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21.11.2013
GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 4COMPRESSOR IS RUNNINGBUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDCOMPRESSOR IS RUNNING BUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDBefore you perform any of the other tests in this chapter, make sure that the compressor is running. But these days, for better and for worse, more audio is being recorded in compromised environments than ever before, and at every level in the industry. All this conspires to make audio cleanup a recurring task for engineers who rarely had to deal with these jobs in the past. Some of them, like Sony’s Spectral Layers, will even let you “Unbake The Cake,” by removing not just broadband noise and ambience, but individual sounds and instruments from within a single track. Not long ago, if you wanted to clean up noise your primary option would have been to employ simple filters, expanders and noise gates.
Although today’s best noise reduction tools are far more powerful, they rely on the same principles that let the Cat43 do its job. There are two major types of broadband de-noisers on the market today: Those with fader-based interfaces reminiscent of the Cat43, and those with graphical, noise-sampling interfaces that are only practical within the DAW domain.
The first category of fader-based noise-reducers, such as the Cedar Audio DNS One or the Waves WNS and W43, pay homage to the old-school processors like the Cat43.
These types of processors can be extremely transparent, and rarely lead to the strange burbling and resonant artifacts that can come with sloppy use of a graphical noise reducer. Still, the Cedar DNS series remains among the most popular noise reducers in broadcast and post circles thanks to its super-low latency, hardware integration, and a proven record for cleaning up dialog tracks in real-time. Waves has recently taken a step into this world, releasing the WNS and the W43, their own versions of these no fader-based no-latency noise reducers.
Despite this drawback, these graphical noise reducers tend to be among the most powerful on the market.
Used carelessly, these kinds of processors can introduce zingy, warbling artifacts that can be worse than the noise itself. Out of the three programs I tested intensively this month, iZotope RX2 proved to be the one to beat.
In second place was Wave Arts’ MR Noise, which was just as effective and transparent as RX2 after a bit of futzing with the sidechain EQ. At $500 and up for the single plugin and $1,100 for the entire Restoration package (Native), it’s hard to recommend Z-Noise with so many great alternatives out there – except as a welcome value-add to a larger bundle of some of the better-realized Waves plugs.
These kinds of noise-reducers can do a great job of reducing broadband noise, but they’re practically useless for reducing intermittent noises like clicks, crackles, pops, plosives and clipping.
Waves’ X-Click and X-Crackle did a commendable job of taming many high-level transient sound-bursts, as did the de-noising and de-crackling modules from iZotope and Wave Arts. Until very recently, pops and plosives were usually best taken care of by hand, through the judicious use of high-pass filters and gain rides on tiny snippets of audio. Izotope takes a unique and especially transparent tool for removing plosives and intermittent interferences in RX2: next-generation Spectral Analysis. One of the earliest and most powerful consumer-facing spectral analyzers has been Sony’s SpectraLayers, which takes a Photoshop-like approach to audio. With SpectraLayers, you can zero in on a single sound out of many embedded in one file (say, an ambulance siren among chirping birds, a honking horn in the middle of a stretch of dialog, or an out-of-tune horn in a music mix) and extract it to its own “layer,” separate from the main mix. For the first time, these new types of processors allow us to effectively remove discrete noises that occur concurrently with our desired audio: phones ringing, sirens blaring, birds tweeting, horns honking. These are tools that would have seemed like audio science fiction a generation ago.  Although no noise reducer may be able to fix every problem, the processors around today have transformed once-impossible jobs into everyday realities. When using software amp & cabinet simulation and playing live, there is a lot of noise playing hi gain metal guitar. Additionally, Acon has a De-reverbator that I use in conjunction with the Denoiser to take out room flutter echoes that happen as you speak. You do have to play around with the knobs to get it set up right, or you can introduce weird artifacts. All of that gets you to 95% perfect (plenty good enough for auditions), and the remaining 5% can be addressed with mic and voice technique, or covered up with music beds, etc….
And one other thing: Acon lets you share your license on both your studio computer and your traveling laptop.
