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Vampire+ A vampire is a being from folklore who subsists by feeding on the life essence (generally in the form of blood) of living creatures. A '''vampire''' is a being from folklore+ who subsists by feeding on the life essence (generally in the form of blood) of living creatures. In modern times, however, the vampire is generally held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the ''chupacabra+'' still persists in some cultures. The ''Oxford English Dictionary+'' dates the first appearance of the English word ''vampire'' (as ''vampyre'') in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled ''Travels of Three English Gentlemen'' published in ''The Harleian Miscellany+'' in 1745.
It is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Cultural practices often arose that were intended to prevent a recently deceased loved one from turning into an undead revenant. Other methods commonly practised in Europe included severing the tendon+s at the knees or placing poppy+ seeds, millet+, or sand on the ground at the grave site of a presumed vampire; this was intended to keep the vampire occupied all night by counting the fallen grains,Barber, p.
In Albania+n folklore, the dhampir+ is the hybrid child of the ''karkanxholl'' (a werewolf-like creature with an iron mail+ shirt) or the ''lugat'' (a water-dwelling ghost or monster). Corpses thought to be vampires were generally described as having a healthier appearance than expected, plump and showing little or no signs of decomposition.Barber, p. Although not traditionally regarded as an apotropaic, mirror+s have been used to ward off vampires when placed, facing outwards, on a door (in some cultures, vampires do not have a reflection and sometimes do not cast a shadow, perhaps as a manifestation of the vampire's lack of a soul).
Some traditions also hold that a vampire cannot enter a house unless invited by the owner, although after the first invitation they can come and go as they please. Methods of destroying suspected vampires varied, with staking+ the most commonly Ash+ was the preferred wood in Russia and the Baltic states, or hawthorn+ in Serbia, with a record of oak+ in Silesia+. Decapitation+ was the preferred method in German and western Slavic areas, with the head buried between the feet, behind the buttocks+ or away from the body.
Romani people+ drove steel or iron needles into a corpse's heart and placed bits of steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears and between the fingers at the time of burial. Further measures included pouring boiling water over the grave or complete incineration of the body.
In Bulgaria, over 100 skeletons with metal objects, such as plough bits, embedded in the torso have been discovered. Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many centuries. Almost every nation has associated blood drinking with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity. Greco-Roman mythology+ described the Empusa+e, the Lamia+,Graves, "Lamia", in ''Greek Myths'', pp.
In Azerbaijanese+ mythology+ ''Xortdan+'' is the troubled soul of the dead rising from the grave. Vampires proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries. During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants. The panic began with an outbreak of alleged vampire attacks in East Prussia+ in 1721 and in the Habsburg Monarchy+ from 1725 to 1734, which spread to other localities. In the second case, Paole, an ex-soldier turned farmer who allegedly was attacked by a vampire years before, died while haying+.
From 1679, Philippe Rohr devotes an essay to the dead who chew their shrouds in their graves, subject resumed later by Otto in 1732, and then by Michael Ranft in 1734. Dom Augustine Calmet+, a well-respected French theologian+ and scholar, put together a comprehensive treatise in 1751 titled Traite sur les apparitions des esprits et sur les vampires+ which investigated the existence of vampires. The controversy only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria+ sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten+, to investigate the claims of vampiric entities.
Various regions of Africa have folktales featuring beings with vampiric abilities: in West Africa the Ashanti+ people tell of the iron-toothed and tree-dwelling ''asanbosam+'',Bunson, ''Vampire Encyclopedia'', p.
The ''Loogaroo+'' is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo+.
During the late 18th and 19th centuries the belief in vampires was widespread in parts of New England+, particularly in Rhode Island+ and Eastern Connecticut+. Rooted in older folklore, the modern belief in vampires spread throughout Asia with tales of ghoulish entities from the mainland, to vampiric beings from the islands of Southeast Asia.
Although vampires have appeared in Japanese cinema+ since the late 1950s, the folklore behind it is western in origin.Bunson, ''Vampire Encyclopedia'', pp.
