big companies (Google, IBM, Wolfram) are positioning themselves to be the repository where sensors store their data.
Other companies are building platforms for applications to make use of that data in real-time. There’s a piece missing: it should be possible to query those data stores to build up a snapshot of information, then document and publish the collection of data (and the harvesting process) for others to read and explore. Firstly, seed-harvester imports an initial collection of items (which may be as simple as a list of identifiers or URLs) from CSV, JSON, or a JavaScript function that fetches the initial data set. Secondly, leaf-builder provides an interface for adding leaves (properties; computed or otherwise) to each item of the data set.
Thirdly, vege-table itself extends HTML tables to present the collection of items, generating a row for each item and a column for each leaf. Once all the leaves have been added, the data collection can be published by exporting the table description and data files, placing them in the same folder as the main index.html file, and switching off the database. In one day, two separate authors demonstrated that they’ve solved the problem of “how to publish your research on the web”.
Dominic Tarr analysed the performance of different JavaScript cryptographic libraries, and Jure Triglav collected tweets mentioning sunny weather and correlated them to actual weather reports.
The reports are online for anyone to read, and the code and data are in version-controlled repositories, with instructions for anyone to reproduce them.
The README file describes the purpose of the project, the dependencies, what was tested, how to reproduce the experiments, and what license the project is released under. The process for generating the data (a Bash script that calls node commands) is present, and its usage is documented in the human-readable README. All the machine-readable metadata needed for the project, including the list of dependencies, is present in package.json. The results are written up as a paper in Markdown (including figure images directly from the output folder). The data is continuously updated in the background, and the figures and text are updated in real time. Note that neither of the reports have “references” sections at the end, for the simple reason that they don’t need to: if they need to refer to anything, they just need to link to it in the (hyper)text.
The Microdata DOM API allows JavaScript programs to read and write data embedded in HTML as Microdata. As specified by the W3C Working Group, document.getItems(itemtype) returns a collection of all the elements with an itemscope attribute in the current document that have the given itemtype attribute.
Each itemscope element has a properties object that provides access to all of the element's itemprop descendants (either contained directly or referenced elsewhere in the document using the itemref attribute). These methods and properties allow the program to access all the Microdata nodes and values in the document.
The HTML is very simple: a single container for the whole card, with two sections inside - one for the front and one for the back. If you can't tell why a technology would be useful to you, it's not for people, it's for the robots. Google Glass provides machines with vision and access to a network of institutional knowledge. Bitcoin allows machine-machine transactions to be processed without needing any evaluation of trust. Stephanie Haustein and colleagues recently described the lack of correlation between tweets about an article (using Altmetric data from July 2011 - December 2012) and formal citations of the article. I decided to look at the data for smaller sets of articles, published in specific journals.
Import a CSV file, with columns "doi" and "citations", to a new project named "citations_scopus". One limitation of the data used here is that the dates of each tweet and citation are not known; it might be interesting to correlate tweets and citations during specific windows of time after article publication. WE BELIEVE THAT IT WILL PROVIDE THE BASIC INFORMATION AND GATEWAYS TO RESOURCES YOU NEED TO UTILIZE THE BENEFITS OF THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT. These are the numbers of the pdf slides in the slide show section of this web site that relate to the paragraph. If it doesna€™t, look at the end of the digest for the number of the associated Note and either click on the associated URL or enter it into the address bar of your internet search engine. PRESIDENT OBAMA, 280 DEMOCRAT REPRESENTATIVES AND SENATORS IN THE 111th CONGRESS PASSED ACA USING HELP FROM PRESIDENTS TRUMAN, EISENHOWER, KENNEDY, JOHNSON, NIXON, REAGAN, CLINTON, and G. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects ACA to reduce the deficit by $1.5 trillion over the first 20 years8. IF IMPLEMENTED BY US, OUR GOVERNMENTS AND THE HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY AS IT WAS WRITTEN, 12 in the next four years most people will notice that it will be easier to read, understand, compare and shop for insurance.
In this digest, each provisiona€™s effective year date is shown at the beginning of each entry.
To start $30,000,000 was allocated in 2010 to jump start state consumer assistance offices. Until ACA came up for passage in 2009 this was endorsed by conservatives, Democrats and GOP leaders 60. That is because seventy-five percent of health care cost is spent on chronic illnesses arising from modifiable behavior. Authorizes Medicare coverage of personalized prevention plan services, including an annual comprehensive health risk assessment, Section 4103, as modified by S 10402; Ss 4104-4105.