If it is not running, see Chapter 5.Some refrigerators are very quiet and smooth when they operate. We put a few of the most popular of these plugins through their paces to find out how they stack up. A high-pass filter could allow you to fight rumble and plosives, a low-pass might help tame hiss, and a series of notch filters could help with 60-cycle hum. It was an analog device that combined several frequency-selective gates, one each for bass, low-mids, high-mids and treble. Where the earliest analog noise reducers made do with a few bands of frequency-sensitive downward expansion, today’s digital processors are often comprised of hundreds of bands working in concert. They rely on the ear more than the eye, inviting the user to manually set a threshold for each band individually, until maximum noise reduction is achieved without compromising the sound of the original signal in that frequency range. By simply turning up that single fader as far as possible before artifacting began to set in, there were many cases in which when the NS-1 allowed me to obtain results that matched or surpassed its big brothers, and in significantly less time. When used in real-time, they tend to be resource hogs that add tremendous latency and suck up CPU power.
They allow you to “sample” the profile of your noise, automatically generating a custom, frequency-dependent threshold that will vary across the harmonic spectrum. But with a careful touch, this class of plugins can bring down an incredible amount of noise without a trace.
Without touching a single variable, RX2’s De-Noise function was able to scrub away astonishing amounts of broadband noise with minimal artifacts.
It’s capable of getting many jobs done, but not quite at the scale or with the ease-of-use found in the best noise reducers. You’ve got to play with the attack and release times to even approach the kind of results that RX2 and MR Noise deliver before any futzing. They can also be pretty rotten at reducing the high-level hum caused by ground loops, amplifiers and electric guitars, which often occupy the same frequency ranges as the program material you’re looking to preserve. Each of their packages also included a hum-busting processor that essentially notches out a set of frequencies, such as 60Hz and all the harmonics above it, perfect for taking care of ground noise. To this day, the biggest problem automated processors have with these low low-frequency aberrations is not with eliminating them but with identifying them in the first place.
So far, they’re the only company I know of that has included this type of feature in a DAW-based noise-reduction plugin.
They do more than just provide visual feedback of the frequency distribution, essentially allowing the user to “unmix” audio tracks by zooming in and removing tiny portions of the source sound.
From here, you can effect it in isolation, extract it from the surrounding the material, or remove it completely.
Basic expansion or gating could even push low-level noise down further, making the noise floor seem to disappear. It was a fairly complex circuit for its era, but devices like this one made reducing significant ambient and broadband noise a real possibility for the first time. They also take easily to automation and can be used freely as inserts, even in hardware-based mixing applications. They’re often at their best when used to render files, and are not an ideal choice as individual track inserts, especially where high track-counts are concerned.
For even better results on tricky material, it offers a host of tweakable parameters, but more often than not, they were barely necessary.
Even once it was set to the best of its ability, I found that Z-Noise couldn’t scrub out quite as much interference as was possible with comparable settings in RX2 or Mr Noise. Specialized tools are now available from the cutting-edge developers at Cedar and even as part of Wave Arts’ specialized noise reducer package, Dialog, that help clean up these problem areas without effecting the surrounding audio. Need to delete an intermittent word, click, squeak or breath but don’t have any room tone? In fact I prefer it now over izotope RX2 and all others as probably the best broadband noise removal plugin I have tested.


RX2’s spectral “replace” function erases the offending sound and automatically fills it in with surrounding tone.
It collects images from social events also scans social networks and collects publicly available photos. Very good results, no artifacts and no latency and very good adaptive mode which doesn’t cause any delays such as Izoptope RX2.
You might want to test this one because (in my opinion) it beats many other noise removal plugins.
If you are still unsure and you own an ammeter, test the current draw of the compressor at the compressor leads. If the knob has an "off" setting which stops the compressor from running, it is thecold control.In the absence of an "off" setting, the easiest way to tell them apart is to pull the plastic knob off the control. The idea is to keep the compartment at a different temperature from the rest of the food compartment; a more optimum temperature for the particular food that you're keeping in these compartments. This is known as "sweating." So-called "Energy Saver" switches control small, low-wattage "mullion" heaters in the side and door panels that prevent the outside of the refrigerator from getting cool enough for sweating to occur. Air flows over it by convection; the warm air rises and is replaced by cooler air from below.
Feel for a steady flow of warm air from the drain pan side; it should be obvious (see Figure 11). It has the veryimportantjob of directing airflow beneath the fridge, assuring that the condenser fan is drawing air over the condenser and not just sucking air in through the back of the fridge. They are sealed units and cannot be rebuilt.Replacing the condenser fan motor can be dirty and difficult.
When installing a new motor with bracket mounts, it may be easier to install the brackets loosely on the motor until you can locate the mounting screws in their holes.
