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G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York. The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school.
The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909.
Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842. In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man.
10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think.
China Sea The Citizen Citizens Bank Classic Chevrolet Classic Chevrolet - pre-owned The Clock Works Co-Go's Coins R Us Colaizzi Pedorthic Center Community Care Plus Costcutters Family Hair Care Cricket - Bellevue Wireless Curves of Bellevue CVS Pharmacy Dairy Queen of Bellevue Dance America Dari-Villa Restaurant John B DeBonis Family Dentistry Joseph G DeFrancesco, DMD Domenic S. Enjoy Bellevue Ephesus Mediterranean Erin's Hallmark Esthetica Salon Family Dollar First Niagara Bank Samuel S Floro, Esquire Fodi Jewelers, Inc Forest Avenue Presbyterian Church Frankfurter's Hot Dog Shoppe Fred Dietz Floral, Gifts and Antiques David Gillingham Girl Scouts Western Pennsylvania Gold Star Construction USA, Inc. Jackson-Hewitt Tax Service James Trunzo Collision Shop James V Jordan, Attorney at Law Jatco Machine & Tool Co., Inc.
Pittsburgh Regional Chiropractic Center Pittsburgh Valve and Fitting PJ's Smoke Shop Plank Eye Board Shop PNC Bank Donald H Presutti, Esquire Produce Plus Market & Deli, Inc.
EAT'N PARK RUSTY NAIL HOME DEPOT STATE STORE BASEBALL PITTBIRD THREE RIVERS CASINO FOOTBALL PNC PARK HEINZ FIELD CONSOL ENERGY CENTER CADDY DOLLAR GENERAL BELLEVUE POLICE DEPARTMENT PD FAMILY DOLLAR AVALON BEN AVON EMSWORTH WOODS RUN GIANT EAGLE KUHN'S LINCOLN AVENUE BUSINESS DISTRICT GROCERY SHOPPING KMART WALMART BELLEVUE POLICE DEPARTMENT PD P.D.
Supreme Court, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania and several of the U.S. The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S.
On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City.
In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary.
The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage.
In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings.
The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation. The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism.
The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country.
By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish.
Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W.
The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W.
As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L.
Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized. 21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents.
30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J.
In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay.
Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh.
When social media platforms just started springing up, I remember many experts assuming social media would kill email marketing. Maintaining a loyal, active and steadily growing list is one of the strongest assets you can build: This is what can secure your business against various rankings fluctuations and emerging competitors.
These months I am experimenting with my blog calls-to-actions (primarily for the sake of self-education but also to be able to share my results with my community and help others grow). This article is my first step in the long-lasting experiment: Making the most of calls-to-actions.
Creating a sense of urgency gets users to take action immediately instead of holding off on the purchase. I suspect this is a later trend: Web users are getting tired of commercial CTAs pressing you to sign up to something on each page they visit. For longer CTAs, sentence case can make your button text feel like a dialogue, thus more friendly. The theory is they have said yes once, before you ask for their address so they are more bought-in, and ready to give it. If you want to learn more about content and content marketing, check out Joe Pulizzi’s book, Content Inc. Remarketing campaigns through Google AdWords offer advertisers an additional tactic to drive potentially high value visitors back to their website in an effort to grow overall conversion figures. Remarketing campaigns allow businesses to stay connected with their target audience after they leave their website by showing ads to them on other websites across the web.
While remarketing can be a powerful channel for digital marketers, setting up your first campaign can be a challenge. There are three core components of setup required to create and activate a remarketing campaign for your Google AdWords account.
If this is your first time remarketing, you will need to add a remarketing tag to your website. Next, enter a membership duration for the list, which will determine how long the visitor’s cookie will stay on your list. Once your list is created and the remarketing tag is implemented on your site, an audience list size will begin to populate.
Once your remarketing list has been created, it’s time to turn your attention to creating the Remarketing campaign in AdWords.
Before moving forward on adding your image ads into your campaign, make sure all the banner ads you have are formatted and sized within Google’s ad requirements. Once you have your ads formatted and sized properly, adding them into your campaign is as easy as dragging and dropping. If you’ve been at the content marketing game for a while, you probably agree with Rand. At Fractl, we regularly look back at campaign performance and refine our production and promotion processes based on what the data tells us.
We recently dug through three years of content marketing campaigns and asked: What factors increase content’s ability to earn links? We analyzed campaign data from a sample of 345 Fractl campaigns that launched between 2013 and 2016. We looked at the relationship between the number of placements and the content’s topic, visual assets, and formatting.
Which content elements can increase link earning potential?The chart below highlights the largest differences between our high- and low-success campaigns. The data confirmed our assumptions about why some content is better than others at attracting links, as all four of the above characteristics were present in some of our biggest hits. Content that evokes a strong emotional response is extremely effective at earning links.Emotional impact was the greatest differentiator between our most successful campaigns and all other campaigns, with those that secured over 100 placements being 3 times more likely to feature a strong emotional hook than less successful campaigns.
Our Truth About Hotel Hygiene earned more than 700 placements thanks to a high "ick" factor, which gave it emotional resonance paired with universal interest (most people use hotels). Use rankings and comparisons to fuel online discussion.Contrast was a recurring theme in our high-performing campaigns, with strong contrasts achieved through visual or numerical comparisons.