1312 (c); insurance will be sold through state operated exchanges accessible by both individuals, and small businesses, Ss 1311-1324.
Without it costs will be uncontrollable.20 By 2014 individuals and employers with more than 50 employees must provide health care insurance, Ss. These are payable with the tax return with maximums of $2,085 per family or 2.5 percent of household income (whichever is higher). The Federal government does not have the authority to limit premiums, but the subsidies mention immediately above limit premium cost. Medical services will be defined by the HHS in consultation with the state insurance commissioners, S 1001, sub 2715, 2718.
Coverage denial for pre-existing conditions is banned if less than age 19, and for everyone on Jan 1, 2014,44 , S. Denial is common in the commercial market.61 This program will operate until the insurance exchange takes effect in 2014 when everyone must be accepted. The provision, which is in S 1001, sub 2717 is effective immediately and is to be implemented within two years. They can also be typed in to the address line of an internet explorer, perhaps at the library. PRESIDENT OBAMA, 280 DEMOCRAT REPRESENTATIVES AND SENATORS IN THE 111th CONGRESS PASSED ACA USING HELP FROM PRESIDENTS TRUMAN, EISENHOWER,A  KENNEDY,A  JOHNSON, NIXON, REAGAN, CLINTON, and G.
1312 (c); insurance will be sold through state operated exchanges accessible by bothA  individuals,A  and small businesses, Ss 1311-1324. Without itA  costs will be uncontrollable.20 By 2014 individuals and employers with more than 50 employees must provide health care insurance, Ss. The Federal government does not have the authority to limit premiums, but the subsidies mention immediately above limit premium cost.A  Also, an employer must offer a free choice, tax deductible, and non-taxable voucher in the amount of the employer contribution for purchase of insurance on an exchange if the employee earns less than 400% of the federal poverty income level. We should make it easy for our readers to check its appropriateness to the message of our writing. These brief citations correspond to more complete entries in a Reference List at the end of the paper.
To avoid this, everyone in the system is given a task that is guaranteed to give each participant an equal chance of completing first - a chance which is increased only by how much work they do. When it turned out that he wasn’t going to be writing any more, I spent some time trying to work out why. Also, some people might add high-quality information, but others might not know what they’re talking about. To teach yourself about a topic, you need to be a collector, which means you need access to the objects.
It could contain metadata for each item (allowable up to a point - Aaron was good at pushing the limits of what information was actually copyrightable), but some books remained in copyright. He also saw that this would require politicians being open about their dealings (but became sceptical about the possibility of making everything open by choice; he did, however, create a secure drop-box for people to send information anonymously to reporters). Each resource and property was only defined in terms of other nodes and properties, like a dictionary defines words in terms of other words. If an AI is given misleading information it could make wrong decisions, and if an AI is not given access to the information it needs it could also make wrong decisions, and either of those could be calamitous. Your eye analyses the light arriving from the tree, and your brain tries to summarise the wavelengths that it’s seeing. To be able to understand the shared properties of items in a group, and differences from items in a different group, is to begin to understand them. They’ve read Tim Berners-Lee’s books, and understand that there are Resources out there, with URLs that can be used to fetch them. And that’s before you get into the jQuery.ajax option names (data for the query parameters, dataType for the response type, etc). It also doesn’t return a Promise, though there’s an onload event that gets called when the request finishes.
Even with Gmail, there's no way to say that the person you email is the same person who's left a review, unless they have a URL (i.e. Now that both of those URLs are trusted, either of them can be used as the basis of a new trusted connection: linking from the trusted GitHub URL to a Flickr URL, and then from the Flickr URL to the trusted Google Plus URL (or any other trusted profile URL), is enough to prove that you also own the Flickr account and can write to it. In this case, when the published property is updated, the publishedDate property is also updated. The intense focus is on performance of Blink as a platform for mobile applications, and not at all on document rendering features. Hardly anyone writes English (though a lot of people, and some machines, can read it to some extent).