Thus, when trouble-shooting the evaporator fan, you must depress the door switch(es).Open your freezer door, depress all door switches and listen for the evaporator fan. Look first for a separate access panel or a tower within the freezer that houses the fan (Figure 14). Check for anything that may be blocking the fan, including ice from a backed-up defrost drain or a frost problem.
If nothing is blocking the fan and it still does not run, check for voltage across the fan motor leads (with the door switch depressed, of course.)If you have voltage across the fan motor leads, the fan motor is bad.
Itcancause ice to build up in the internal ductwork.If you hear a "whistling" or "warbling" noise emanating from the fan motor itself or from the inside of the food or freezer compartment, it is probably coming from the evaporator fan motor.
They don't cost much.REPLACING THE EVAPORATOR FAN MOTORIn replacing the fan motor, you must make sure that the rotation of the new fan motor is the same as the old one. The easiest way to do this is to look for the shading poles on the old fan motor (Figure 16).If they are on opposite corners from the ones on the new fan motor core, it is a simple enough task to reverse the new rotor in its core. Do not remove the icemaker (if installed.)Look at and feel the panel covering the bottom or back of the freezer compartment. You will see a removable panel covering the entire back or bottom of your freezer compartment. Make sure the power is off the refrigerator before disassembling any lighting circuit.On some bottom-evap models, you may have to remove some of the plastic moulding around the door frame to access some of the evaporator panel screws.
This can usually be accomplished by placing a pan of very hot water in various places on the panel, or by blowing warm air on it with a blow-dryer. Therefore, when you are diagnosing a defrost problem, it's a good idea to try to avoid melting the ice encasing the terminating thermostat until you've made your diagnosis. If the thermostat opens before you've had a chance to see if the heater works, you'll have to by-pass it.
There are many styles, but most are variations of the three types pictured in Figure 20.Aback-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted vertically against theinside back wallof the freezer compartment. These may be bottom freezer models, side-by-sides (Figure 17) or top freezer models (Figure 18.)Abottom-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted horizontally (flat) beneath a panel on thebottomof the freezer compartment (Figure 19).
Does it have a fluffy (snowy) white consistency, or is it solid and clear-ish or slightly milky white-ish?Check the frostpattern.
Or is it not frosted at all?On back-evap models, examine the drain pan directly beneath the evaporator.
Is it clear, or is it filled with solid ice?Each of these symptoms indicates a different problem.
If you have lots of white, snowy ice, keep reading.4-5 DEFROST SYSTEMIf the frost is snowy and white in appearance, you have a defrost problem.
The three main components of the defrost system are the defrost timer, the defrost heater and the terminating thermostat.4-5(a) DEFROST TIMERS AND ADAPTIVE DEFROST CONTROLIn most older refrigerators and some newer ones, a motor-driven timer (Figure 21) is used to stop the compressor and initiate a defrost cycle. If you have a Whirlpool or Kenmore refrigerator with a flex-tray icemaker, the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker. This is true whether you are using the icemaker to make ice or not; it is running constantly to time your defrost cycles.
If you have a defrost problem and you have one of these machines, follow the instructions in section 4-6.Nowadays, refrigerators are being made as efficient as possible, due in no small part to government energy efficiency requirements. Defrost heaters use a lot of energy, so designers are mimimizing the total amount of time that the heater is energized. Such factors include ambient humidity and temperature, the water content and temperature of the food you put into the fridge, icemaking within the freezer, and how often the door is opened and closed.For example, if you go away on vacation for a week, the refrigerator door will obviously not be opened for a long time.
Less humid air will enter the fridge than if someone was at home, and opening and closing the door. Frost buildup will be much slower than usual, so the refrigerator will not need to be defrosted as often as normal. It also will not need to be chilled as often, so compressor run times will be shorter and less frequent.Designers are using microprocessors (on solid state circuit boards) to adapt defrost intervals and durations to compensate for differences and changes in operating conditions. Such techniques are calledAdaptive Defrost Control, commonly abbreviated as ADC.To make decisions about the correct defrost duration and interval, the control board must have input about the conditions that the fridge is operating under.
Each manufacturer uses a different logic scheme and different inputs, such as door open time, compressor run time, duration of the previous defrost cycle, and duration and intervals of door openings.Door open info is provided to the logic board by the door switch - the same one that controls the refrigerator's internal lights.
For example, the ADC is programmed with a maximum amount of time that the heater can stay on; say, for 16 minutes.
Often they are mounted under a cover plate or in a bracket that hides all but the advancement pinion. The easiest way to recognize them is that the harness connection is always labelled with the compressor, defrost heater, L1 and L2.