Comparing Cortana was a hands-on study for which participants gave a command to their virtual assistant and rated their satisfaction with the response. The Airport Rankings campaign looked at which airports offered the best and worst experiences, based on data including the volume of canceled flights, delays, and lost luggage. Pro tip: Side-by-side visualizations pack a high-contrast visual punch that helps drive linking and social shares. The Most Popular Concert Drugs, one of our most successful campaigns to date with nearly 1,900 placements, examined the connection between music festivals and drug mentions on Instagram.
As with the example above, pairing a geographic angle with Instagram data proved to be a winning formula for the Most Instagrammed Locations campaign. Include pop culture references to pique audience interest.Our campaigns with more than 100 pickups were nearly twice as likely to incorporate a pop culture theme than our campaigns with fewer than 20 pickups.
Trending pop culture phenomena are best for making your content feel relevant to the current zeitgeist (think: a Walking Dead theme that appeals to fans of the show while also playing up the current cultural obsession with zombies). Fictional Power Sources looked at which iconic weapons, vehicles, and superpowers featured in movies were the most powerful. Pro tip: To increase the appeal, feature a range of pop culture icons as opposed to just one, such as a list of movies, musicians, or TV shows. Earning high-quality links is just one benefit of creating content that incorporates high emotionality, contrast, broad appeal, or pop culture references. In particular, emotional resonance is a key ingredient, not only for earning links but also for getting your content widely shared. How can you ensure these elements are incorporated into your content, thus increasing its linking and sharing potential? Sign up for The Moz Top 10, a semimonthly mailer updating you on the top ten hottest pieces of SEO news, tips, and rad links uncovered by the Moz team. These ten handy tools will give you everything you need to produce your own micro videos to post online. Vine has been popular from the moment it was launched, but it has now become a full on phenomenon.
Better yet, it puts you in with a community of supportive creators who are always looking at new content.
You can make professional looking videos with pretty much no know-how whatsoever, thanks to their easy to follow platform and useful automated features. You can work on the project together, even from across the world, and see all changes as they are made.
It is a powerful Powerpoint alternative that is much easier to use, and much more creative. You can make micro videos that loop and share them on your account, using your Apple or Android phone. This gives your video a more quality look and feel, rather than the bland clip you may have had before. You may have noticed a trend on sites like Tumblr of non-looping micro videos, or collections of flashing pictures set to music. They support full movie editing, which is an interesting plus if your footage is a lot longer.
The post 10 Handy Tools to Create Mini Videos: Marketing Through Micro Moments appeared first on Internet Marketing Ninjas Blog. IU will honor the GlobalNOC's past and future at a 15th anniversary celebration Tuesday, Sept.
Indiana University has implemented the Kuali Coeus Institutional Review Board, a comprehensive online system for the submission, review and approval of human subjects research.
The National Center for Genome Analysis and Support (NCGAS) has announced new services to help biological researchers store and share their work, speeding scientific discovery and breakthroughs in many fields of study.
Registration is now open for the IEEE Cluster 2013 conference, hosted by IU's Pervasive Technology Institute, September 23-27 at the Hilton Indianapolis.
Professors Thomas Sterling and Andrew Lumsdaine will deliver keynotes and lead workshops, tutorials and discussions on a variety of topics at the 2013 International Supercomputing Conference, the world's oldest global conference and exhibition for high performance computing, networking and storage. The center of the universe will be in Indianapolis June 2 to 6, at least as far as the study of the universe is concerned, as more than 500 scientists, educators and journalists are expected for the 222nd meeting of the American Astronomical Society. IEEE Cluster 2013 conference organizers today announced the featured speakers at this year's event.
With privacy concerns addressed, Indiana University has re-released the free app Kinsey Reporter, a global mobile survey platform for collecting and reporting anonymous data about sexual and other intimate behaviors. NASA's Operation IceBridge mission wraps up its spring flight season this week, gathering radar data about Earth's polar ice sheets to help scientists better understand global climate change. Indiana University confirmed its leadership in high performance, data-intensive computing by unveiling Big Red II, a powerful new supercomputer with a processing speed of one thousand trillion floating-point operations per second (one petaFLOPS).
Indiana University's new supercomputer is expected to further advance international collaborations reliant on big data research at a time when the globalization of education, science and research is omnipresent. Indiana University and Internet2 announced a $2 million initiative to stimulate collaboration in higher education cybersecurity efforts in response to President Obama's cybersecurity challenge.
This week the HathiTrust Research Center (HTRC) announced the availability of data mining and analytics tools for the HathiTrust Digital Library, a collection of digital texts from over 70 research libraries around the world. The TechPoint Mira Awards recognized Indiana University for the deployment of IUanyWare, a cloud-based service that provides IU students, faculty and staff with on-demand access to over 200 software applications. Indiana University has saved nearly $20 million by joining with other universities to reduce administrative costs for essential financial software systems. IUanyWare, Indiana University's cloud software service, is a 2013 recipient of ACUTA's prestigious Institutional Excellence award. Indiana University shares its expertise in advanced networking with the launch of a new lecture series for state business and industry leaders.
