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25.08.2014
A basic characteristic of digital communications systems is the need for synchronization between the binary encoded data (the bit stream) and the various circuit elements in the transmitter and receiver.
A fundamental problem is how to get the bit synchronization information from the transmitter to the receiver.
Although there are differences in these two (and many other) definitions, it is important to focus on the fundamental similarity, which is that jitter has to do with the time difference between the ideal and actual occurrence of an event. When we take measurements on the real clock signal we find the actual time for each rising edge (tE[n]Actual).
In the same sense that average power is usually more interesting than instantaneous power, it is generally more useful to talk about jitter in terms of average and peak-to-peak values than instantaneous values.
The root-mean-square (rms) method is commonly used to compute average jitter and units are given as psrms or UIrms. In these equations, u j is the mean value of the jitter, N is the total number of instantaneous jitter values measured, and s j is the rms average (also called the standard deviation or one-sigma) value.
Peak-to-peak jitter values for a set of N instantaneous jitter measurements are computed by subtracting the minimum instantaneous jitter measurement from the maximum instantaneous jitter measurement, as in equation 6.
Jitter can be divided into two fundamental types, called random jitter and deterministic jitter.
Duty Cycle Distortion (DCD) and Pulse-Width Distortion (PWD) are different names for the same thing.
Sinusoidal Jitter (SJ) displaces the timing of the rising and falling edges of the bit stream by varying amounts.
In equation 7, j[n] represents the instantaneous jitter at edge n, A is the jitter amplitude, f is the jitter frequency, r is the data rate, and f represents a random phase offset. Random jitter has a Gaussian probability density function (PDF) which is, by definition, unbounded. RMS jitter measurements for separate system components cannot be directly added, but may be combined by taking the square-root of the sum of the squares, as shown in equation 8 (where s represents the rms average). Converting rms jitter to peak-to-peak jitter can be done by defining arbitrary limits on the Gaussian PDF that is characteristic of RJ.
Peak-to-peak jitter quantities for separate system components can be directly added together, but this results in a worst-case TJ number that usually over estimates measured TJ. Because of the inequality between TJ and the sum of RJ and DJ, it is difficult to specify all three quantities (TJ, RJ, and DJ) simultaneously. Jitter performance requirements for system components are specified in terms of jitter generation, jitter transfer, and jitter tolerance.
Jitter transfer is a measure of amount of jitter in the input signal that is transferred to the output signal. The ability of a receiving device to correctly detect incoming data, despite jitter, is called jitter tolerance.
The unique nature of tinnitus makes it possible for two people with the same condition to experience drastically different symptoms. You can help to alleviate your tinnitus by engaging in techniques that help you relax, such as yoga or meditation. There is some documented research indicating that tinnitus is actually an inflammatory condition. If the thought of becoming a human pincushion through acupuncture scares you, try acupressure instead! Tinnitus can drive you crazy- unending ear ringing, hissing, buzzing or whooshing noises that just don’t stop is enough to send you to the madhouse.  Tinnitus and depression often go hand in hand, especially if tinnitus symptoms keep you from getting enough sleep, performing job duties, or having a moment’s peace and quiet.
Here are some of the most common medications that may cause ringing in the ears from tinnitus.  Please do not stop taking a medication without first speaking to your doctor.
Zoloft (Sertraline), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of antidepressants.  About 1-10% of Zoloft users experience tinnitus symptoms. Celexa (Citalopram), also an SSRI antidepressant, causes tinnitus while weaning off the drug. If weaning off drugs that cause tinnitus is the cure for ototoxicity, does that mean that you should stop taking Zoloft for anxiety?  First, nobody considering weaning off antidepressants should attempt to do so without first consulting in a physician.
Which notion bothers you most- the idea of suffering from ringing in the ears, possibly for the rest of your life, or having to cope with depression.  If your depression causes you to contemplate suicide, then the answer should be clear. Hearing loss is common in the trucking industry, especially for the drivers who have been on the road for more than ten years. However, with 265 known medications on the market that report tinnitus as a possible side effect, there are literally hundreds of reasons why someone may experience symptoms.
