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14.02.2014
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York. I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school. The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909. Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842.
In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man. 10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think. Description: In 1507, the copper plates used for the 1490 Rome edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia were reprinted, together with six new maps, either by the printer Bernard Venetus de Vitalibus or the editor Evangelista Tosinus.
Although there had been maps created after these voyages, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s map of the world in 1500 (based on Columbusa€™ second voyage, #305) and the Cantino world map (circa 1502, #306), these maps were not widely known in Europe outside of the professional circles of mariners and government officials for up to fifteen years.
The oldest printed maps showing America (as opposed to one-of-a-kind a€?manuscripta€? or hand-drawn maps) are the world maps of Giovanni Matteo Contarini (#308), the one produced by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310) and this map by Ruysch. This map by Ruysch first appeared as an addition to the issue of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, originally published at Rome in 1507 and 1508, together with a commentary written by an Italian monk named Marcus Beneventanus, under the title of Orbis nouo descriptio.
Excepting these excerpts, the Orbis nova descriptio of Marcus Beneventanus only contains an exhibition of learning, which is now quite worthless, but which was perhaps necessary, at that time, as an introduction for the new world to her older sisters: Asia, Europe, and Africa. While Ruysch is believed by some historians to have been with John Cabot on his famous voyage of 1497, his map makes no direct mention of the Cabots. There are several advanced features of this map that are the work of a virtually unknown cartographer. With the exception of some small maps based on the cosmographical speculations of the ancients, and inserted in the works of Macrobius, Sacrobosco and others (#201), along with the Contarini and WaldseemA?ller maps (#308 and #310), it is one of the first printed maps representing Africa as a peninsula encompassed by the ocean (Note: the Chinese had been displaying Africa in this manner for over 100 years prior to this map, see #227 and #236). Ruyscha€™s map is the first map published in print on which India is drawn as a triangular peninsula projecting from the south coast of Asia and bordered on the north by the rivers Indus and Ganges. Zimpangu [Japan], which was shown prominently in mid-Pacific on the Contarini-Rosselli map is omitted completely by Ruysch.
Ruysch has produced the first printed map on which the delineation of the interior and eastern parts of Asia is no longer based exclusively on the material collected by Marinus of Tyre and Ptolemy more than a millennium previously, but on more modern reports, especially those of Marco Polo. The exaggerated extension given by Ptolemy to the Mediterranean is much reduced here by Ruysch, from 62 to 53 degrees, the actual difference of longitude between Gibraltar and the western coast of Syria amounting to only 41 or 42 degrees. The map of Ruysch is the first map published in print that, following a correction made in the portolanos since the beginning of the 14th century, leaves out that excessive projection towards the east, which characterizes Ptolemya€™s map of the northern part of Scotland. In Northern Europe, the church Sancti Odulfi shown on Ruyscha€™s map, is not the church in VardA?, Finnmark, but the cathedral in Trondheim.
Ruysch drew his map as a planisphere on a modified equidistant conical projection with its apex at the North Pole which is another remarkable feature.
With respect to the New World, the most notable innovation in Ruyscha€™s map is the representation of the western discoveries. Directly south of Gruenlant the following inscription gives warning of the dangers encountered by fishermen in that region: It is said that those who came formerly in ships among these islands for fish and other food were so deceived by the demons that they could not go on land without danger. Another interesting, but almost illegible, inscription near Gruenlant reads: Hic compassus navium non tenet nec naves quA¦ ferum tenent revertere valent. The Ruysch map is instructive concerning the location of Greenland on late 15th century maps and those of the 16th century. Some of Ruyscha€™s inland Asian data was extrapolated from Poloa€™s description of his trip from Peking to Bengal, which he says he made as an emissary for Kublai Khan. As regards the continental regions south of Newfoundland, and discovered by the Spaniards and Portuguese, Ruysch was clearly of the opinion that they were entirely distinct from Newfoundland or the pseudo Asiatic country which he had visited and delineated; and that they constituted a new world, as yet imperfectly known, particularly regarding its west coast. Ruyscha€™s map positions a large island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean between latitude 37 and 40 degrees north. Both Japan and Antilia were described by the influential Italian humanist Paolo Toscanelli in his famous letter of 1474 to King Philip of Portugal, a copy of which Columbus read. This island of Antilia was discovered by the Portuguese, and now when it is sought it is not found.