Kuali People Management for the Enterprise (KPME) announces the release of version 1.5, designed to meet the human resources needs of higher education.
Indiana University today announces SAGE as the latest publisher to sign on to its eTexts initiative. Indiana University has announced an agreement with Cengage Learning to provide eTexts for students on all IU campuses. IEEE Cluster 2013 conference organizers are seeking input from the high performance computing community, in an effort to make the "Clusters and Cyberinfrastructure Strategy" event as informative as possible.
Nearly 10,000 Indiana University students are using digital textbooks (eTexts) this spring semester as part of IU's pioneering eTexts initiative.
Indiana University's Center for Research in Extreme Scale Technologies (CREST) is the recipient of a three-year, $1.1 million grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop software that improves the speed and programmability of supercomputers.
The Indiana Center for Network Translational Research and Education (InCNTRE) at Indiana University is hosting its first single-controller vendor Software-Defined Networking (SDN) Lab PlugFest this Feb. Indiana University and Adobe are partnering to present Adobe Days 2013 on the IUPUI and IU Bloomington campuses. Vital research collaborations involving China, Europe and the United States will be safeguarded through the first major agreement among partners running the two main high-speed research and education (R&E) Internet routes across Asia, Europe and North America.
Thomas Sterling, executive associate director of the Center for Research in Extreme Scale Technologies (CREST) and professor of computer science in the IU School of Informatics and Computing, has been named an HPCwire person to watch in 2013.
The Indiana Center for Network Translational Research and Education (InCNTRE) has announced that Steve Wallace will step into the role of acting executive director. Indiana University's IT Communications Office recently received several awards from the Chicago chapter of the Society for Technical Communication (STC).
Network architects from a range of Fortune 500 companies will converge on the Indiana Center for Network Translational Research and Education (InCNTRE) on Wednesday, January 23, to take part in a new user group promoting OpenFlow and other software-defined networking (SDN) technologies.
The National Center for Genome Analysis Support (NCGAS) is expanding its reach by adding tools, services and partners to help biological research communities make important new scientific discoveries.
With 6 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide -- that's about 87 percent of the world population -- and an even higher percentage of users estimated on campuses, Indiana University has embarked on a mobile security campaign to heighten awareness about the tools available to safeguard users and their products. The organizing committee for the IEEE* Cluster 2013 conference is now accepting proposals for tutorials, technical papers, posters, panels, and visualizations. A recent networking breakthrough from IU researchers, in collaboration with Orange Silicon Valley and DataDirect Networks, showed that data sharing can be faster and more efficient over wide area networks (WAN).
Researchers from Indiana University's Pervasive Technology Institute will serve as collaborating partners on a major grant from the U.S. Indiana University today announced the successor to its internationally recognized Data Capacitor research data storage platform. Indiana University networking experts were recently recognized by Internet2 for their efforts to enhance broadband connectivity and support advanced services and cloud applications across the United States.
IU will replace its current Data Capacitor with Data Capacitor II, a high-speed, high-capacity storage facility for very large data sets. Indiana University will display its leadership in high performance computing and networking technologies at the annual International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis, also known as SC12 (Supercomputing 2012).
QuakeSim, an Indiana University-supported collection of online data and tools from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and multiple university partners, is a recipient of NASA's 2012 Software of the Year Award. Data vital to understanding global climate change will benefit from more efficient and secure processing, thanks to a new tool created by members of Indiana University's Research Technologies Systems.
Recording light from millions of light years away and then sending it to the Indiana University Data Center at the corner of 10th Street and state Rt.
Indiana University announced today (September 14) an agreement with Elsevier's Science & Technology Books division to provide eTexts for students on all IU campuses. A recent National Science Foundation (NSF) grant will further enable Indiana University to help scientists solve their toughest data problems. Indiana University and Ivy Tech Community College have announced a technology support partnership to help college students use technology for increased success. Indiana University has signed agreements with technology providers CourseNetworking LLC and Instructure Inc. The Apache Software Foundation recently asked Suresh Marru of the Indiana University Pervasive Technology Institute to join its exclusive membership. The announcement July 4 that scientists have observed a new particle that may be the elusive Higgs boson spelled success for Indiana University researchers who worked for years on a massive experiment that detected the particle. Internet2 announced today, July 20, that Indiana University President Michael McRobbie was elected as the sixth chair of the board of trustees and will serve until July 2015.
Key software used to study gene expression now runs four times faster, thanks to performance improvements put in place by a team from the Indiana University Pervasive Technology Institute (PTI), the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Technische Universitat Dresden. Indiana University has received a Campus Technology 2012 Innovators Award for the development of IUanyWARE, a cloud-based service that provides students, faculty and staff with on-demand access to hundreds of software applications. The announcement last week that scientists have observed a new particle that may be the elusive Higgs boson spelled success for Indiana University researchers who worked for years on a massive experiment that detected the particle. Leaders from the China Education and Research Network (CERNET), IU, Internet2, and the Chinese government met Thursday, June 21, at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China to demonstrate unique applications now possible over a new10Gbps internet link between the education and research networks of the US and China. Beginning July 1, Indiana University will establish a new Office of Scholarly Publishing, newly appointed IU executive vice president and provost of the Bloomington campus Lauren Robel announced. Indiana University is again leading the way to better health care by enabling scientists to share research more rapidly and securely over the Internet.
