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16.11.2014
To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today. To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands.
I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful. It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book.
8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St.
Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe. Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position. Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded. Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people. When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin.
They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them. The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well.
There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century. We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers.
In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America. As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them. Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity. In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement.
In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value.
Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter. Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship.
When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location.
On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome!
The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him.
When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow.
Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts. In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods.
When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area. Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath. Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed.
Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth. Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death. Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him. Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth.
According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense. In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for. In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation.
Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe.
Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem. Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem.
Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem.
Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard. When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe. The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position.
In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen. In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English. After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away. As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip. The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English. Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth.
Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war.
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She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts).
Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin.
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All actions shall be subject to the limitations set forth in the terms and conditions as provided above. One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7.
The language used herein shall be interpreted as to its fair meaning and not strictly for or against any party. Francis DeSales Catholic Church in Purcellville, VA,internment at Union Cemetery in Leesburg, VAOur deepest sympathies go out to Denis and his family.
Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement. Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. The type of information we will collect about you may include: your name, address, phone numbers, and email address. A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted.
Should any part of this Contract be held invalid or unenforceable, that portion shall be construed consistent with applicable law as nearly as possible to reflect the original intentions of the parties and the remaining portions shall remain in full force and effect. It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak.
My grandparents the Walter Sealeys lived just two blocks from downtown in a home on Main St. Thurman successfully completed instructor trained courses which were held through NextGen University at Georgia Tech University in October 2007 and The University of Texas at Austin in November of 2008. She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season.
In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment.
Nothing in this contract should be deemed to remove any of your statutory rights as a consumer. Sealey Bldg.- still standing!) I was raised in Alachua, coming to school in 1942 (3rd grade) and remaining there until 1952 when I graduated. We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction. He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors. The personal information which we hold will be held securely in accordance with our internal security policy and the law. Thurman already possesses many of the traits successful advisors share,a€? said Dwight Badger, CEO and Co-Founder of Advanced Equities. 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson. If we intend to transfer your information outside the EEA (European Economic Area) onto systems not complying with EEA law, we will always obtain your consent first. What wonderful memories I will always cherish from my hometown! ?My husband bought our first car when we married in 1957, from Bill Enneis.?Thigpen's Drug Store was on the corner of Main Street. He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. Thurman is a registered representativeA A and is also an Investment Advisory Representative through First Allied.
First Allied is a subsidiary of Advanced Equities, which is a leading provider of investment management, securities brokerage, and venture capital investment banking services.
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Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young. Thurman belongs to one of the nationa€™s top independent financial services organizations with approximately 1,000 financial consultants administering more than $40 billion in client assets.A Advanced Equities was ranked number 11 on Inc. He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal. Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. He also sold tickets to ride the train to Wiliford, Bell, Curtis and Wannee to the west of Alachua, and to LaCross, Brooker, Sampson City, and Starke to the east of Alachua. He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career.
Waters family, was the agent at the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad (ACL) across the street, both depots were on the south end of town. And Rosenthal's lens captured a second image - 18 Marines jubilant before the first foreign flag to fly over Japanese territorial soil in 4,000 years.In time, all 18 would be identified except for the one man standing at the far left, the one smiling, his cap held high.
He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations. He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication. It turns out he was a 19-year-old South Dakota farm boy from Mitchell named Jack Ryland Thurman.The discovery was made after James Bradley's book, "Flags of Our Fathers," was published in 2000. His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite. He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain. You're one of us.' "In that instant, Thurman became part of what would be known as the "Gung Ho" photograph.
Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster.
Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883.
But it developed a bit of infamy as well when, days after the events on Mount Suribachi, Rosenthal was asked if he had staged his famous photograph.Not even aware that his flag-raising photograph had come out and was being hailed around the world, Rosenthal thought they were talking about the "Gung Ho" photograph and confirmed that it was staged.
She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before. Highway 441 ran through Alachua on main street; the by-pass and overpass was not built until the forties. One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way. The elder Thurman insisted he needed his 17-year-old son to help out on the family's dairy farm.
5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed.
In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college.


She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor. Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time. Formerly there had been a big cotton farming operation in the area supporting two cotton gins. He scrambled over and around dozens of Japanese soldiers lying dead on the black volcanic sands."It was terrible," he said. One gin was in the middle of town on a spur railroad track of the SAL and one on the south end of town on SAL's mainline. She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years. In general ,however, because the "Main stay'* of the economy of the community was farming, the area did not suffer as much as other areas. From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life.
In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson. Little happened during the week; school, church, gardening, cleaning yards and a few social club meetings. Its toll of 6,821 Americans dead, 5,931 of them Marines, accounted for almost one-third of all Marine Corps losses in World War II.