This makes running xmllint in the browser much more like running xmllint on the command line. We added a filter on the donor name, searched for their surname and selected those names which matched (there were several variations on each donor’s name in the database), then used Tableau’s grouping to group together the name variations. Once this was done, Tableau easily mapped the location of each donor, to produce the final visualisation: a map of each donation to a political party, coloured according to the recipient party and sized according to the value of the donation. To avoid this, only the artists that had been given MusicBrainz IDs in the BBC data were included, and these MBIDs were used to query for tags. I'd like to be able to do the same thing in D3, as Gephi is quite awkward to use, and has cropped the node labels when exporting the above images (it seems to only take the nodes into account when cropping the output, and not their labels).
Fusion Tables creates a virtual merged table, allowing updates to the source tables to be replicated to the final merged table as they occur. The UK parliamentary constituency shapefiles published by the Ordnance Survey as part of the Boundary-Line dataset contain polygons, names and two identifiers for each area: one is the Ordnance Survey’s own “unit id” and one is the Office for National Statistics’ “GSS code”. Although there’s usually a property name in the first row, there’s rarely a datapackage.json file defining a basic data type (number, string, date, etc), and practically never a JSON-LD context file to map those names to URLs.
For example: country names (a list of names that changes slowly), members of parliament (a list of names that changes regularly), years (a range of numbers that grows gradually), gene identifiers (a list of strings that grows over time), postcodes (a list of known values, or values matching a regular expression).
The Boundary-Line data is published under the OS OpenData license, which incorporates the Open Government License. On that page is a link to “Download RELION for free from here”, which leads to a form, asking for name, organisation and email address (which aren’t validated, so can be anything - the aim is to allow the owners to email users if a critical bug is found, but this shouldn’t really be a requirement before being allowed to download the software). They are difficult to find: trying to download XMIPP hits another registration form, and BSOFT has no visible license.
Apart from the folder name, the only way to find out which version of the code is present is to look in the configure script, which contains PACKAGE_VERSION=‘1.3’. The data table is paginated, sortable, filterable, and includes footer rows that summarise columns using facets where appropriate.
This is most likely what people will see first, so it links to the code repository for all the information needed to repeat the experiments. In theory this is good, but as it’s published in a system that doesn’t yet have version control, there’s no ability to compare past versions.
However, browsers never fully supported the API, and are dropping any native support that did exist. However, in order to provide this flexibility, the DOM API can be quite long-winded when reading the value of a single property, which is most often what's needed. A5), divided into two equal halves (front and back), produced using only HTML and CSS (and a PDF conversion). After writing a few scripts to fetch and parse data to CSV from various web services, using the DOI as the key for each row, I realised that it would be easier to gather the data in OpenRefine by incrementally adding columns.

Then read the text, verify it, if you wish, by referencing the sections of the act that are cited and expand the information by clicking on the web site links provided.
According to the politically neutral Congressional Budget Office (CBO), repealing ACA would increase the deficit by $230b over the next ten years67 and by one-half of one percent of the GDP hereafter.
They will no longer have to worry about losing coverage for any reason and their insurance costs will become more affordable than they would be without ACA. The provision becomes effective for plan years beginning on or after the day date given in the entry. By 2014, these offices will be points of entry for all programs, simplified insurance applications and appeals. They are authorized to credit us up to 20% of total premiums to encourage healthy behavior. Increased physical activity, healthy nutrition, cessation of tobacco use, and moderate use of alcohol bring major reductions in suffering, early death and cost.
Jan 1, 2011 the ACA started a 50% discount off the Pharmaceutical company retail prices of brand name drugs and biologics in the donut hole and other discounts on generic drugs. By opting into the ACA Medicaid program, the ACA gives states with very low MEDICAID qualifying income levels the option to EXPAND MEDICAID COVERAGE by increasing qualifying income levels to 1.33 times the Federal Poverty Level or less. This is part of the right to keep what you have, but much can depend upon whether your plan is a€?newa€? or a€?grandfathereda€?. There will also be a low cost catastrophe coverage policy for those under age 30 (S 1302 (e)) and a special program for those under age 21, (S. The HHS Secretary has directed the states to have the legislation and regulations needed to approve or disapprove rates and has granted $51 million to 45 states to assist this process. 28 ACA reimburses employers for 80 percent of claims between $15,000 and $90,000 solely to lower costs for employer based plans for retirees between the ages of 55-64.