Indiana University received a $492,588 National Science Foundation grant to help scientists study rising sea levels and the impact of storm surge on coastal communities.
Networking giant Cisco is the latest company to join InCNTRE's Software-Defined Networking Interoperability Lab, the world's only neutral, third-party testing lab for SDN.


IDG's CIO magazine has honored Indiana University as a recipient of the 2012 CIO 100 award. The Sakai Foundation recently selected its 2012 Sakai Fellows, and three of the six recipients have direct ties to Indiana University. Indiana University and Pearson are working together to reduce the costs of digital textbooks for students on all IU campuses. Senior, higher education executives announced today that they will use the nation's fastest, coast-to-coast network to implement new technologies that support scientific "Big Data" and cloud applications to drive innovation in global collaborative research.
Spiders that might injure peoplea€”for example, black widowsa€”generally spend most of their time hidden under furniture or boxes, or in woodpiles, corners, or crevices. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium.
Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China. Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre. Jesse The Tailor Jim's Hidden Treasures Joe's Rusty Nail Restaurant Johnston Self Storage Joyce's Antique Emporium of Bellevue (Antiques & Uniques) Just Playin Norman J. Hickton was nominated for United States Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania by President Barack Obama on May 20, 2010, and was confirmed by the U.S.
The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S.
Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890.
In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism.
In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring.
It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress.
Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process.
The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional.
These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012.
The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts.
Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220.
Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. Users who have already visited your website are likely to be more engaged with your brand messaging and offering after their first visit. To help with that, we’ve provided a step-by-step look at how to create your first Google AdWords remarketing campaign. The second step required in this process is to create a remarketing campaign within your Google AdWords account. This small snippet of code allows for visitors to be tagged with a cookie required for your remarketing ads to be shown to them once off your website.
If you’re not sure which campaign settings to use, check out our post on optimizing campaign settings.
Completing this process has now assigned the remarketing list you created to the remarketing campaign being put together. After creating your remarketing list, remarketing campaign, and uploading your ads, your campaign is all ready to serve ads.
Seasoned content marketers know you’re likely to see a percentage of content flops before you achieve a big win. It also included a pop culture theme that appealed to a niche audience (video game fans) while also resonating with a broader audience. The surprise factor added an additional layer of emotionality to the already emotional topic of women’s body image issues, which helped this campaign get nearly 600 placements.
So we’ve proven emotionally provocative content can attract a lot of links, but what about high-quality links? Campaigns for our travel, entertainment, and retail clients tend to have a high average domain authority per placement since these verticals naturally lend themselves to content ideas with mass appeal. More than half of our highest-performing campaigns centered around a ranking or comparison, compared to just a third of our lowest-performing campaigns. Comparing the three most widely used smartphone assistants attracted the attention of techies (especially Apple fans) as well as the broader public, since most people have one of these assistants on their smartphone. Local publishers loved this campaign; many focused on the story around how their regional airport fared in the rankings.
This type of contrasting imagery is extremely powerful visually since it’s easy to process.
Did you notice a majority of the broad-topic campaigns with a high domain authority listed above also had a geographic angle? We’ve had multiple geo-focused campaigns featured on national and local news stations simply because they saw the story getting covered by online media. Content that ties in pop culture is primed for targeting a niche of dedicated fans who will want to share and discuss it like crazy, while it simultaneously resonates on a surface level for many people.
If your audience falls within a certain age bracket, consider what would be nostalgic to them. By featuring a lot of older TV shows, this campaign had a high nostalgia factor for audiences familiar with classic ’90s sitcoms.
This adds to the range of pop culture fans who will connect with the content, rather than limiting the potential audience to one fan base.
We’ve also found these characteristics present in our campaigns that perform well in terms of social sharing. Our campaigns that received more than 20,000 social shares were 8 times more likely to include a strong emotional hook than campaigns that received fewer than 1,000 shares. In a previous post, I walk through exactly how we create campaigns like the examples I shared above. I'd love to hear your thoughts on which content elements attract the most links and shares. Think of it as your exclusive digest of stuff you don't have time to hunt down but want to read! You can create your own looping videos that are only a few seconds long, and hey can launch you from obscurity to serious visibility in no time. Pricing starts at $8 per month for personal, $22 per month for professional, and $33 per month for business. They offer a basic free account so you can try it yourself, which is great for micro videos. Everything you need is already there in their database, you just string it together and fill in the blanks.
Now they are finally getting on board with promoting the video service that was always there, as they rush to compete with Vine.
It works by stitching together ten photos and allowing you to reverse, repeat, or edit them. Simple, easy, and effective, it is a great way to make short bits of digital content that get you noticed. If you need something business quality you can choose their Business account for $9.99 per month. Though I would honestly keep it as a tool for mini videos, which only take a short time to edit and refine.
There are two options: upload from your computer files, or search a URL from YouTube, Vimeo, Vine, or other hosting services.