A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland. 23, three of them - Michael Strank, Franklin Sousley and Harlon Block - were dead before the battle ended.For Japan, it was no better.
By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis.
There was visiting with friends, getting haircuts and other amenities of life that you hadn't done in weeks or months. What they never realized was that the image hung in museums and sat in books with a caption beneath it that identified everyone but the unknown serviceman at the left.Apparently, members of the 28th Regiment had provided identifications for the photo at some point. She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. Because Thurman came late to the photo as a volunteer from the 27th Regiment, no one had his name.
Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health. Most businesses closed at 5 - 6 O'clock, but grocery stores stayed open until 8-10 O'clock. And the Marines made no effort to identify him."The Marine Corps takes the position that all Marines on Iwo Jima were heroes," Crawford said. It just upsets families and people who thought it was their next of kin, and it's not."Telling his storyBut Thurman's family had no doubt.
After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae. When "Flags of Our Fathers" came out in 2000, renewing interest in Iwo Jima, they knew the Marine in the book's "Gung Ho" photograph was not unknown.As word got out about Thurman's role in the photo, his fame rose, particularly in the Boulder area.
She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous". He's been invited to speak in a number of venues, from Kiwanis clubs in Colorado to the Officers' Club on Okinawa.
By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out. He tells the story of a young Marine who approached him after his talk in Okinawa and wanted to know whether military training really prepared a person for actual duty."That really caught me," Thurman said. I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness!
Your body is strong, and you're taught to overtake any kind of terrain, any kind of pillbox. The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic. Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets. Karen Thurman, are finishing it up.In it, he talks about standing behind Ira Hayes in the photograph.
By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall.
Hayes, a Pima Indian, was one of the six men immortalized in the flag-raising photo."He was standing in front of me in the picture," Thurman said.
When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities.
The Four H Club, sponsored by the school and County Agent, was a big influence in the community. It is a story worth preserving, Karen Thurman said, about a Marine of whom she and the rest of her family are very proud.To that end, she said she is going to work to get her father's name placed in that photo caption. Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf.
Occasionally a theatrical company would come to town and help the community put on a production of some kind.
She requested that her first duty station be Camp Pendleton in California because that was his last stop before he left the Marines."I wanted that connection just to be able to pick up where he left off, for him and for his buddies who died beside him," she said. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure. Among the other things you did for entertainment or diversion was to go to Gainesville to see the movies.
A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. There were two theaters in Gainesville; the Florida Theater on University Avenue and the Ritz (Or Lyric) Theater near the post office. One of the cool things about going to tlie movies in Gainesville; they were air conditioned. Ehjring hot weather you would go to Poe Springs, a few miles west of High Springs for swimming and a picnic or to Blue Springs, which was a little further west. A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. It was located just west of present day I - 75 on the south side of Millhopper Road to Gainesville.
In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find.
The east-west passage was the largest From the west entrance you went east down a gradual slope for 30 to 50 feet. In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways. When you got to the bottom and center of the cross, you could see an extension to the north that extended 30 to 40 feet. The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found.
Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons. Several university students were injured exploring the cave and rumor has it that possibly one or more may have died as a result of dare-devil climbing. A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help.
It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work. As the participation in WWII grew in scope and activities the depression ended and the good times returned. C. Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication. Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work.
He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt. Frankly, it's been only out of respect for my parents that I never legally changed my name.
13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut. Okay, with that behind us, let's see what my dad, at the age of 97, now recalls about the old days in Alachua. The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time. Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic. 14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut.
His station was at the southernmost rail line running by Copeland Sausage Company and Ennis Motor Company.
A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet). The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers". Leland manned the Seaboard station just a few yards from Papa Waters' Coastline station on the south end of town. 15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure. David manned another Coastlme station, known as "East Alachua," which was located up by the current location of US 441.
Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. The old road tfiat comes in under the railroad overpass and then turns north at Main Street was the original US 441 . She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior. Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues. Passengers traveling to High Springs would disembark in Alachua and look for other transportation to High Springs. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums. Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site.
Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation. Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence.
17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo.
As results were telegraphed in, he would give them to my dad (Beb), who would "run" them to City Hall, where a large board displayed the latest election information. Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered. The center of town in those early days was just north of the Seaboard tracks, on the southern end of Main Street, as I think of it today.
People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her.
A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier.
The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number. Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work".
The elder Thurman insisted he needed his 17-year-old son to help out on the family's dairy farm. A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys. Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator.
It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple. On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues. I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying.
