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As many as 263 bone and antler tools and pieces of production waste were found during the 1991-93 excavations in the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp (province of Friesland, the Netherlands). A tuning pin, a flute, a box, two spoons, decorative plates, handles and checkers are very rare finds in terpen in the north of the Netherlands. Wijnaldum-Tjitsma is one of a row of seven terpen,[2] situated in the former salt marsh area of northern Westergo (fig.
Figure 1 The location of Westergo within the Netherlands and palaeographic map of Westergo in the Early Middle Ages (1.
It appears that all inhabitants enjoyed a high status, although the houses and other buildings at Wijnaldum-Tjitsma are comparable to those at other terpen. A total of 263 tools, pieces of production waste and unfinished tools made from bone, antler and horn was found during the 1991-93 excavations at the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp. The bone and antler tools and the production waste are considered to be representative for all tools and waste once present in the excavated volume, because of the careful excavation and post-excavation procedures.
The bone and antler tools were dated by the pottery and other finds in the features in which they were found (Gerrets & De Koning 1999).
Table 2 The animal species that are represented in the bone and antler tools, unfinished tools and production waste and the numbers (above) and percentages (below) for each species in each period. They date to Roman, Migration, Merovingian, Carolingian and Ottonian times (AD 175 and AD 900-950), with a hiatus between the Roman and the Migration period (AD 350-425). They are considered as indicators for elite inhabitants at the terp during Merovingian and Carolingian times. Rather than via architecture, high status was apparently expressed via personal belongings and other small objects (Gerrets & De Koning 1999). The study of the substantial tool assemblage from Wijnaldum-Tjitsma is important because most of the tools are dated and the context of most of the tools is known, allowing a diachronous and contextual study. Wijnaldum-Tjitsma differs from other terpen in that it has a much higher volume of bone and antler tools in the migration and later periods (table 1).

The initial sorting of all find categories was carried out in Harlingen during the excavation season (Gerrets 1999, 21). The largest numbers of bone and antler objects date to the Migration (n = 47), the Merovingian (n = 88) and the Carolingian periods (n = 49) (table 1). The domestic species are horse (Equus caballus), pig (Sus domesticus), cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep (Ovis aries) (table 2). No elk and whale bones were identified among the bone fragments that were not processed into tools (table 3). The sample of bone and antler tools and production waste is fairly large due to using extensive wet-sieving.
The area is rich in metal finds from the Early Middle Ages, especially the Merovingian period (Heidinga 1999).
These tools include rather small objects, such as bone needles, which are perhaps overlooked at excavations where less or no soil was sieved. Bone and antler tools from the preceding Roman (n=12) and subsequent Ottonian (n=26) phases are less numerous (table 1). This made the stratigraphy of the site quite complex, especially for the Migration and later periods (Gerrets & De Koning 1999, fig.
Because no goat bones are among the identified mammal bone fragments from Wijnaldum-Tjitsma (table 3), the tools identified as ‘sheep or goat’ are also considered to be sheep bones. It combines rhythmic motion, gentle stretching, energy line work, and assisted yoga postures in a therapeutic experience like no other. My name is Christina and I am a certified Yoga Teacher and Thai Yoga Massage Practitioner with a home studio setup at the edge of Fernwood. Fibre and skin processing tools and personal utensils, such as combs, are the most common tools.
A comparison with the bone and antler tools from contemporary terpen underlines the rich character of the bone and antler tools from the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp. During the large-scale excavations at the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp in 1991-1993 (Besteman et al.

Glass beads were used and made on site during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods and glass vessels were bought by inhabitants in Merovingian times (Sablerolles 1999a; 1999b).
27% of the objects were collected by hand in 4x4 m squares after machines cleared the area, and the remaining 13% were found during metal detector prospection (Gerrets 1999, 19-20). This sorting out appeared to have been done very carefully, since only a few other tools and waste pieces were overlooked and found among the unworked animal remains. The variation in the numbers of tools corresponds to the excavated habitation areas, those from the Roman and Ottonian periods being much smaller than those from the other periods (Gerrets & De Koning 1999, figs 3-22). The four wild animal species are red deer (Cervus elaphus), elk (Alces alces), an unknown whale species (Cetacea) and a whooper swan or a mute swan (Cygnus cygnus or C. Personal utensils, bone skates and sledge runners were introduced at the terp during the Migration period. A Roman period sieve made out of a cattle scapula is a unique find and suggests that elite people already lived at the site in that period.
1999) a large number of bone and antler tools, production waste and unfinished tools came to light. The Ottonian period, moreover, was shorter than the other periods (50-100 years against 100-200 years).
This is the reason that 41 bone and antler objects could not be dated to a particular period (table 1).
The volume of bone and antler production waste is rather low, suggesting that bone and antler processing was not an extensive activity at the site and that most tools were perhaps imported. The terp was not in use for about 75 years between the Roman and the Migration period (Gerrets & De Koning 1999).

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