10, in the Informatics & Communications Technology Complex on the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis campus. With seven Institutional Review Boards and more than 4,800 approved active research studies, IU is the largest university to implement this community-developed open source software.
IU earned the distinction for its pioneering eTexts initiative and recent wireless network upgrade to ensure reliable and secure access to digital materials.
The twice-yearly IceBridge missions generate massive amounts of data -- all stored and archived by Indiana University's research cyberinfrastructure.
Offering unmatched speed, Big Red II will be the fastest university-owned supercomputer in the nation.
ACUTA (the Association for Information Communications Technology Professionals in Higher Education) is an international nonprofit dedicated to serving the needs of higher education, including nearly 2,000 individuals at some 700 institutions. This version includes a new Leave Management module, which lets organizations and their employees accrue, request, report and track benefit time (such as paid time off and sick days) for faculty and staff. SAGE is now the 11th publisher to partner with the university to provide digital materials to students on all IU campuses.
With this addition, IU reaches an important milestone: Faculty and students now have favorable pricing for and access to digital materials from all of IU's largest publishers. Hosted by Indiana University's Pervasive Technology Institute, Cluster 2013 will take place September 23-27, 2013, at the Hilton Hotel in Indianapolis. Since 2000, the Mira Awards have recognized the movers and shakers of the state's IT industry. The third annual event showcases Adobe tools and resources that help students and instructors of all disciplines connect, discover, create and inspire.
The publication's annual list features 12 movers and shakers whose reach extends beyond high performance computing (HPC) to shape future directions of technology, propelling scientific and engineering advancements. The newly formed InCNTRE SDN User Group (ISUG) will bring together business leaders from insurance, finance, travel and healthcare who are investigating SDN technologies and the impact they may have on their networks.
Today (January 14), in conjunction with its participation in the Plant and Animal Genome Conference (PAG XXI), NCGAS announced three initiatives to accelerate US public and private sector research and development in biology and biomedical research.
Hosted by IU's Pervasive Technology Institute, Cluster 2013 will take place September 23-27, 2013, at the Hilton Hotel in Indianapolis. The team performed the world's first demonstration of RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access) over Converged Ethernet (RoCE) across a wide area network using the Lustre file system.
Department of Homeland Security to address vulnerabilities arising during the process of software development.
The new system, called Data Capacitor II (DCII), is a five petabyte storage resource engineered to provide scientific researchers with high performance access to a robust storage facility. Their efforts will help provide advanced networking features for more than 200,000 of the country's community anchor institutions, including libraries, hospitals, K-12 schools, community colleges and public safety organizations. With five petabytes of storage, Data Capacitor II will support big data applications used in computational research.
The award recognizes innovative software technologies that significantly improve the agency's space exploration and maximize scientific discovery on Earth. The NSF has selected Indiana University as a partner in a grant to create the Science Gateway Institute. The new version brings additional features and improvements to a software system that touches vital university functions every day. This honor is bestowed on IT developers whose skills have significantly contributed to the foundation's projects. President McRobbie joined the board in 2009 and succeeds University of Michigan President Mary Sue Coleman, who served as chair for the last year and as a member of the board since 2003. The Innovators Award recognizes universities that deploy extraordinary technology solutions to meet campus challenges. The Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CTSI), of which IU is a founding member, recently became the first health care research institute to be named to the InCommon Federation's Research & Scholarship category.
Department of Energy have renewed funding for the Open Science Grid project, providing $27 million from 2012 to 2016. Through this grant, IU will improve the performance of oceanic computer models, which scientists use to protect millions of people living near coasts around the world. The 25th annual award recognizes organizations around the world that exemplify operational and strategic excellence in information technology. IU's Chris Maurer and Lynn Ward received the honor along with former employee Lance Speelmon. IU's eTexts initiative enables faculty to optionally choose these digital textbooks and online exercises at reduced prices for students. The intent is to strengthen the nation's position as a global leader in research and education for decades to come, and at the same time help control higher education costs. The spiders commonly seen out in the open during the day are unlikely to bite people.A IDENTIFICATIONSpiders resemble insects and sometimes are confused with them, but they are arachnids, not insects. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes.
Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases. Maria Simbra of KDKA Pittsburgh Publicly tell the World, on the Internet and TV, whether AHN murders healthy patients for organs, via fabricated diagnosis, fraudulent life-support, torture thereby, and Morphine overdose. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions).
Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests.
Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low.
Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law.
On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent.
Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch.
The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W. Typically, returning visitors browse more pages and convert more often when coming back to a website after their first time.
Through this blog post, we will show how to upload image ads into your campaign for remarketing purposes.
Having this tag active and installed on your website is required in order to pool your remarketing list.
Please keep in mind that when adding image ads, Google usually puts those through a review process.
Then, as you gain a sense for why some content fails and other content succeeds, you integrate what you’ve learned into your process. In terms of links, a placement could mean dofollow, cocitation, nofollow, or text attribution. To date, this campaign has amassed nearly 900 placements, including links from high-authority sites such as BuzzFeed, Huffington Post, MTV, and Vice Motherboard.