Legends of female vampire-like beings who can detach parts of their upper body also occur in the Philippines+, Malaysia and Indonesia+. The ''manananggal'' is described as being an older, beautiful woman capable of severing its upper torso in order to fly into the night with huge bat-like wings and prey on unsuspecting, sleeping pregnant women in their homes. The Malaysia+n ''Penanggalan+'' may be either a beautiful old or young woman who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic+ or other unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklore to be dark or demonic in nature.
Jiangshi+, sometimes called "Chinese vampires" by Westerners, are reanimated corpses that hop around, killing living creatures to absorb life essence (qi+) from their victims. In early 1970 local press spread rumours that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery+ in London. In 2006, a physics professor at the University of Central Florida+ wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression+. In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the ''chupacabra+'' ("goat-sucker") of Puerto Rico+ and Mexico+ is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animal+s, leading some to consider it a kind of vampire.
In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being, although many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes.
Vampirism and the Vampire lifestyle+ also represent a relevant part of modern day's occultist+ movements. Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs, trying to explain the superstition – and sometimes mass hysteria – caused by vampires. People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred.
Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth. After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw. It has also been hypothesized that vampire legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive+ because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time. Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community.
In 1985 biochemist David Dolphin+ proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria+ and vampire folklore. The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease. In his 1931 treatise ''On the Nightmare'', Welsh+ psychoanalyst+ Ernest Jones+ asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanism+s. In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, however, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety.
The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism+ and folkloric one with incubus+-like behaviour. Undead+ beings, vampires often visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighbourhoods they inhabited when they were alive. Early folk belief in vampires has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition+ after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death.
However, it is Bram Stoker+'s 1897 novel ''Dracula+'' which is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel+ and provided the basis of the modern vampire legend.
Czech linguist Vaclav Machek proposes Slovak verb "vrepit sa" (stick to, thrust into), or its hypothetical anagram "vperit sa" (in Czech, archaic verb "vperit" means "to thrust violently") as an etymological background, and thus translates "upir" as "someone who thrusts, bites". Cultures such as the Mesopotamia+ns, Hebrews+, Ancient Greeks+, and Romans+ had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires.
Vampires were usually reported as bloated in appearance, and ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour; these characteristics were often attributed to the recent drinking of blood. In Slavic+ and Chinese traditions, any corpse that was jumped over by an animal, particularly a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead.Barber, p. Burying a corpse upside-down was widespread, as was placing earthly objects, such as scythe+s or sickle+s,Barber, pp.
The dhampir sprung of a karkanxholl has the unique ability to discern the karkanxholl; from this derives the expression ''the dhampir knows the lugat''. One method of finding a vampire's grave involved leading a virgin boy through a graveyard or church grounds on a virgin stallion—the horse would supposedly balk at the grave in question. Garlic is a common example, a branch of wild rose+ and hawthorn+ plant are said to harm vampires, and in Europe, sprinkling mustard seeds on the roof of a house was said to keep them away.
Though folkloric vampires were believed to be more active at night, they were not generally considered vulnerable to sunlight. Potential vampires were most often staked through the heart, though the mouth was targeted in Russia and northern Germany and the stomach in north-eastern Serbia. This is similar to the act of burying sharp objects, such as sickles, in with the corpse, so that they may penetrate the skin if the body bloats sufficiently while transforming into a revenant.Barber, p. This act was seen as a way of hastening the departure of the soul, which in some cultures, was said to linger in the corpse.


In the Balkans, a vampire could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water+ on the body, or by exorcism+. In India+, for example, tales of vetala+s, ghoul-like beings that inhabit corpses, have been compiled in the ''Baital Pacisi+''; a prominent story in the ''Kathasaritsagara+'' tells of King Vikramaditya+ and his nightly quests to capture an elusive one. The 12th-century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map+ and William of Newburgh+ recorded accounts of revenants, though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant.Jones, p. These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized. However, local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow.
Two famous vampire cases, the first to be officially recorded, involved the corpses of Petar Blagojevich+ and Arnold Paole from Serbia. After his death, people began to die in the surrounding area and it was widely believed that Paole had returned to prey on the neighbours. Government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe.Barber, pp.