The easiest way to see the heater is to look for the heavy, rubber-coated wires leading to it; one on each end.
The element has no protective tubing and generally wraps around beneath the evaporator in a large "U" shape.You must exercise caution when handling these heaters to prevent burning yourself. If that happens, you want to turn the heater off soon after the ice melts, to prevent the evaporator compartment from heating up too much.
If theterminating thermostatsenses too high a temperature in the compartment, it opens, and cuts power to the heater. The thermostat will then stay open until the compartment again reaches a very low temperature. In other words, it waits to reset itself until the cooling cycle starts again.If the evaporator is more heavily frosted, the ice may not all melt within the time allotted by the timer.
The heater will stay on until thetimerstops the defrost cycle, and restarts the cooling cycle.If you initiate defrost (turn the timer on) and the heaterdoes notheat up, then usually the heater or terminating thermostat is bad. If you initiate defrost and the heaterdoesturn on, then usually the timer or ADC board is bad, and you must replace it.To diagnose which component is bad, you must initiate the defrost mode, or test continuity through the defrost heater and terminating thermostat. Within ten minutes (usually much less) you should be able to see a red glow from the defrost heater(s), which is (are) mounted beneath the evaporator.If you have an aluminum-tube heater as described in section 4-5(b), it will not glow red, but youwillsee ice melting away from its coils. Timers can get old, worn and coked up with dust, and may develop hard spots in the bearings.
If youdo nothear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, then it is necessary to investigate a little further.


If you cannot tell for sure, get the information for your model fridge from your parts man. DIAGNOSIS: DEFROST HEATER AND TERMINATING THERMOSTATIf you do not hear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, you could be looking at one of several different problems. The heatermaybe so icebound that it would takehoursfor the heater to melt enough ice for you to see the heater begin to work.
If they are not connected to a terminal block, you will need to cut the leads to test for continuity. Make sure you're not testing continuity across the terminating thermostat too; it may be wide open above 40 or 50 degrees. With glass-tube heaters, be careful that the glass is not cracked or broken and that you do not cut yourself. It's cheap.If you have an ammeter, try to determine if the heater is drawing any power before you melt any ice. In trying to find the heater leads, be careful that you do not melt so much ice that the terminating thermostat opens. If you suspect that the terminating thermostat might be open, temporarily bypass the terminating thermostat with an alligator jumper as described below.If you cannot find the heater leads, an alternativeis to check the current in one lead of the main power cord. Double-check this diagnosis by jumping across (shorting) the terminating thermostat with your alligator jumpers. If the two thermostat leads are not on a terminal block, you will have to cut the leads to jump the thermostat.
Remember that it's a wet environment.LIFTING THE EVAPORATORIf you have a bottom-evap model fridge, replacing the heater will involve the delicate task of lifting the evaporator up to get to the heater. If you break or puncture one of those tubes, you're looking at a potentially expensive sealed system repair.Thaw out the evaporator as thoroughly as is humanly possible. Remove the evaporator mounting screws (if there are any) and gently lift up the end of the evaporator opposite the tubes.
Prop up the evaporator with a blunt instrument (I use my electrical pliers or a flashlight) and change the heater. Do what you went in there to do, but as much as possible, avoid moving the evaporator around too much.When you finish, gently lower the evaporator back into place. The hard tray is finished in a dark gray or black color and has rotating fingers that eject the cubes from the unit; the flex-tray has a white plastic, flexible tray that inverts and twists to eject, much the same as a manual ice cube tray would work.
The hard-tray and separate defrost timer is by far the more common arrangement.This defrost system has the same components described in the defrost system in section 4-5, except that the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker.
However, the actual switch that controls the heater is accessible.Remove the icemaker and the evaporator panel as described in section 4-4. Take the plastic cover off the face of the icemaker and remove the three screws holding the metal faceplate to the icemaker head. Plug the icemaker back into its electrical socket and observe the drive motor in the upper lefthand corner of the icemaker head. The defrost switch is the small, rectangular switch in the upper righthand corner of the icemaker head.
Using electrical tape, tape it out of the way so it does not touch any other metal object in the icemaker head.