This study definitely surprised readers with a shocking finding: The nicest hotels had the most germs. We found a correlation between high average domain authority and content topics with mass appeal.
A nofollow link on a high-authority site can lead to syndication on hundreds of other sites that will give dofollow links. Pitting two or more things against one another fuels discussion around the content, which can lead to more placements. Since most travelers have lived through at least one terrible airport experience, the content was extremely relatable too.
In addition to broad appeal, geography-focused topics help attract interest from international and regional publishers, thus securing additional links. Geek-culture themes, such as comic books and sci-fi movies, tend to attract a lot of attention thanks to rabid fan bases. It is a cloud based video editing service that allows you to maintain full creative control between yourself and your team.
You put in the words you want to say, and it creates an animation that can be shared with anyone. Magisto takes your chosen video, allows you to add enhancements and a theme, and put in a sound track.
You don’t have to deal with any complicated software or gimmicks, just give it a little time.
Schopf officially joined the Office of the Vice President for Information Technology and CIO on Aug. Representatives from Courseload and IU accepted the award at the IMS Global Learning Impact 2013 conference. Keyes, professor of applied mathematics and computational science at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia, will be the keynote speaker. The event will let SDN Lab members test the interoperability of their products with Big Switch Networks' commercial controller, the Big Network Controller. The Department of Homeland Security awarded a $23.6 million grant to the Morgridge Institute for Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to create the Software Assurance Marketplace, which, over the next five years, will work closely with developers of new software analysis technology and the open source community to advance the security of software. DCII will be used for a range of applications, including management of massive research data sets, high-scale data analysis, genomic sequencing and computational visualization. Named Big Red II, the next-generation Cray XK supercomputer will be capable of one thousand trillion floating-point operations per second, or one petaFLOPS.
The university will carry out the pilot trials during a two-year evaluation period to assess the technologies that can best support the changing needs of students and faculty. Indiana University will receive $3.82 million of the award to continue running OSG's Operations Center, highlighting IU's noted expertise in grid computing and ability to deliver a reliable, secure, easy-to-use environment. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. Keystone Rehabilitation Systems KFC Klauscher Architects Knights of Columbus Council #1400 Jonathon Kohler, DDS P.C.
Monda, DMD Mount Assisi Academy PreschoolMount Zion Baptist Church Mt Assisi Convent Mt Nazareth Center Muddy Cup Coffee House Lisa M. Hickton was involved in a wide range of community activities, and has long been an active supporter of and participant in organizations which benefit children and the arts. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans.


Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000.
More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead.
Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr.
Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States.
He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel.
That said, remarketing can be an extremely powerful tool when working to increase the ROAS (return on ad spend) of your pay-per-click marketing efforts.
Broad topics appeal to a greater range of publishers, thus increasing the number of relevant high-authority sites your content can be placed on. Then post it on the site where you can share with others looking for content just like yours. Thomas Sterling, professor of informatics and computing at Indiana University and executive associate director of IU's Center for Research in Extreme Scale Technologies, will deliver the closing address. Next.IU launched in fall 2012 with exploratory studies of Instructure's Canvas learning management system (LMS) and CourseNetworking's social media-based learning environment.
Equipment from SDN switch vendors Dell, Extreme Networks, HP, IBM and NEC as well as SDN testing manufacturers Ixia and Spirent will be tested at the event. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. He is a past Executive Board Member of the Pittsburgh Public Theater, and served as its President. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register.
Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture.
While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G. Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black.
449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
These are the types of questions we ask, and then we use the related data to create better content. Although spiders often are found on plants, they eat mainly insects, other spiders, and related arthropods, not plants. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996.
And like any real estate, content is an asset you create for your company, not a cost center..
Williams, IU's first director of international networking, who is retiring after a 30-year career at the university. The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate. However, only those spiders whose venom typically causes a serious reaction in humans are called a€?poisonousa€? spiders. The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. Common Spider Families in North America.Agelenidae, funnel weavers or grass spidersSit-and-wait predators feed during the day and night on the ground in most types of vegetation, including low-growing plants and trees.
Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
Spin funnel-shaped webs, often with several-inch-wide, flat extension covering plants or soil. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. When it detects vibrations from an insect that flew or walked into the web, the spider runs out, captures and bites the prey, then carries it back into the funnel to be eaten. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
About 300 species in North America.Araneidae, orb weavers or garden spidersFeed on insects that fly, fall, or are blown into web.
Spiderlings often make symmetrical webs; mature spiders may spin a more specialized design that is helpful in identifying certain species. The spider rests at the center of its web or hides in a shelter near the edge, waiting for prey to become entangled. Orb weavers generally have poor vision and rely on web vibrations to locate and identify prey. About 200 species in North America.Clubionidae (including Corinnidae), sac spiders or twoclawed hunting spidersStalk and capture prey that is walking or resting on surfaces.
As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.
They spin silken tubes or sacs under bark, among leaves, and in low plants or on the ground, where they hide during the day or retreat after hunting. About 200 species in North America.Linyphiidae (=Microphantidae), dwarf spidersPrey on insects that fall, walk, or land in their web. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide.