The subject was based on the peculiar phenomenon that when digging up graves, it was discovered that some corpses had at some point devoured their own limbs. Calmet amassed reports of vampire incidents and conducted extensive research on the history and mythologies of vampirology. The non-decay of vampires' bodies could recall the incorruption of the bodies of the saints of the Catholic Church. He concluded that vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics. The term ''Loogaroo'' possibly comes from the French ''loup-garou+'' (meaning "werewolf") and is common in the culture of Mauritius+.
There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term "vampire" was never actually used to describe the deceased.
There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines+: the Tagalog+ ''Mandurugo+'' ("blood-sucker") and the Visayan+ ''Manananggal+'' ("self-segmenter"). She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women. A ''Kuntilanak+'' or ''Matianak'' in Indonesia+, or ''Pontianak+'' or ''Langsuir+'' in Malaysia, is a woman who died during childbirth and became undead, seeking revenge and terrorizing villages. They are said to be created when a person's soul (? ''po''+) fails to leave the deceased's body. Despite the general disbelief in vampiric entities, occasional sightings of vampires are reported. According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January 1600, and it fed once a month (which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore), and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.
The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mid-1990s. In some cases, especially in small localities, vampire superstition is still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently. The mythos of the vampire, his magickal+ qualities, allure, and predatory archetype express a strong symbolism that can be used in ritual, energy work, and magick, and can even be adopted as a spiritual system.
Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known. This causes the body to look "plump," "well-fed," and "ruddy"—changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life.
In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape.
The epidemic allusion is obvious in the classical cases of Petar Blagojevich+ and Arnold Paole, and even more so in the case of Mercy Brown and in the vampire beliefs of New England generally, where a specific disease, tuberculosis, was associated with outbreaks of vampirism. Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem+, he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream.
Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional (bloodsucking) vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood.
Dr Juan Gomez-Alonso, a neurologist at Xeral Hospital in Vigo+, Spain, examined this possibility in a report in ''Neurology+''.
Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. This may lead to repression+, which Sigmund Freud+ had linked with the development of morbid dread.
Vampire folklore by region+ Legends of vampires have existed for millennia; cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Ancient Greeks, and Romans had tales of demonic entities and blood-drinking spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires.
They wore shroud+s and were often described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from the early 19th century. This increased level of vampire superstition in Europe led to what can only be called mass hysteria+ and in some cases resulted in corpses actually being staked and people being accused of vampirism.
Porphyria+ was also linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been largely discredited.
The success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre+, still popular in the 21st century, with books, films, and television shows. After Austria+ gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia+ with the Treaty of Passarowitz+ in 1718, officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and "killing vampires".
An early use of the Old Russian+ word is in the anti-pagan+ treatise "Word of Saint Grigoriy" (Russian ''Слово святого Григория''), dated variously to the 11th–13th centuries, where pagan worship of ''upyri'' is reported. However, despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity we know today as the vampire originates almost exclusively from early-18th-century southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions+ of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. Indeed, blood was often seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud+ or coffin and its left eye was often open.Barber, pp. The ''lugat'' cannot be seen, he can only be killed by the dhampir, who himself is usually the son of a lugat. In some cases, when suspected graves were opened, villagers even described the corpse as having fresh blood from a victim all over its face.Barber, pp. The vampire's head, body, or clothes could also be spiked and pinned to the earth to prevent rising.Barber, p. In a 16th-century burial near Venice+, a brick forced into the mouth of a female corpse has been interpreted as a vampire-slaying ritual by the archaeologists who discovered it in 2006.
In Romania, garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as recently as the 19th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet through the coffin+ was taken. Ancient Babylonia+ and Assyria+ had tales of the mythical Lilitu+, synonymous with and giving rise to Lilith+ (Hebrew+ ?????) and her daughters the Lilu+ from Hebrew demonology+.