Using your resistance meter, you should see continuity (and no resistance) between the empty terminal (where the BLACK lead was) and the PINK terminal.You should see NO continuity between the empty (BLACK) and ORANGE terminal. When the switch toggle is depressed, continuity will be just the opposite: BLACK-ORANGE-CONTINUITY, BLACK-PINK-NO CONTINUITY. If the switch is okay, the problem is probably your defrost heater or terminating thermostat. Alignment of the gears is critical; follow the instructions that come with the gear sets carefully. If you replace the motor, you will have to re-align the defrost timing gear mechanism.RE-ASSEMBLYIf you have not removed the defrost timing gear housing from the back of the icemaker head or the motor from the front of the head, you will not need to re-align thedefrost timinggear mechanism. However, youwillneed to realign thedrivegear mechanism.Align the hole in the small drive gear with the alignment hole in the icemaker head and install the gear. If they do not line up perfectly, momentarily plug the icemaker in or apply 110 volt power to the two center leads of the plug This will turn the drive motor slightly. Lift the spring-loaded shut-off arm (ice level sensor) as you install the cam and let it rest in the cam hollow. Carefully install the metal cover plate, making sure the end of the wire shut-off arm (ice level sensor) is in its pivot hole in the metal cover plate.
Make sure the icemaker is turned on (ice level sensor arm is down) or it won't make ice.4-7 HOT GAS DEFROST PROBLEMSIf you have a refrigerator with a hot gas defrost system, the defrost mechanism is somewhat different from those described in previous sections of this book. If you suspect that you might have a hot-gas defroster but you are not sure, ask your appliance parts dealer. Most of these refrigerators were built before 1970, but not all.The main difference in a hot gas system is that there is no electrical heater or separate terminating thermostat.
The defrost cycle is controlled by a defrost timer similar to the one you'll find in electric defrost systems, but the timer controls asolenoid valveinstead of aheater.
These units have a temperature sensing bulb, similar to that found on the cold control (see section 4-9 and Figures 21 and 33) as a part of the timer. Its function is to sense the temperature of the evaporator so the defrost mechanism knows when to shut off.Troubleshooting a defrost problem in this system involves two steps. Wait and watch your evaporator for 10-15 minutes.If the frost starts to melt, then your defrost timer has gone bad.
Thoroughly melt the rest of the frost from your evaporator and replace the defrost timer.If the frost doesnotstart to melt, then your defrost solenoid is probably bad. Fortunately, the defrost solenoid is usually designed so the electrical coil can be replaced without cutting into the sealed system. Trace the Freon tubing until you find electrical wires joining the tubing at a certain point. UNEVEN FROST PATTERNS, OR NO FROST AT ALLThe evaporator should be bitterly cold to the touch. If the evaporator is either slightly cool or not cold at all, and your compressor is runningconstantly(not short-cycling; see section 4-9) you have a more serious problem.
The same diagnosis applies if just the first coil or two in the evaporator is (are) frosted and the rest are relatively free of ice or perhaps even lukewarm.What's happening is that the Freon is not getting compressed enough in the compressor.
This could be due to two causes: either the amount of Freon in the system is low, or the compressor is worn out. Itmayonly require recharging the Freon system, which, depending on the refrigerant used, may cost you a little, or a LOT. I have only seen one exception to this diagnosis, and this is described in section 7-2.Don't let the age of the refrigerator affect your diagnosis. Not too long ago, one of the largest appliance companies put out a series of refrigerators with compressors that were either poorly designed or poorly constructed; I never did find out which. These were their giant, 20 to 25 cubic-foot flagship models, with techno-marvelous gadgets like digital self-diagnosis and ice and water in the door, and they were built with compressors that wore out within 2 years.Fortunately, the biggest and best companies warrant their refrigerators for five years or more, so these refrigerators were still covered under warranty. COLD CONTROLIf your refrigerator is cold but not as cold as usual, and you cannot trace it to any of the other problems in this chapter, your cold control may be defective.
To test its cut-in and cut-out temperatures, you can try putting the capillary bulb in ice water and measuring the temperature with a thermometer, but it's a wet, messy, job and it's difficult to control the temperatures. The capillary tube is the liquid-filled temperature-sensing element of the cold control, and operates in the same manner as a thermometerbulb; in fact, the end of the capillary tube may have a bulb. The tube and bulbmaybe coiled right next to the cold control, or they may be led away to another part of the compartment.If you are justtesting(electrically) the cold control, you can jumper directly from one wire lead to the other. By doing this, you are closing the switch manually, and assuming the machine is not in the defrost mode, the compressor should start.If you arereplacingthe cold control, it will be necessary to trace where the capillary tube goes, and remove the whole tubewiththe cold control.



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