The three most common causes of inner ear cell damage are: age-related hearing loss, prolonged exposure to loud noises and ear wax buildup or a foreign object in the auditory canal. Objective tinnitus can arise from muscle spasms that cause clicks or crackling around the middle ear, and the sound is audible to both the patient and doctor. If someone tells you they can hear you buzz or ring when you sleep, and you experience a whooshing or ringing sound in your ears, you should go have it checked out. RelatedSkin cancer: What you need to knowA general understanding of what to look for and how to prevent it is your best defense in fighting the disease. The vestibulo-cochlear nerve, or eighth cranial nerve, carries signals from the inner ear to the brain. As with any medical condition, if it disrupts your daily life you should see a medical professional about it. Notice: Overdrive is transitioning to a new comment platform due to technical problems with the former commenting system. This simple technique recently discovered by scientists at leading medical universities is the best way to permanently silence the noise blaring inside your ears.
WGI Gallery is best known for the original line of rustic wall art we have carried for a decade and a half. Sea Shell Collage II by Andrea Haase Museum Quality Fine Art Print sold by Great Art Now, size 14x14 inches. Though anemia can be caused by blood loss due to trauma, a trauma will get immediate medical attention and rarely goes untreated. All it takes is a change in diet along with a few vitamin supplements to overcome the problem of fatigue and blurred vision. Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the body attacks healthy and organs as if they are foreign bodies.
The transmission medium between the transmitter and receiver (the channel) may be copper cable, optical fiber, free space, etc. Bit synchronization information is generally conveyed by the bit clock, which is a square wave signal that has a frequency (in Hz) equal to the data rate (in bits per second). One of the most commonly used binary encoding schemes (and the one used in this paper) is nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ). Sinusoidal jitter is seldom encountered in real systems, but it is widely used in jitter testing.
In order to compute total jitter, it is necessary to convert all rms average jitter (RJ) numbers to peak-to-peak values. One of the most useful ways accomplish this is based on the bit error ratio (BER) required by the system. This is because the peak values of DJ for any particular system sub-component occur at the specific points in the bit pattern that cause the most stress to the bandwidth limits of that sub-component. To overcome this difficulty, it is common to specify the required TJ quantity along with either the RJ or DJ (but not both).
It is usually expressed as the ratio of output jitter to input jitter at a specific jitter frequency. Jitter tolerance can be defined as the amplitude of the incoming jitter that causes the BER of the recovered data to exceed a specified limit.
Fortunately, tinnitus is more typically an annoyance than it is associated with any type of serious underlying problem.

Other causes of tinnitus range from Meniere’s disease to a malformation of capillaries in the head and neck. Subjective tinnitus can only be heard by the affected person and is caused by otology, neurology, infection, or drugs.
When subjective tinnitus is a medication side effect, it almost always goes away when the drug is completed or changed, however it’s important to know that some drugs are ototoxic, which means you are more susceptible to hearing damage while taking these drugs. If you are experiencing what you think is tinnitus, alleviating it may be as simple as changing your medications. Loss of sleep, inability to concentrate and irritability are all good reasons to make a home time stop at the family doc. The patient’s history and description of symptoms is the key in determining what might be causing tinnitus. To determine what underlying medical condition may be causing your tinnitus, your doctor will give you a general physical exam, including a careful examination of your ears.
There are many different conditions that can cause tinnitus and sometimes it can occur for no known reason. When there is an insufficiency of Hemoglobin, as in the case of anemia, sufficient oxygen cannot circulate through the body. On the other hand, if the anemia is due to nutritional deficiencies and problems with nutritional absorption, then anemia can go undetected for a long time.
They may or may not reduce weight, but they will definitely cause nutritional deficiency and the resulting fatigue, blurred vision etc. The symptoms of Lupus vary from mild to severe and if treatment is not taken it may be fatal.
A regimen of diet and exercise, along with the requisite medication, can bring diabetes under control. Major design goals of most digital communication systems include maximizing bandwidth efficiency and minimizing bit error ratio (BER). In NRZ encoding, a binary one is represented by a high voltage (or optical power) level and a binary zero is represented by a low voltage (or optical power) level.
In general, digital communication systems transmit only the bit stream and then regenerate the bit clock at the receiver through use of a clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit.
It could be, for example, the rising or falling edge of a clock, the optimum sampling instant of an NRZ encoded waveform, the differential zero crossing, or something else; but jitter is simply the time difference between when a pre-defined event should have occurred and when it actually did occur.
Since, for most practical applications, E will occur repeatedly, the nth occurrence of E can be represented as E[n], and the time of the nth occurrence is tE[n].