Some of the properties of the Hortdan include: the ability to transform into an animal, invisibility, and the propensity to drain the vitality of victims via blood loss. One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria+ in modern Croatia+, in 1672. The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results. Despite being called the Age of Enlightenment+, during which most folkloric legends were quelled, the belief in vampires increased dramatically, resulting in a mass hysteria throughout most of Europe.
Blagojevich was reported to have died at the age of 62, but allegedly returned after his death asking his son for food. Another famous Serbian legend involving vampires concentrates around a certain Sava Savanovic+ living in a watermill and killing and drinking blood from millers. He had numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire+ and supportive demonologist+s who interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires existed. A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition (1749) of ''De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione'', On the beatification of the servants of God and on canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini (Pope Benedict XIV). Despite this condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local superstition.Hoyt, pp. However, the stories of the ''Loogaroo'' are widespread through the Caribbean Islands+ and Louisiana+ in the United States.Bunson, ''Vampire Encyclopedia'', pp.
The deadly disease tuberculosis+, or "consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves.
However, the Nukekubi+ is a being whose head and neck detach from its body to fly about seeking human prey at night. The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang+ that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night. They also prefer to eat entrails (specifically the heart+ and the liver+) and the phlegm of sick people. Malaysians would hang ''jeruju'' (thistles) around the doors and windows of houses, hoping the ''Penanggalan'' would not enter for fear of catching its intestines on the thorns. She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children.
However, some have disputed the comparison of ''jiang shi'' with vampires, as ''jiang shi'' are usually represented as mindless creatures with no independent thought. Indeed, vampire hunting societies still exist, although they are largely formed for social reasons. Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the "Highgate Vampire+" and who later claimed to have exorcise+d and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.
The paper made no attempt to address the credibility of the assumption that every vampire victim would turn into a vampire.


In Romania+ during February 2004, several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire. The vampire has been part of the occult society in Europe for centuries and has spread into the American sub-culture as well for more than a decade, being strongly influenced by and mixed with the neo gothic+ aesthetics. This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all, or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life. In the Arnold Paole case+, an old woman's exhumed corpse was judged by her neighbours to look more plump and healthy than she had ever looked in life.Barber, p. The staking of a swollen, decomposing body could cause the body to bleed and force the accumulated gases to escape the body. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich case—the dermis+ and nail beds+ emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".
In other cases the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been "feeding."Marigny, pp. As with the pneumonic form of bubonic plague+, it was associated with breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.
Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms. Similarly, a parallel is made between sensitivity to sunlight by sufferers, yet this was associated with fictional and not folkloric vampires. The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies.
Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project+ the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same. In most cases, vampires are revenants+ of evil beings, suicide victims, or witch+es, but they can also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing+ a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Similar Chinese narratives state that if a vampire-like being came across a sack of rice, it would have to count every grain; this is a theme encountered in myths from the India+n subcontinent, as well as in South American tales of witches and other sorts of evil or mischievous spirits or beings.
In different regions, animals can be revenants as lugats; also, living people during their sleep.
Vampires are said to be unable to walk on consecrate+d ground, such as that of churches or temples, or cross running water. In one striking example of the latter, the corpses of five people in a graveyard near the Polish village of Dravsko, dating from the 17th and 18th centuries, were buried with sickles placed around their necks or across their abdomens. For resistant cases, the body was dismember+ed and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered to family members as a cure. Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively.
The Old Norse ''draugr+'' is another medieval example of an undead creature with similarities to vampires. The character was later used in a story written by Serb+ian writer Milovan Glisic+ and in the Yugoslav 1973 horror film ''Leptirica+'' inspired by the story. The hysteria, commonly referred to as the "18th-Century Vampire Controversy", raged for a generation. In his opinion, while the incorruption of the bodies of saints was the effect of a divine intervention, all the phenomena attributed to vampires were purely natural or the fruit of “imagination, terror and fear”.
101–06 Encyclopaedist Claude Lecouteux+, also played an important role in spreading the myth of the vampire, including Collin de Plancy+ who, in 1863, wrote Dictionnaire Infernal+ and helped to do the same.