Mott's blacksmith shop was just up the street from the barber shop of Willie Cauthen (Hal's dad). 18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday. She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries. The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England. When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive".
A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked. Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement. One of tfie hotels, The Hawkins House, later named the Skirvin Hotel, was just south of the southernmost railroad tracks. Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls. At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom. Large bowls and platters of meats, potatoes, vegetables and breads were placed on the tables and the guests would pass them around just like at a large family gathering. I recall one summer when Dad and I were "batching" and he and I ate there quite often.
In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus.
In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map. After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find. Living in town, we enjoyed the convenience of regular home delivery of the block of ice needed to keep food in the box cool.
Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The old man who delivered the ice was named Lige, but I don't recall the name of the horse that pulled the wagon. The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England. The best-known train that ran through town was named "Peggy." Peggy was a Seaboard train that ran from Staike through Bell to Wannee, where the train would turn around and retrace its route. When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it.
I recall a story that now escapes Dad's memoiy about what his mom and the other Waters mothers would do from time to time when the kids got under foot. We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue. Since all three moms in the Waters clan had access to the railroad, they could use "Peggy" to occupy the kids for a few hours. When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus.
Simply put the kids on the train when it arrived from Starke, and they would be out of the way for a few hours while riding down to Wannee and back. 20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds.
I remember at least one occasion when my cousins Larry, Johnny Dampier, Lano (Delano), maybe Clara Nell, and I made that trip. Your body is strong, and you're taught to overtake any kind of terrain, any kind of pillbox. He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum. The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time. Since all the "big boys" (older cousins) got off during the temporary stop, of course I did too. The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion. As the runt of the lot, I was the last to grab for the hand rail when the train started moving, and I almost had a very long walk back to Alachua. One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig. Other entertainment for Waters boys: Ventures into Warren*s Cave were treacherous in Dad's day. At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle.


He says they had no flashlights, so they took "fat pine" sticks to light up, once they were deep enough to need a light source.
This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected. Dad recalls one occasion when the circus was in town and some of the horses got loose just as a train was passing though. A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III. 21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered. The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze.
It was an outdoor theater composed of a billboard-type screen and rows of logs for the audience to use for seating. Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design. The show was located in a vacant lot on the east side of Main Street, approximately one block south of the main downtown intersection, where the First National Bank was located for many years. In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose.
A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games. Marbles were a lot less expensive than the electronic devices kids have for entertainment today.
For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity.
So was everything else! Bland Horse Races 1944  By Kent Doke:The Bland horse races actually started in Haynesworth in the summer of 1944 when Paul Emery and I raced our horses on the straight graded road North of Hollingsworth. The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. I had borrowed an English saddle to race with and when we jumped off, the right stirrup leather came off the safety catch and was dragging. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her. I couldn't get it off my foot and was afraid the horse would step on it and drag me off I always claimed that was why I lost the race and it was why I rode bareback in all the races to follow. She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site. Somehow Jessie Shaw got involved and we started having horse races in Bland every Wednesday afternoon after school.
She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her. At that time people not in the service were making more money than they had ever made in their life. He played both sides of the ball at Campbell County High School including receiver and end. Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896. Bruce is considered a versatile athlete who could turn out to be a bargain for the Cowboys.
After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth.
No cars were being made during the war so people rode with each other to the nearest entertainment.
That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation. What is now County Highway 241 that runs out from Alachua to the Santa Fe River was at that time a seldom graded road. The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance. In the late thirties and early forties this new road was being cut using only mules and convict labor. I still remember the guards with shotguns loaded with buckshot guarding the prisoners as they drove the two mule teams pulling small drag buckets of dirt. By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". The 6 foot 1 and 180 pound wide out is from Sherman Oaks, California.McNeill had several PAC 10 schools recruiting him during the summer, though finally a solid D1 offer went the wide receivers direction, no less in a spread offense to maximize his skills. Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings.
Jessie really got into the racing; he would grade one quarter mile of the road using a tractor and a grader he bought. They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often.
He cut the fence so cars could be parked on the West side of the road and, at it's peak, we would have about 250 people out to see the races. Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago. A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier. I raced my own horse, The Santa Fe River Ranch entered a horse, Jessie raced a horse, Roy Ceilon, J. It's hard to think of something that fits his spunkiness but won't invite disaster at the same time!
With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts.
An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest. Nick is very busy as he is in college, has a full time job and his band.He has won most of THE BATTLE OF THE BANDS that he has competed in and qualified to play at The Great American Music Hall in San Francisco where he placed 4th against 100 well established bands. The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone. Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone.
