Hearing loss among older adults ymca,all ear plugs co uk,common medications causing tinnitus enfermedad - Step 1

21.02.2014
Introduction: In the Textile industry the work of the machines produce noise that can cause irreversible damage to workers hearing.
INTRODUCTIONIn industries in general and especially in textile one, machinery produces such noise that when intensified can cause damages to worker?s hearing. Objective: The purpose of this research is to determine the prevalence of NIHL in workers of a textile industry in Brusque - SC, to verify its intensity, characterize the main hearing symptoms, observe the age groups most affected, indentify the riskiest sector and correlate with the time of exposure to the noise.
Method: A transversal study of 184 workers divided proportionally in each sector of work, evaluated through interviews, otoscopic exam.
Hearing damages caused by noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) arises from alterations on internal structure of cochlea that cause irreversible damages and symptoms such as hypoacusis, tinnitus, auricular plenitude and otalgia (ear pain). Levels of noise higher than 85 dBNA for 8 daily hours for a long period are enough to cause cochlea damage (1). NHIR diagnosis is performed by history of exposure in noise environment, ENT exam focused on otoscopy and audiometric exam. Hearing loss should have been developed in a gradual way in a period from around 6 to 10 year of continuous exposure at high levels of noise.
Audiometric exam always reveals sensorineural and irreversible hearing loss and symmetric in general, in frequencies from 2000 to 4000 Hz (2).
The workers who had been working for more than 20 years were also the most affected (42.9%). Apart from knowledge of diagnosis and prevention programs used in industries, this pathology still represents a serious problem of occupational health, especially in textile industries. Conclusion: The occurrence of NIHL was significant in 1st degree, associated to hipoacusis.
With the high number of such industry in Brazil, the number of people exposed to noise has been expressively increasing.


Therefore, it is important monitoring worker?s hearing, early diagnosing and preventing NIHL through a program of hearing conservation.
The target of this study is to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in workers from a textile industry in Brusque (SC), to verify pathology intensity, to characterize the main audiological symptoms, to verify the age of higher prevalence, to identify industry sector of higher risk and to relate cases with period of noise exposure.
Such measures were performed during working time using a decibel meter Simpson - 886.As NIHL needs at least 5 years to develop, employees working less than this period were excluded from tests. 343 employees remained and from those 184 were selected to raise a sample (error of 5% and confidence grade of 95%). They were divided proportionally in each sector: weaving (67), spinning (18), industrial engineering (18), expedition (8), PPD (42) and administration (31). All workers were evaluated through a selection protocol composed by interview, otoscopic exam and occupational audiometry.Workers were identified by their names, ages, genders, functions and noise exposure period during interview.
It was also performed a hearing selection where questions on otological symptoms such as hypoacusis, tinnitus, speech understanding difficulty, dizziness, auricular plenitude, otalgia and otorrhea were asked. Questions on systemic diseases such as disorders of air pathways, DM SAH, syphilis, measles, mumps, thyreoid diseases, renal disorders and antecedents with previous otological problems, previous surgery, family history of non-occupational noise exposure were also asked.After interview, it was performed otoscopy with a portable battery-rum gadget in order to evaluate external hearing canal and tympanic membrane. And then, it was performed tonal audiometry and analysis of audiometric curves after a hearing rest of 14 hours at least (1). Interpretations of tonal audiometry were classified according to DAVID and SILVERMANN?s criteria (8), and then audiometric curves suggesting NIHL were classified according to SANTINHO and COUTO (9). Prevalence of intensity grades of NIHL, according to Merluzzi (10), can be seen in Picture 1. Table 1 shows noise level, percentage and number of workers with normal hearing, with NIHL and with hearing loss by other reasons regarding industrial sector. In relation to age, higher prevalence of NIHL was observed in the group of older worker, aging from 50 to 64 years.


Table 2 shows the relation of noise exposure period in the company with normal worker, with NIHL and hearing loss by other reasons.
This prevalence of NIHL lesser than the others from the revised literature can be explained by the fact that in the industry where the study was done, preventive procedures have been performed for around 10 years, using ear protectors and performing audiometry tests on workers in noisy environment. Although industrial engineering presented a percentage of around 5% higher than the other departments, this number was not expressive among industrial engineering, spinning and weaving departments, considering that error rate in sample process was 5%. These differences can be caused by factors referred by KWITKO (13), which are presence of variables such as age, gender, previous hearing pathology, associated diseases, audiometer calibration, technical problems on the booth and subjectivity of audiometric test. The higher prevalence of NIHL cases was grade I according to Merluzzi (10) (45.1%) as well as to MIRANDA et al. It was also possible to demonstrate that NIHL cases increased as working period in the company increased and that employees working for more than 20 years (i.e. ARAUJO (2), by frequency order, found: tinnitus, speech understanding difficulty, dizziness, hypoacusis, otorrhea and sensation of auricular plenitude. There was an increase of NIHL as period of noise exposure increased, especially after 21 years of exposure.REFERENCES1.
Surdez ocupacional em trabalhadores industriais da regiao metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia. Estudo da prevalencia da perda auditiva induzida por ruido em trabalhadores de uma industria grafica. Head of ENT Service at Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Parana)Hospital de Clinicas da Universidade Federal do ParanaAddress: Rua General Carneiro, 181, 6o.



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