On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. They produce sheetlike webs on the surface of plants or soil and are common in some field and vegetable crops. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Several hundred species in North America.Lycosidae, wolf spidersPrey on insects that are walking or resting on the ground.
Actively hunt in the open during the day and night, often observed on the ground in litter and on low vegetation. Have a distinctive pattern of eyes: four small eyes in front in a straight row, one middle pair of larger eyes, and one rear pair of widely spaced eyes on top of the head. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. They are usually black and white or strongly contrasting light and dark, which can make them difficult to discern unless they are moving. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. About 200 species in North America.Oxyopidae, lynx spidersStalk and capture resting or walking insects. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
About 2 dozen known species in North America.Salticidae, jumping spidersDay-active hunters in plants or on the ground.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. They make no web; instead they stalk and pounce on prey by jumping distances many times their body length. About 300 species in North America.Theridiidae, cobweb, cobweb weaver, or combfooted spidersFeed on insects that walk or fly into their webs. Almost always found hanging upside down by their claws in irregularly spun, sticky webs, waiting for prey. The spider is usually concealed in a corner of the web, in a silken tent, or behind debris. This group includes the black widow spider, which produces relatively thick silk that feels rough and sticky. Over 200 species in North America.Thomisidae, crab spiders or flower spidersStalk and capture insects walking or resting on surfaces. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary.
Front two pairs of legs are enlarged and extend beyond the side of their flattened body, making them look like tiny crabs. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Their small eyes occur in two slightly curved rows, with the top row often much wider than the lower row.
Over 200 species in North America.Spider BitesUnlike mosquitoes, spiders do not seek people in order to bite them. Generally, a spider doesna€™t try to bite a person unless it has been squeezed, laid on, or similarly provoked to defend itself. Moreover, the jaws of most spiders are so small that the fangs cannot penetrate the skin of an adult person. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. Sometimes when a spider is disturbed in its web, it may bite instinctively because it mistakenly senses that an insect has been caught.The severity of a spider bite depends on factors such as the kind of spider, the amount of venom injected, and the age and health of the person bitten. A spider bite might cause no reaction at all, or it might result in varying amounts of itching, redness, stiffness, swelling, and paina€”at worst, usually no more severe than a bee sting.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.
Like reactions to bee stings, however, people vary in their responses to spider bites, so if the bite of any spider causes an unusual or severe reaction, such as increasing pain or extreme swelling, contact a physician, hospital, or poison control center (in California, the number is 1-800-222-1212).Sometimes a person may not be aware of having been bitten until pain and other symptoms begin to develop.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Scratching can break the skin and introduce bacterial infection, which you or even a physician may mistake for an arachnid bite.
Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. If you catch the critter in the act, save it for identification, preserve it (or whatever parts of it remain), and take it to your county UC Cooperative Extension office. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If no one there can identify it, ask that it be forwarded to a qualified arachnologist.Black Widow SpiderThe black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, is the most common harmful spider in California.
Venom from its bite can cause reactions ranging from mild to painful and serious, but death is very unlikely and many symptoms can be alleviated if medical treatment is obtained. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs.
Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. Only the larger immature female and adult female spiders are able to bite through a persona€™s skin and inject enough venom to cause a painful reaction.The adult male black widow is one-half to two-thirds the length of the female, has a small abdomen, and is seldom noticed.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. The top side of its abdomen is olive-greenish gray with a pattern of cream-colored areas and one light-colored band going lengthwise down the middle. The hourglass mark on the underside of the abdomen typically is yellow or yellow-orange and broad waisted.
A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
Contrary to popular belief, the female black widow rarely eats the male after mating but may do so if hungry. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory.
In the early stages they greatly resemble males but gradually acquire the typical female coloration with each shedding of the skin. In intermediate stages they have tan or cream-colored, olive-gray, and orange markings on the top side of the abdomen, a yellowish orange hourglass mark on the underside, and banded legs.Webs and Egg Sacs. The web of the black widow is an irregular, tough-stranded, sticky cobweb mesh in which the spider hangs with its underside up.
During the day it often hides under an object at the edge of the web or stays in a silken retreat in the center. The black widow may rush out of its hiding place when the web is disturbed, especially if egg sacs are present. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory.
The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Tiny, young black widows, which are nearly white in color, disperse to new locations by ballooning and infest new areas.Where the Spiders Live. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.
People are most likely to be bitten when they disturb the spider while they are cleaning out or picking up items in such places. A sensible precaution is to always wear gloves and a long-sleeved shirt when working in areas that have been undisturbed for a time and where there are good hiding places for spiders.Effects of the Bite.
The symptoms of a black widow bite are largely internal; little more than local redness and swelling may develop at the bite site.
Pain tends to spread from the bite to other parts of the body and muscular spasms may develop.
Other effects can include profuse sweating, fever, increased blood pressure, difficulty breathing and speaking, restlessness, and nausea. Typically, the pain and other symptoms reach a maximum within a day of the bite, then gradually subside over the next 2 to 3 days.
Most people who are bitten spend a few hours under observation by a physician but do not develop symptoms severe enough to require treatment.
Small children, the elderly, and persons with health problems are likely to suffer some of the more severe consequences of the bite.
