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Our ancestor, Patrick Sullivan was born in about 1822 in Ireland to Jeremy Sullivan and Helene Drulhal.
Patrick migrated to eastern Canada when in his mid-twenties, along with an older brother, Dennis Sullivan. Due to the great Irish potato famine in the mid-1840a€™s millions of immigrants sailed for the US, and Canada. North of Ottawa, across the river by that name, was the long and beautiful valley of the Gatineau River.
As the Sullivan children grew, Pat taught his sons the hard labor of working in the lumber camps. In one of these floating log jams, Pata€™s second oldest son, Jeremiah Sullivan, at the age of 20, was drowned in a tragic logging accident. Three months after the death of this son, Mary gave birth to another little boy, who they also named Jeremiah, as a memorial to his recently deceased brother. Patrick migrated to eastern Canada when in his mid-twenties, along with an older brother, Dennis Sullivan.A A  We know of no other siblings for this family but being Irish Catholics, it is highly likely they came from a much larger family back in Ireland.
Illinois was part of the a€?Northwest Territorya€? claimed by the United States after the Revolutionary War.
When George Nebeker first moved his family to Indiana, they settled in Covington, Fountain County but then moved on to Edgar Co. The 1850 census shows that Aquilla (the son of our ancestor, George) was still in Vermillion Co., Indiana. We also find the tombstones of William and Sarah Wood next to his daughter, Florence Wood Nebeker, in the Bloomfield Cemetery. It is quite possible that there was another member of this family who was about 25 years old and away from home at the time of this census as there is a four-year gap between Enoch and Lettitia whereas all the other children came at very regular two year intervals.
The marriage of Henry Nebeker and Florence Wood was of short duration, less than two years. Mary Nebeker [I did not find this stone but there were many stones in deep grass and difficult to read. The final Nebeker entry in the cemetery record is for another a€?Susannah Nebeker, wife of W. We will add here the information from two more tombstones from the Bloomfield Cemetery that are of interest to us.
William Wooda€™s grave was just to the east of the large tree in the middle of the cemetery and his wifea€™s grave was just to the east of his. In this temporary community, Henry Nebeker met a young woman by the name of Harriet Ann Van Wagoner Havens. Ann was not the only pioneer woman to insist that her husband be a good member of the Church. In the spring of 1847 Brigham Young began forming the saints into companies for the trek west. There were five groups of a€?tena€? (meaning about ten wagons) in this a€?4th Hundreda€? (meaning the 4th wagon train to pull out of Winter Quarters.) John Nebeker was the Captain of the fourth group of a€?tena€? wagons and he was accompanied by his three brothers. In the Spring of 1851, the mother of this family, Susannah Meredith Nebeker became ill and passed away on 16 May 1851. With both of his parents now gone, Samuel Nebeker and Washington were the only Nebeker brothers left in Illinois.
Thus the Nebeker family passed in and out of the little village of Bloomfield, Illinois and only some worn stones among the tall grass in a hidden graveyard are left as a witness to their passing.
Their daughter-in-law, Florence Nebekera€™s stone is leaning against the tree in the distance, on the left. Illinois was part of the a€?Northwest Territorya€? claimed by the United States after the Revolutionary War.A  The first settlers were primarily southerners from Kentucky, Virginia and North Carolina who settled along the Mississippi across the river from St. It is not totally clear just when the family first came in contact with the Mormon Elders.A  Georgea€™s oldest son, John Nebeker, returned back to Ohio where he married Lurena Fitzgerald on 22 Oct.
It is quite possible that there was another member of this family who was about 25 years old and away from home at the time of this census as there is a four-year gap between Enoch and Lettitia whereas all the other children came at very regular two year intervals.A  However, nothing is currently known about any other members of this family. Ann was not the only pioneer woman to insist that her husband be a good member of the Church.A  On Mar.
Thus the Nebeker family passed in and out of the little village of Bloomfield, Illinois and only some worn stones among the tall grass in a hidden graveyard are left as a witness to their passing.A  As their descendants this is sacred ground to us and deserves to be remembered and honored by their posterity.
Looking NE from the a€?Bloomfielda€? sign.A  Cemetery is by tallest tree in center of picture. Looking NW.A  George and Susannaha€™s headstone is lying flat in center of photo with the shadow just touching the top. To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today.
To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands.
I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful. It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book. 8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St.


Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe. Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position. Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded.
Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people. When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin. They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them.
The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well. There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century.
We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers.
In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America. As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them.
Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity. In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement. In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value. Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter. Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship. When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location. On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome!
The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow. Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts. In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods. When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area.
Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath. Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed.
Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth. Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death. Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him. Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all.
During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth. According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense.
In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for.
In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation. Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe.


Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem.
Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem.
Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem.
Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard. When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe. The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position.
In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen. In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English.
After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away.
As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies.
Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip. The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English. Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth. Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war.
McDonald stated that they eloped to get married, but once that decision was made, the Kelly family accepted them back in their good graces. 1877, three years before his death.A  This would indicate that another one of George and Susannaha€™s sons joined the LDS Church although he was too old by then to make a move to the west.
At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations. She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts).
Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. Wallace Book of Record pertaining to his Fifty, Organized on the West Bank of Horn River Omahaw Nation June 17th 1847 in the Fourth Hundred under the Directions of Capt. 4, 1947.A  There didna€™t seem to be any adoptive system for children in those days on the frontier but Henry took Anna€™s two children as his own, gave them his surname and raised them as his own from that point on. 1847.A  He lived for a time with his brother John until his own wedding to Elizabeth Dilworth on 13 Feb. 1851.A  Also, like his older brothers, there may have been a beautiful young girl who influenced him in his decision for he was married to Catherine Thomas on 21 Dec.
She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself.
1851, which marriage is said to have been performed by Brigham Young in the office of the President of the Church.
Wood and Enoch Wood were both married and living nearby with their families but from the ages and place of birth we can tell that they were indeed a part of this family. Nebeker and the second half of the information is a more correct date from the stone for Susannah Nebeker, the wife of our George Nebeker. She left him, took their two surviving (of three) children and, with her parents and their family, moved to Nauvoo to gather with the saints. Smoot, Journing in the Wilderness in the Company of Three other organized Hundreds under the directions of Daniel Spencer, Edward Hunter and Jedediah Grant, Which Composes the Whole Camp of Israel Now Journing in the Wilderness under the care of Directions of Two Apostles Parley P. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement. Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry.
He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors.



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