Insurers may offer a low cost catastrophic plan for those under 30 and four plans varying coverage at 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the cost of benefits. 113-127, 133, and Index a€?Medicarea€? for comprehensive digests of the issues and provisions or call-1-800-MEDICARE.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics this is more than any other industry 7.A  The Recovery Act and ACA together provide $2 billion to help this happen.
Government Accountability Office put out a report on Nov 15, 2010 that shows the national debt is in an increasingly dire crisis. Jan 1, 2011 the ACA started a 50% discount off the Pharmaceutical company retailA  prices of brand name drugs and biologics in the donut hole and other discounts on generic drugs. States may later add large groups, S 1312(f)(2)(B).A  Policies must be easy to understand and compare,41 S1001 sub 2715,A  QUESTIONS ABOUT THE MINNESOTA HEALTH CARE EXCHANGE ARE ANSWERED HERE.
I didn’t find out why the writing had stopped, exactly, but I did get some insight into why it might have started. If everyone had their own wiki, and you could choose which trusted sources to subscribe to, you’d be able to collect just the information that you trusted, augment it yourself, and then broadcast it back out to others.
The colours might cycle over time, as day and night pass, and they might cycle over longer periods, as seasons pass. The further away you look, the greater likelihood that the colour of a tree will be more different from the closest trees - the variance within the collection will increase. If this property was bound to the original table, you would see the new values being filled in as the data arrives! If this was available it would be ideal, as then the bower_components folder could be left out of the built app. In particular, we looked at a recent news story in The Independent, which stated that “three senior figures at scandal-hit [HSBC] bank donated ?875,000" to the Conservative Party in recent years. Pleasingly the totals almost exactly matched those given in the news story, for the three named donors. There’s no way to know what has changed from the previous version, as the previous versions are not available anywhere (this also means that it’s impossible to reproduce results generated using older versions of the software). Happily, this is the format in which Twitter’s streaming API provides information, so it's ideal for piping into dat.
Once a leaf has been attached to an item, the data added can then be used to build further leaves. That’s ok though, as long as it’s saved in the Internet Archive whenever someone refers to it. I've written a jQuery plugin that provides equivalent functions and makes them easier to use. As the graphic below shows, like eight presidents before him, President Obama was driven to make health care reform one of his highest priorities by the simple fact that the cost of health care is pushing the country and its people rapidly toward bankruptcy.
BUSH WHO ALL SPONSORED REFORM PROGRAMS THAT ARE PART OF ACA.11 These ideas were also included in the Massachusetts Health Care reform law passed under Governor Romney. Click here to see a CDC report of Minnesota, or here to find your state.66 Reducing this is something most of us can do. Depending upon this, CBO and CMS estimate that this law extends the life 13 of the Medicare until 2029, if we prevent Congress from using the savings inherent in this law for other purposes. All left uninsured may use one of the 8,500 Community Health Clinic offices (see below) or they may use emergency Rooms.
Employees must purchase qualified job based insurance or lose the employer tax free contribution, if it meets minimum standards and is not excessively expensive, Ss 1511-1515.
The States shall establish an annual review of unreasonable increases in premiums, inform HHS about trends in increases and make recommendations for exclusion from the exchanges Ss.1003, 2794. The program expires when the money runs out or on Jan 1, 2014 because the insurance exchanges open, S 1102. Individuals can apply for insurance from the back up federal high-risk pool38 Application requires only a letter from physician verifying pre-existing condition55 and no insurance for six months. This is the Affordable (Health) Care Act reform law and is referred to here as ACA.A  For instance, to find the law sections cited click on the underlined citation above. The report shows that the ACA enacted in March 2010 has the potential to reduce the growth of the debt by two thirds.
Above incomes of 400% of FPL the insured is responsible within the out of pocket limits mentioned above.
Each of my online profiles on different sites is literally a different “profile”, and I only choose to link some of them together.
Authorship is immaterial (jk, partly), and when is anything ever authored by a single person, anyway? The President knew that health care reform would be a major step toward improving the economy, creating jobs, balancing the budget and making other necessary programs possible. The ACA Act preserves private insurance and the right of individuals, employers and the states to freely continue existing health care plans and to make choices going forward so long as they meet minimum standards of benefits and coverage as outlined below, S 1312(d). Section 9007 of the ACA now required that private not for profit hospitals develop written financial assistance policies,63 limit what they charge for services, observe fair billing and debt collection practices, and conduct regular community needs assessments. Employers must offer vouchers to employees earning less than 400% of the poverty level income if the employera€™s plan would cost the employee between 8 and 9.8% of income, S 10108.