This spider is light yellow and has a slightly darker stripe on the upper middle of the abdomen. The eight eyes of this spider are all about equal in size and arranged in two horizontal rows.Yellow sac spiders can be seen running on walls and ceilings at night and quickly drop to the floor to escape if they are disturbed. Bites usually occur when the spider becomes trapped against a persona€™s skin in clothing or bedding.
It is estimated that sac spiders are responsible for more bites on people than any other spider.
Typical symptoms of a bite include initial pain, redness, and sometimes swelling.Recluse SpidersRecluse spiders of the genus Loxosceles include the well-known brown recluse spider, L. While the brown recluse has occasionally been brought into California in household furnishings, firewood, and motor vehicles, it does not reside in the state.
In any case, bites from the desert recluse are rare and no bites from the Chilean recluse have ever been recorded in California despite its presence in heavily populated urban areas. Both the native desert recluse spider and the Chilean recluse spider occur principally in the drier areas of southern California.Recluse spiders can have a violin-shaped mark (with the neck of the violin pointing backward) on the top side of the head region (cephalothorax). However, the mark is not always distinct, so it should not be used as an identifying character. A unique feature of recluse spiders is their six eyes, arranged in pairs in a semicircle, which can be seen with the use of a good hand lens. Most other spiders have eight eyes.All recluse spiders make large, irregular, flattened, cobweb-type webs with thick strands extending in all directions. These spiders avoid light, are active at night, and tend to build their webs in out-of-the-way places. Chilean recluse spiders may be found indoors in boxes, in corners, behind pictures, in old clothing hanging undisturbed, and in other similar places. The female spiders are black with red on the top side of the abdomen whereas the males are all red.
Some poisonous tarantulas occur in tropical parts of the world, but the bites of California tarantulas are not likely to be seriousa€”at worst, they are similar to a bee sting. However, because of the variety of tarantulas sold in the pet trade industry, there is a spectrum of venom potencies among these creatures. These spiders ranges from 1 to 2 inches in body size.The hobo spider, Tegenaria agrestis, also called the aggressive house spider, is a common spider in the Pacific Northwest. It builds funnel-shaped webs in dark, moist areas such as basements, window wells, wood piles, and around the perimeter of homes. The hobo spider has not been documented in California, but it has expanded its range from the Pacific Northwest to northern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado. Although it has been stated as being a poisonous spider, recent research is challenging the original data that elevated this spider to medical importance. Another is the marbled cellar spider, Holocnemus pluchei, which was introduced into the state in the 1970s and has since displaced the once common longbodied cellar spider, Pholcus phalangioides , a long-legged spider that resembles a daddy-longlegs. Often these are fully grown wolf spider or tarantula males that have reached maturity and are searching for females. New houses and other structures in developments may be invaded by wolf spiders that have lost their usual outdoor living places. The more insects that exist inside a building, the more likely it is to have spiders living there.
Immature and adult female burrow-living spiders sometimes wander for a time during the rainy season if they have had to abandon wet burrows.A MANAGEMENTRemember that spiders are primarily beneficial and their activities should be encouraged in the garden. The best approach to controlling spiders in and around the home is to remove hiding spots for secretive spiders such as black widows and regularly clean webs off the house with brushes and vacuums.A Prevention and Nonchemical ControlSpiders may enter houses and other structures through cracks and other openings. Regular vacuuming or sweeping of windows, corners of rooms, storage areas, basements, and other seldom used areas helps remove spiders and their webs. Vacuuming spiders can be an effective control technique because their soft bodies usually do not survive this process. Good screening not only will keep out many spiders but also will discourage them by keeping out insects that they must have for food.In indoor storage areas, place boxes off the floor and away from walls, whenever possible, to help reduce their usefulness as a harborage for spiders.
Be sure to wear gloves to avoid accidental bites.Outdoors, eliminate places for spiders to hide and build their webs by keeping the area next to the foundation free of trash, leaf litter, heavy vegetation, and other accumulations of materials.
Trimming plant growth away from the house and other structures will discourage spiders from first taking up residence near the structure and then moving indoors. Insecticides will not provide long-term control and should not generally be used against spiders outdoors.A Chemical ControlTypically pesticide control of spiders is difficult unless you actually see the spider and are able to spray it. There are various insecticides available in retail outlets labeled for spider control, including pyrethrins, resmethrin, allethrin, or combinations of these products.
If you spray a spider, it will be killed only if the spray lands directly on it; the spray residual does not have a long-lasting effect.
This means a spider can walk over a sprayed surface a few days (and in many cases, a few hours) after treatment and not be affected. It is just as easy and much less toxic to crush the spider with a rolled up newspaper or your shoe or to vacuum it up. Sticky traps offer a noninsecticidal way to remove spiders from your home as long as you can place the traps where pets and curious children cana€™t tamper with them.Sorptive dusts containing amorphous silica gel (silica aerogel) and pyrethrins, which can be applied by professional pest control applicators only, may be useful in certain indoor situations.
Particles of the dust affect the outer covering of spiders (and also insects) that have crawled over a treated surface, causing them to dry out. When applied as a dustlike film and left in place, a sorptive dust provides permanent protection against spiders.




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