Because of thermal and other effects, however, there may be a finite amount of random phase noise on the clock signal. PWD causes a distortion in the eye diagram where the eye crossings are offset up or down from the vertical midpoint of the eye. When the bandwidth of the system is much greater than the bandwidth required by the pulse, then pulse-spreading (ISI) is very small. For this reason, random jitter is normally specified and measured in terms of its rms average (see equation 5). All of the peak-to-peak jitter sub-components can then be added together to get the total jitter as a peak-to-peak quantity. To convert from rms jitter to peak-to-peak jitter using this method, simply multiply the rms jitter by the value a corresponding to the appropriate BER in Table 1 2,[3]. The unspecified quantity of RJ or DJ is indirectly specified as whatever amount is required to achieve the TJ number. Jitter transfer is used to specify the performance of regeneration components, including clock and data recovery (CDR) circuits, data retimers, etc.
Although white noise works for many people, it is not effective for everyone and may cause your tinnitus to actually get worse. If your tinnitus doesn’t go away relatively quickly, then it is prudent to consult with your physician. Yoga and meditation promote total-body relaxation, so practicing them makes it less likely that you will suffer a flare-up of tinnitus.
In this diet plan, be sure to incorporate flax seed oil, salmon, and a large variety of healthy fruits and leafy vegetables. By identifying others who share your experience, you will be able to tap into a strong source of experience and ideas to help you with your tinnitus. While you walk, monitor your tinnitus and see how it changes in reaction to the environment.
The uses for this type of therapy increase ten-fold if you have a medical history or known issues with emotional control. They may sound like ringing, blowing, roaring, buzzing, hissing, humming, whistling or sizzling. Avoiding loud noises and wearing hearing protection when appropriate is recommended by the Mayo Clinic website. Finding out why you’re having symptoms is the most important key to curing them, or making the symptoms as manageable as possible. Because of the wide range in causes, subjective tinnitus is broken up into two categories: otic subjective tinnitus, caused by disorders of the inner ear or the acoustic nerve, and somatic objective tinnitus, caused by disorders outside the ear and nerve, but still within the head or neck. If you have multiple prescriptions, or are being treated by more than one physician, it’s a really good idea to use one pharmacist, the same one, all the time.
This is a rare form of tinnitus, occurring in less than 1 percent of cases, and indicates vascular problems within the head and neck. Compared with tinnitus from other causes, tinnitus due to head or neck trauma tends to be perceived as louder and more severe. We are currently in the process of moving all of the comments from the old system into the new system.
In many instances, the cause of objective tinnitus can be determined and treatment, either medical or surgical, may be prescribed.
However, symptoms of fatigue and blurred vision are serious and could be potentially life threatening. A mere look under the eyelids will arouse sufficient suspicion for a health care provider to order a blood test.
The constant fatigue, blurred vision and other symptoms will be attributed to reasons such as overwork, foreign particles in the eye etc.
Similarly there are many other medical conditions which could cause fatigue and blurred vision.
Imperfections in receiver bit clock regeneration result in timing errors in the recovered bit clock. Normalized jitter is computed by dividing jitter in units of time by the time for one UI as shown in Equation 3.
RJ is caused by thermal (or other random) noise effects in the system that are induced into the phase of the clock and data signals.

When the bandwidth of the system is approximately the same, or less than the bandwidth required by the pulse, then pulses are spread into adjacent bit times, causing distortion in the adjacent pulses.
Peak-to-peak measurements of random jitter are inherently ambiguous unless some additional boundary conditions are imposed (see Total Jitter, below).
Since each system component has unique bandwidth characteristics, the peak DJ may occur at different points in the bit pattern for each of them, and the probability that the peak DJ occurs simultaneous with the peak RJ is low.
Jitter tolerance measurements at discrete frequencies are usually combined in order to plot jitter tolerance over a range of jitter frequencies.
If you’re having trouble falling into this routine, some stretching, hot tea, or even some soft music can help you relax. Teach yourself to view tinnitus as a non-issue so that it will not negatively affect your life. Instead of focusing on your condition, allow yourself to get out of the house and enjoy some quality time with friends and family. By relaxing and reducing the stress in your life, you will be better able to focus on treating your tinnitus.
This triggers ear cells to release an electrical signal through a nerve from your ear (auditory nerve) to your brain. Medication interactions will automatically be triggered by a computer system if all your meds come from one place.
It is accompanied by more frequent headaches, greater difficulties with concentration and memory, and a greater likelihood of depression. The key is to work with your health care team to find ways help you make the most of the hearing you have. But the discovery that tinnitus can involve many areas of the brain is not especially good news. If the cause is due to a minor problem, well and good; but if the underlying reason is major, then treatment should be started right away.
Delay in treatment may result in permanent damage to the eye and the consequent loss of vision, partially or fully.