She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding. Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period. During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained.
Once George Duke brought a race horse and jockey with a jockey saddle in to race against Roy's horse. Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt. We were very lucky to win that race and did so only because the jockey couldn't control the horse at the start. Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary.
Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high. The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22. In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written. About fifty years after the races had stopped I asked Roy how much he thought was bet on those races and he said probably about twenty five hundred dollars. 23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking. Also about fifty years later I was introduced to an old lawyer in Gainesville who asked me if I had ever ridden horses in the Bland Races.
About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken. The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits. Makes me feel good, even now. Aiachua High School Memories  Charles Beverly (Beb) Waters Class of 1930 The Alachua Indians played football on a field that was right next to the school rather than down the hill from the grammar school.
A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard. The offense was the Notre Dame Box, The quarterback lined up about four feet behind the center and had a fullback lined up a few feet behind him.
There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased.
The other two halfbacks were lined up on their left (or right), stacked one behind the other to form a square box. The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king. The QB would take a direct snap and then hand off to one of the backs or drop back to pass. The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections. It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple. In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner.
It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court.
The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists. In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight.
It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities.
And yes, we wore leather helmets and had drab brown canvas pants; and the jerseys were whatever you could find and had no numbers. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed. This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple.
Alachua didn't have a good punter, so Marion Pearson would try to throw a long Interception rather than try a weak punt.
Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. The Big Rival was the High Springs Sandspurs, at least until around 1929 when we had "the Big Fight" playing in High Springs, The referee that night was a prominent High Springs doctor (Whitlock?), maybe even the mayor.
Emotions were running high, and an intense argument between players, coaches and the referee ended in a Big Fight when Jessie Shaw knocked the referee out cold and the townspeople charged the field. I prudently ran for the car. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center. As a result of the fight, the teams didn't play each other again for a number of years (20?).
It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration.
The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators.
School buses couldn't be used for game trips, so townspeople would drive the players, Barney Cato was a rural mail carrier and had a son on the squad.
A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen.
The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut. The school buses back then were Model A trucks with a row of seats down each side and a bench down the middle. Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place.
These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center.
They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler.
The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it. A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts.
At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple.
Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel". This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls.
In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken). Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues. As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse. Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions. A long one story building was in its' place containing eight classrooms and a big auditorium.
One big event of that year was a class play about the Pilgrims Thanksgiving and with the Indians. One day a student walked behind her, on the way to the restroom, and kicked the chair out from under Miss.
I had to wear glasses beginning in the seventh gi'ade, so did not participate in sports much. Perhaps the biggest event in our High School lives was the Junior and Senior theatrical productions. The Junior class play was usually produced in the fall and the Senior class play in the spring.
Wq were excused from classes to climb into a ton and a half truck to go load scrape iron from some garage or farm. Som.eone asked her a question and she answered, "just a minute, I have the answer right here in my drawers". So, if you could manage to leave the Supply room unlocked, you then had to find a classroom window unlocked.
In closing I have always told anyone who asked, my years at A H S was comparable to the Tom Sawyer story. One gin was in the middle of town on a spur railroad track of the SAL and one on the south end of town on SAL's mainline. There was visiting with friends, getting haircuts and other amenities of life that you hadn't done in weeks or months.
Frankly, it's been only out of respect for my parents that I never legally changed my name. Okay, with that behind us, let's see what my dad, at the age of 97, now recalls about the old days in Alachua. Leland manned the Seaboard station just a few yards from Papa Waters' Coastline station on the south end of town. The old man who delivered the ice was named Lige, but I don't recall the name of the horse that pulled the wagon. I recall a story that now escapes Dad's memoiy about what his mom and the other Waters mothers would do from time to time when the kids got under foot. I couldn't get it off my foot and was afraid the horse would step on it and drag me off I always claimed that was why I lost the race and it was why I rode bareback in all the races to follow.
He cut the fence so cars could be parked on the West side of the road and, at it's peak, we would have about 250 people out to see the races. Once George Duke brought a race horse and jockey with a jockey saddle in to race against Roy's horse.
We were very lucky to win that race and did so only because the jockey couldn't control the horse at the start. Alachua didn't have a good punter, so Marion Pearson would try to throw a long Interception rather than try a weak punt. As a result of the fight, the teams didn't play each other again for a number of years (20?). School buses couldn't be used for game trips, so townspeople would drive the players, Barney Cato was a rural mail carrier and had a son on the squad. A long one story building was in its' place containing eight classrooms and a big auditorium. I had to wear glasses beginning in the seventh gi'ade, so did not participate in sports much.



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