Contact your statea€™s health department18 and ask if they have applied.A  In all cases state benefits and insurance requirements may exceed ACA. No one who offers health insurance is required to participate in any federal health insurance program created under ACA, S 1555. Low income persons who believe that they will be dependent upon this service should seek out the private not for profit hospitals in their area and ask to see the hospitals published material. The truth can be found at independent research sites like Snopes14, Politico15, or Fact Check16. Exchanges may limit business access to those with 50 employees or less until 2016 and in 2017 may open the exchanges to employers of more than 100. Medicare premium dollars can presently be used to purchase a commercial, non governmental policy in place of Medicare. In May 2011, HHS announced availability of more than $100 million in first year funding for Community Task Groups (CTGs), aimed at improving health and lowering health costs and ask your congress person what happened in 2012.
The federal contribution to expansion states under the optional program will be 100% in 2014 and to all states 90% after 2019, Ss. Today, 68% of medically underserved communities across the nation are in rural areas, and these communities often have trouble attracting and retaining medical professionals. In May 2011, HHS announced availability of more than $100 million in first year funding for Community Task Groups (CTGs), aimed at improving health and lowering health costsA  and ask your congress person what happened in 2012.
Tim Johnson, Hyperion Press (2010), or LANDMARK, the Inside Story of Americaa€™s New Health Care Law and What It Means for Us All, The Staff of The Washington Post, ISBN 978-1-58648-934-2, pp. The law provides increased payment to rural health care providers to help them continue to serve their communities.
Qualified private plans, Tricare, VA and all government programs satisfy the mandate, S 1501(f)(1). Members of Congress and staff are required to purchase their health care plans on the state exchanges, S 1312. There are many inter section referrals within the statute so click on a€?Find next in current PDFa€? repeatedly until it takes you to the text of the section. When the pdf of the statute opens, the a€?finda€? window may be at the top center of the web site that appears. The difference according to the Congressional Budget Office depends on whether or not the bill is implemented as written, is starved, is repealed or drained of its tax savings by extravagant spending elsewhere.17 History indicates that it will be implemented. Read full text here!                                                                  Impressions at an Amusement Park.  Specific acts, chats with carnival people and the gambling obsession are among Hecht's observations as he visits a carnival. October 28, 1921.                                                                                         Milwaukee Avenue Complex. In using the resources available to trace family lineage the student will search records both on the World Wide Web, and in historical libraries and archives. Students will investigate death certificates, wills, Bible records, census records, birth certificates, and other primary records to teach students to identify ancestors in building a lineage line. Students will be expected to write a family history of a family line through three generations including historical context (who are they, what did they do, where did they live, accomplishments and community connections).
A special focus will be placed on students visiting ancestral sites and archives and visiting ancestors to transcribe oral history. Swansong, 2010.A Module 3 a€“ Introduction to Heraldry An important a€?cousina€? to genealogy is the study of heraldry.
The common coat of arms consists of many aspects including helm, wreath, motto, charges, shield and tinctures.
Students will write a research paper and complete exercises, which illustrate their learning from the course. Students will study the Billingsley Kinship Theory and its significance in genealogy and how the power of kinship drove migration, settlement patterns, marriage, politics, economics, and religion. Students will also discuss other non-theoretical family studies, which focus on kinship and why they are not considered theoretical works. What theory is, and what it does for research and knowledge, with its explanatory, predictive and classificatory powers will be addressed. Coat of arms, which are official symbols of a family emblazoned on a shield, were created and signified ancestry and eminence. The people of ancient Greece and Rome often professed divine ancestry while others frequently said their ascendants were members of the animal kingdom.
476 to 1453 due to the evolution of the social system that emerged in Europe during the 8th century, which made social standing and inheritance subject to lineage. In some cases, genealogy is also used to trace the lineage of individuals seeking to gain membership into certain organizations and religious fellowships.
Students will become acquainted with different sources of records of American historical land resources.