The UI is the same for each bit in the bit stream and it is equal to the reciprocal of the data rate. Summation of the individual peak-to-peak jitter numbers for each sub-component in the system gives a result based on the assumption that all of the peak jitter values occur simultaneously (an unlikely event). Jitter tolerance is used to specify the performance of receiving components, such as clock and data recovery (CDR) circuits and deserializers. You will feel calmer and more relaxed afterwards, and your blood pressure will go down a bit, too.
Write down such problem sounds, so that you can make a conscious effort at avoiding them in the future.
Other possible causes of tinnitus are head and neck injuries, ear infections, a foreign object or earwax touching the eardrum, Eustachian tube (middle ear) problems, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, stiffening of the middle ear bones, traumatic brain injury, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Find out more about the different symptoms and sounds that you might experience if you have tinnitus.
A third example is post concussive headache, which may be part of a post concussive syndrome, of which tinnitus may also be a symptom.
The longer you wait for before treatment, the more danger to your health and longer the recovery process.
Proper investigation must be done to get at the root of the problem so that it can be treated as early as possible. Whatever be the reason, when you suffer from fatigue and blurred vision, your body is ringing ‘warning bells’ that something is wrong. Figures 2 and 3 are example eye diagrams showing excessive RJ (Figure 2) and excessive DJ (Figure 3). If the system has high- or low-frequency cutoffs within the bandwidth required by the bit pattern, the resulting distortion is called ISI jitter. Thus the measured TJ will always be less than or equal to the sum of the sub-component peak-to-peak jitter measurements. Just so, when the ear picks up a particular tone in the environment, the corresponding brain region is stimulated.
Explanations for the Causes of the Co-occurrence of Headache and Tinnitus: Other causes include middle ear infection or fluid, otosclerosis, and infections such as otosyphilis or labyrinthitis. If untreated, anemia can lead to more serious complications such as strokes, heart attacks etc. The relationship between an NRZ encoded bit stream and the bit clock is illustrated in Figure 1. Also, if the total system RJ and DJ are measured separately, the measured TJ will always be less than or equal to the sum of the measured peak-to-peak RJ and the measured DJ. Tinnitus causes pain and a constant ringing in the ears that makes it almost impossible to concentrate or en. Writing in Trends in Cognitive Sciences, the scientists describe how the brain mechanisms that normally control noise and pain signals can become dysfunctional, leading to a distorted perception of these sensations.
Or they may have tinnitus, which can cause not just that annoying ringing in the ears but other strange sounds like hissing, buzzing, humming, and roaring. The key to making a diagnosis is to find out exactly what the patient means by dizzy and then decide whether or not this represents vertigo.
Tinnitus is a symptom characterized as a ringing in the ears, though some patients describe the sounds as a buzzing, chirping, whooshing or sizzling.
The leading causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in civilians are motor vehicle accidents, falls, and assaults.
Symptoms of mild TBI or concussion frequently include tinnitus, which can occur not only as a direct consequence of the injury causing TBI but also as a side effect of medications commonly used to treat cognitive, emotional, and pain problems associated with TBI. Patients who need more support and education than are available at Level 3 can progress to the PATM Level 4-Tinnitus Evaluation to determine their needs for further intervention.
The traditional definition of tinnitus is the perception of sound in the ears or the head without the presence of an external source generating that sound (McFadden, 1982). For determining the loudness of a patient’s tinnitus, you will use the frequency you just determined during pitch matching.
People often describe their tinnitus using the following adjectives: Vestibular disorders are some of the most common causes of tinnitus.
Though we have no miracle cure for tinnitus, ginkgo biloba is noted by researchers as having amazingly beneficial properties hat help to sustain healthy blood circulation, a key element in preventing tinnitus triggers. It can also be caused by other otologic, vascular, neoplastic, neurologic, pharmacologic, dental, and psychological factors. Because tinnitus is a symptom and not a disease, its underlying cause must be determined to best help patients.
Tinnitus can be temporary, caused by excess wax, an infection of the inner ear, or the toxic effects of drugs like aspirin (which appears to weaken the neural signals from the ear to the brain) or those used to treat cancer.
But the majority of people with chronic symptoms develop them in conjunction with hearing loss.
From a psychodynamic point of view conflicts and relationship problems may cause tinnitus suffering, but not the tinnitus itself. These included the revisited Check-List of Symptoms according to Derogatis (SCL-R 90) , Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Tinnitus Questionnaire according to Goebel-Hiller (1992).
According to Kr ner-Herwig 15 these diagnoses should be supplemented by further psychological or psychiatric diagnoses if a relevant co-morbidity can be determined.

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