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At the heart of the Persian Army were the 10,000 Immortals a€“ soldiers chosen for their bravery and skill. Created Zoroastrianism a€“ A religion that taught that the forces of good and evil were battling for control of the universe.
First Persian War - In 490 BC Darius I invaded the Greek mainland to punish the Greek city-states for helping rebellious Greeks in the Persian Empire. A¬300 Spartans held off the Persian army at Thermopylae pass for three days until they were betrayed and overwhelmed.
A¬The Athenian navy defeated the Persians in a navel battle at Salamis and on land at Plataea. Education, clear thinking (philosophy) and the arts were valued in Athensa€¦in addition to a strong military. After the Persian Wars Athens formed an alliance of Greek city-states called the Delian League.
In 415 BC Athens attempted to expand its empire once again, by attacking the island of Sicily. In 359 BC Phillip II became king of Macedonia and (very soon) led his army south to conquer the disorganized Greeks.
Phillipa€™s success as a military leader was based on a fighting formation called a phalanx a€“ a group of warriors who stood close together in a square with long spears.
Philip II planned to march east and conquer the Persian Empire, but in 336 BC he was assassinated while celebrating his daughtera€™s wedding. Alexander quickly demonstrated his leadership abilities at age 20 by ruthlessly putting down a rebellion in the Greek city-state of Thebes. Beginning in 334 BC, Alexander moved east and south out of Greece and conquered the Persians, Egyptians and other smaller groups. Alexander was a great admirer of Greek culture so his longest lasting legacy was that he spread Greek culture across his empire as he conquered. Over many centuries these cultures blended together to form Hellenistic Culture or Hellenism. Greek philosophers believed that one thing was more important than anything else in lifea€¦a€¦.using the human mind to think and understand.
Plato a€“ A student of Socrates, Plato wrote The Republic in which he described the prefect society.
Archimedes a€“ Invented the a€?water screwa€? that allowed the lifting of water to a higher level.
At the heart of the Persian Army were the 10,000 Immortals a€“ soldiers chosen for their bravery and skill.A  The army also had an excellent cavalry a€“ a unit of soldiers who ride horses. After four years of disorder, a prince, Darius I came to power.A  He became known as the a€?king of kingsa€?. Built The Royal Road.A A  It stretched 1,700 miles and allowed messengers to travel quickly.


Philip II planned to march east and conquer the Persian Empire, but in 336 BC he was assassinated while celebrating his daughtera€™s wedding.A  His son Alexander would take his placea€¦a€¦.
Alexander quickly demonstrated his leadership abilities at age 20 by ruthlessly putting down a rebellion in the Greek city-state of Thebes.A  He now could go and conquer an empire without fearing any further rebellions in Greece.
Many government buildings in the US today are modeled after the Greek style.A  Greek buildings are known for their columns and balance. Aristotle a€“ Taught that people should live lives of moderation and balance.A  The should use reason, or clear and ordered thinking to guide their lives. By the late Middle Ages, popes had great spiritual power while kings had great political power. The pope was the head of the Christian Church (Roman Catholic) in Western Europe to which most people belonged. Powerful kings ruled kingdoms in England, France and the Holy Roman Empire - German-speaking kingdoms in central Europe. Holy Roman Emperors were put on the throne through election by the empirea€™s nobles, not through inheritance. Those who chose to follow the Bishop of Constantinople created the Eastern Orthodox Church. The battle between Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV was to set the tone for church vs. The Crusades were a series of wars between Christians and Muslims for control of the Holy Land. The emperor of the Byzantine Empire asked the Pope for help in dealing with the attacks of the Turkish Muslims.
The European crusaders succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and the area around it and set up four small kingdoms. The 2nd Crusade was a miserable failure with the crusaders returning to Europe in less than a year. The 3rd Crusade saw English king Richard I (a€?Richard the Lionhearteda€?) battle Muslim leader Saladin for control of the Holy Land. The 4th Crusade saw French knights a€?sacka€? Constantinople on their way to the Holy Land. Many Christians wanted to go on a pilgrimage to places in the Holy Land such as Jerusalem, Rome or to Canterbury Cathedral near London, England. Monks were men who withdrew from the world and dedicated themselves to worship and religious service. Friars were men who belonged to religious orders and lived and worked among the general public.
The Church established universities to teach about the Christian faith in addition to law, medicine, astronomy and other subjects. During all of the Middle Ages the Church had a very strong influence on both art and architecture.


In 1215 a group of English noble forced King John to sign the Magna Carta (The Great Charter). Over time a council called the English Parliament was created and gradually became the law making body that governs England.
Although the Magna Carta changed Englanda€™s government, it had no effect outside of England. The Hundred Years War resulted in English kings being further weakened and French kings strengthened. While the 100 Years War was going on, an infectious plague that originated in central and eastern Asia swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351. The Church dealt harshly with those guilty of heresy, ideas that oppose accepted church teachings. Between 1000 and 1300 Spanish Christians fought and drove out Spanish and Portuguese Muslims called Moors, from the Iberian Peninsula.
To insure that Christianity was the only religion practiced Ferdinand and Isabella created the Spanish Inquisition, an organization of priests that looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of not being Catholic.
Blamed for the death of Jesus, Jews faced discrimination throughout Europe during this period. The pope was the head of the Christian Church (Roman Catholic) in Western Europe to which most people belonged.A  People saw the pope as Goda€™s representative on Earth.
Some Popes began to act like royalty and had great political power to govern.A  This made some kings mad.
Friars were men who belonged to religious orders and lived and worked among the general public.A  They taught about generosity and kindness and set a good Christian example.
Some wondered if religious faith and human reason could exist together.A  Saint Thomas Aquinas of the University of Paris said that God created Natural Law that governed the way the world operated.
Grand churches called cathedrals were built for bishops to hold services in.A  Beginning in the 1100a€™s a new style of architecture called Gothic came into existence. Over time a council called the English Parliament was created and gradually became the law making body that governs England.A  Kings in England could do little without its support. Although the Magna Carta changed Englanda€™s government, it had no effect outside of England.A  Other kings continued to rule as they always had.
Abraham Lincoln was born in a one-room log cabin, and lived in a log cabin for much of his youth. Eastern Orthodox Christian) They did not succeed in retaking any territory in the Holy Land.
Hanks and Abe Lincoln, whose father was the first pioneer of Macon County.” Lincoln admitted that while he didn’t know if he split those two rails in particular, he had split many rails in his lifetime.



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