Students will discuss issues encountered in their research on the utilization of land records and write a paper illustrating the use of land and property resources. Court and Immigration Records a€“ 3 creditsThis course will provide the student with Immigration and Migration laws for becoming a US citizen, a source of data for the genealogist The student will develop skills in using immigration records to conduct their genealogical research and obtain knowledge and skills in transcribing court records and reading wills for genealogical research. Eklund)A Module III Methodology of Understanding and Using the Genealogical Proof Standard. They will learn how to include an accurate citation to the source (s) of each item of information that is used. They will learn how to analyze and correlate the citation information to evaluate its quality of evidence and resolve any conflicts caused by conflicting items of evidence.
Some forty or more foul organizations are pumping out hundreds of counterfeit title holders and knights. Tunesi of Liongam)A Module VII Heraldry II Teaching the Development and Use of Corporate Heraldry (English ) a€“ 3 credits The use of Heraldry by corporations, both civic and commercial, primarily from the English perspective, from the oldest known English grant of arms to the Drapersa€™ Company of the City of London in 1419 through to the grants made to modern multinational companies, as well as other civic, professional and governmental bodies.
The course will also look at the use of armorial bearings by corporations on buildings, advertising and other media, both traditional and contemporary.
Topics covered include basic DNA concepts, basic genetic concepts, how DNA testing is done, and how genes are mapped.
Also discussed are the Human Genome Project and its significance and how genetic information can be used in teaching genealogical research. The Pilgrims settled on the coast of Cape Cod at Plymouth, Massachusetts after a three-month voyage on the Mayflower from England (Urdang, 1996). We will explore family life in England, written from research material, artifacts, wills, census, parish registers and county records.
We will look at the evolution of family life over the centuries, looking at narrative, pictorial, photographic, literary and oral accounts. The family looked at in depth will be one that can trace its origins in rural and maritime Suffolk from the sixteenth century to the present day, using examples from parish registers.
This course will provide the reader with a history of the Crusades from 1095-1261 from the viewpoint of both the Crusaders and the Arabs. It is through reading this history that one is made aware of the true meanings of Arabian and European heraldry and chivalry.
Through this course students will have the opportunity to study and interpret from a historical and archaeological perspective various extracts from Biblical texts both from the Old and the New Testaments. It is not required that students have any prior knowledge of either Hebrew or Greek, although this would be an asset. It is very important that students show an aptitude to study Biblical texts from a critical perspective, especially those extracts that deal specifically with genealogical information. Although the Bible will be the basis for this course, students will have the opportunity to delve into other Near Eastern texts. Students will focus on Phoenician and Punic inscriptions, which are the only historical records that the Phoenicians have ever written.
Two modules are selected by all students in which students are required to develop a practical project in teaching or in developing a business or project for a genealogical work situation.A Module XV Contemporary Adult Learning Theories- Practical Applications - 3 creditsThis course will explore contemporary adult learning theories that can be applied to the participants teaching genealogy in the changing world of our information society. The emphasis of the course will be an analysis of the contemporary learning theories, models and strategies. Participants will explore the philosophical, historical, and legislative bases of these theories.
Participants will learn a wide variety of accepted principles, techniques and theories they can apply to their teaching and presentations in genealogy. Adult learning theories related to past techniques of learning will be investigated for opinions, interest, and thinking about successful teaching presentations in professional genealogical work. Topics will include, but are not limited to, structural differences in distance learning programs, benefits of online learning ,startup factors, marketing issues, technological issues, future trends, and international education considerations. The student will analyze classic and post modern models of the curriculum development process and learn how to develop a situational analysis, write objectives, explore various modes of organizing the content of a curriculum, identify and apply criteria in selection of methods and develop a curriculum evaluation. Students will be required to write a curriculum for a beginning genealogy program in continuing education for a community college.
The course will inform the student on business ethics and legalities, how to manage their business, and help define the type of business the student is interested in operating. Students will also learn how to develop a mission statement and business plan, bookkeeping, and record keeping. Students will study types of research methodologies, parts of a research project, how to frame a problem statement and the design of questionnaires, and interviews.
The levels of learning in Blooma€™ s Taxonomy will be addressed.A section will be devoted to Grounded Theory as a generic qualitative methodology and its usefulness in genealogy.
Former home of the College of Preceptors, designed by Frederick Pinches, Bloomsbury Square (South side), London WC1.

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