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We will be provided with an authorization token (please note: passwords are not shared with us) and will sync your accounts for you. Asymmetry in functional responses in the right and left hemispheres of a human brain has been observed (Toga and Thompson, 2003). Music processing is one of the most complex cognitive activities that the human brain performs.
In a live music environment, it will be interesting to categorize the level of noise that would not disturb the music. Our interest exists in finding the (subjective) level of noise that does not disturb listening to music as well as hemispheric lateralization. The difference between the mean and the minimum value of a given hemodynamic response has been used as a feature to classify whether the hemispheric lateralization occurred or not.
The estimation of the cortical activation is the most important factor in the analysis of fNIRS data.
This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Notable brain asymmetries include the dominance of the auditory cortex in the left hemisphere for speech processing (particularly, the left-side planum temporale region for consonant-vowel syllables, see Jancke et al.
Under the assumption that the right-hemispheric laterization exists (for some people), it will become the case that the introduced noise does not destroy the right laterization in enjoying the music. The following questions will be pursued: (i) Are there more hemodynamic changes in the right auditory cortex than the left auditory cortex, when people hear music. In this study, the handedness was obtained by asking the subjects about a better performance for use of a hand.
The respiration and cardiac noises contained in the hemodynamic responses were removed by a low-pass filter of a cut-off frequency 0.15 Hz. As a feature to distinguish stimulus-evoked hemodynamics, the difference between the mean and the minimum value of the hemodynamic response for a given stimulus was used.
Three distinguishing features of a sound are its intensity, frequency, and perception duration, which may elicit different responses to different humans. For brain imaging, fNIRS offers higher temporal resolution than fMRI and higher spatial resolution than EEG. Instead of listening to continuous music, music segments will be exposed to the subjects so that they can focus on. In this work, the high-level noise is defined to be the white noise whose amplitude reaches 20% of the full scale.

The data were acquired at a sampling rate of 1.81 Hz and for two wavelengths (760 and 830 nm).
The reason for using the gap between the mean and the minimum value of the hemodynamic response as a classification index in this work is that, with the current experimental paradigm in Figure 1, the hemodynamic response may not come back to the baseline value in a short time interval after each stimulus.
The right-hemispheric lateralization in music processing was about 75% (instead of continuous music, only music segments were heard). To the best of our knowledge, the influence of background noise in music processing has not been fully investigated yet. Particularly, while fNIRS can be used in a natural environment (particularly important in music processing), fMRI should be used in its designated place (or at least a simultaneous hearing and measurement cannot be done without an earphone).
A drawback of fNIRS is the penetration depth of the light, which is limited to the cortical surface.
The definition of musician in this work is whether they are able to play the music with piano or not. A total of 22 channels were measured from 8 emitters (black circles) and 7 detectors (white circles) in both hemispheres. Actually, it was so and the baseline drifting has been compensated by the mean-min difference. The objectives of this study are first to investigate whether, in the presence of noise, the right-lateralization of music processing (in contrast to the speech processing) is destructed or not and second to characterize the noise levels in the music to any differences in the hemodynamic responses between the right and left auditory cortices. The first 200 s after the pre-initiation trial constitutes Stage 1 (S1), which examines the basic condition (that is, a music hearing).
To provide variability, the noises were introduced in a pseudo-random order (15 s for each stimulus). All the lights in the room were turned off during the experiment to minimize signal contamination from the ambient light sources.
But, if the music was mixed with noises, the right-hemispheric lateralization has increased. Particularly, fNIRS is suitable for studying the auditory cortex because of its non-invasiveness, mobility, cost, and most importantly silence of the equipment. While fNIRS enables testing under more relaxed conditions for the subjects, its results on the auditory cortex are relatively rare.
In S1, the subjects are exposed to 25 s rest and 15 s music for 5 times (it is noted that the pre-initiation trial is not included in the analysis). On the other hand, fMRI is relatively problematic in studying the auditory cortex because its measurements are accompanied by acoustic noise resulting from slice selection pulses, cryogen pumping, and magnetic resonance gradient interference (Gaab et al., 2007). The present study is to determine the effects of background noise in music processing: Fourteen healthy subjects participate, and the activations in the auditory cortices are recorded with fNIRS.
As a feature to tell any difference, the gap between the mean value and the minimum value of the hemodynamic responses caused by various conditions will be used.

The objective of S1 is to examine which side (right or left) in the brain is more active upon a musical stimulus. Specifically, four different sound environments involving ten different conditions are designed for this experiment: music segments only, noise segments only, music segments including noise, and the entire music with noise segments.
We selected the same number of subjects between male and female to examine a possible gender difference in the hemispheric lateralization (Shirao et al., 2005). The noise from an fMRI machine can even interfere with the stimuli designed to evoke neuronal activation: Fuchino et al. To investigate this, we examined the hemodynamic responses from 44 channels for three noise categories in both hemispheres. Therefore, S2 constitutes three conditions: no noise (NN), mid-level noise (MN), and high-level noise (HN). Since the optodes configuration in Figure 2 covers the entire auditory cortex, the averaged value from the 22 channels is used in the analysis. The objective of S2 is to examine whether the noise alone can cause a similar response like the music in S1. During the experiment, the subjects were asked to listen the auditory stimuli attentively (not passively), since selective attention is important to the activation pattern in the auditory cortex (Jancke et al., 1999). Then, the subsequent 200 s after S2 becomes Stage 3 (S3), in which mixed music and noise segments are repeated 5 times.
The objective of S3 is to find out whether a music + noise segment will induce more efforts in the brain than the cases of music or noise segments alone. The subjects were informed about the experimentation and written consents were obtained, which was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards encoded in the latest Declaration of Helsinki.
Finally, the interruption of noise when hearing the music has been mimicked in Stage 4 (S4). For comparison purposes, similar noise conditions like S2 and S3 are made in S4, yielding another 3 conditions. The music and noises were digitally mixed using the Adobe Audition software (a WAV-format file: 16 bit, 44,100 Hz, stereo). The same earphone (Sony MDR-NC100D; digital noise canceling earbuds) with the same sound level setting was used across the subjects.

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