In northern India, there is the ''BrahmarakShasa'', a vampire-like creature with a head encircled by intestines and a skull from which it drank blood. One unusual feature of this monster is its greenish-white furry skin, perhaps derived from fungus or mould+ growing on corpses.
Allegations of vampire attacks swept through the African country of Malawi+ during late 2002 and early 2003, with mobs stoning one individual to death and attacking at least four others, including Governor Eric Chiwaya+, based on the belief that the government was colluding with vampires. In January 2005, rumours circulated that an attacker had bitten a number of people in Birmingham+, England, fuelling concerns about a vampire roaming the streets. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence+ when they passed through the anus. The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns (thus becoming nocturnal) and hypersexuality+.
From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and even public execution+s of people believed to be vampires. It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, and its teeth, hair, and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature.Barber, p. In Russian folklore, vampires were said to have once been witches or people who had rebelled against the Russian Orthodox Church+ while they were alive.
This method resembles the Ancient Greek+ practice of placing an obolus in the corpse's mouth+ to pay the toll to cross the River Styx+ in the underworld. Evidence that a vampire was active in a given locality included death of cattle, sheep, relatives or neighbours. Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate+ and was described as a demonic, bronze+-footed creature. Blagojevich supposedly returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood.Barber, pp. The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them. The eastern Cape region has the ''impundulu+,'' which can take the form of a large taloned bird and can summon thunder and lightning, and the Betsileo+ people of Madagascar+ tell of the ''ramanga'', an outlaw or living vampire who drinks the blood and eats the nail clippings of nobles.Bunson, ''Vampire Encyclopedia'', p.
Similar female monsters are the ''Soucouyant+'' of Trinidad+, and the ''Tunda+'' and ''Patasola+'' of Colombia+n folklore, while the Mapuche+ of southern Chile+ have the bloodsucking snake known as the ''Peuchen+''.
The figure of the Vetala+ who appears in South Asian legend and story may sometimes be rendered as "Vampire" (see the section on "Ancient Beliefs" above).
Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming ''langsuir.'' This description would also fit the Sundel Bolong+s. Jiangshi legends have inspired a genre of jiangshi films+ and literature in Hong Kong and East Asia.
However, local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend+. The exuding blood gave the impression that the corpse had recently been engaging in vampiric activity.
The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich+ case speaks of "other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect".Barber, p. A problem with this theory is the question of how people presumably buried alive managed to stay alive for any extended period without food, water or fresh air. Despite being dismissed by experts, the link gained media attention and entered popular modern folklore. Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection (an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection). Some modern critics have proposed a simpler theory: People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying. The English term was derived (possibly via French ''vampyre'') from the German ''Vampir'', in turn derived in the early 18th century from the Serbian+ ''vampir'' (Cyrillic+: вампир), when Arnold Paole+, a purported vampire in Serbia was described during the time when Northern Serbia was part of the Austrian Empire+. It has been argued that instead, the coin was intended to ward off any evil spirits from entering the body, and this may have influenced later vampire folklore.
Folkloric vampires could also make their presence felt by engaging in minor poltergeist+-like activity, such as hurling stones on roofs or moving household objects,Barber, p. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood. An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies.Barber, p. This tradition persisted in modern Greek folklore about the ''vrykolakas+,'' in which a wax cross and piece of pottery with the inscription "Jesus Christ+ conquers" were placed on the corpse to prevent the body from becoming a vampire. The Lamia preyed on young children in their beds at night, sucking their blood, as did the ''gelloudes'' or Gello+. Aztec mythology described tales of the Cihuateteo+, skeletal-faced spirits of those who died in childbirth who stole children and entered into sexual liaisons with the living, driving them mad.
Vampire literature+ Vampire literature covers the spectrum of literary work concerned principally with the subject of vampires. They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as ''strix'', a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood. We have categorized all quotes with different topics and tags like love quotes, inspirational, motivational, life, friendship, success, smile, achievement and belief quotes. Everyone love good meaningful quotes so share famous picture quotes with your friends and loved one.Our mission is to motivate, boost self confiedence and inspire people to Love life, live life and surf life with words.



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