Later, not having been found in the Atlantic, the Seven Cities were sought on the American mainland, where they remained an elusive goal of riches-hungry Spanish explorers through much of the 16th century.
While Ruysch undoubtedly believed that the lands seen by the Cabots and Corte-Reals were part of Asia, he thought that the coasts explored by Columbus, Vincente Pinzon, Cabral, and others belonged to a continent separated from Asia by a stretch of open sea. The unnamed northwestern continental land in Ruysch is also far less complete than we find it depicted in the Caveri map (#307); and it is certain, from its shape and position, that if Ruyscha€™s prototype had presented a coast line extending, for instance, so far south as 10 degrees north latitude, he would not have cut it off at ten degrees.
Most of Ruyscha€™s Asian data comes from Poloa€™s description of his return to the West from China. From Zaiton they travelled a€?1500 milesa€? across a gulf to a country called Chamba, which is plotted here slightly inland as CIAMBA. On the margin of the map, near the North Pole, is another interesting inscription referring to the magnetic pole, which it is said was first located by the English friar Nicolas de Linna, who made a voyage to the north in 1355 and presented to Edward III of England an account of his discovery, with the title, Inventio fortunat. The basis of the entire Ruysch map, according to the historian Henry Harrisse, was a purely Lusitanian planisphere, similar to those of Cantino and Caveri (#306 and #307), but constructed after the former and before the latter; that is, between 1502 and 1504, as we have shown in a comparative description of the continental region which is north of Central America in Portuguese charts. There are in the section of the map delineating the New World, two very distinct parts, based upon data of similar origin, one of which, however, was modified in a most important respect. But as Ruysch had himself visited the northern part of Newfoundland on board an English vessel, and acquired from experience positive data concerning the situation of that peninsula, as he calls it: qui peninsulae Terra Noua uocatA¦, without having the same reasons as Gaspar Corte Real to place it in the middle of the Atlantic, within the Portuguese Line of Demarcation, Ruysch, following the charts used by his English companions, brought Newfoundland close to the western continent. Terra Nova, one of the earliest uses of this term for the modern Newfoundland, appears as a large peninsula jutting out from the mainland of Asia, although on some copies of the map, because of wear or creases, it may appear to be depicted as an island. This is sometimes interpreted to be another element of British influence, as the variation of the compass orientation had been noted by Cabot on his second voyage. Meanwhile, it behooves us to show the Portuguese origin of his geographical data, south of what Ruysch names Terra Nova, which, with him, does not mean the New World, or the country newly discovered, but present-day Newfoundland exclusively; in imitation of the English mariners with whom he visited that island. To that effect, Harrisse compares the nomenclature of the region placed in Ruyscha€™s mappamundi, south of his Terra Nova, with the names inscribed on the northwestern continental land in the Cantino and Caveri maps, both of which are of the Lusitanian map tradition, with no admixture of foreign geographical elements whatever. Ruysch inscribes thirty-six names on his map, but not one of them is to be found either in the de la Cosa map or in any other Spanish map whatever; while thirty-one out of its whole number are duly set forth either in the Cantino (#306), or Kunstmann No. Ruyscha€™s delineations of the South American continent embrace likewise, the coasts of Venezuela and Honduras, which were discovered by Spanish navigators, who, of course, made maps of their discoveries. The configuration of the continental land that corresponds with the northwestern region of the Cantino map is distorted in that map, but perfectly recognizable on Ruyscha€™s. M Polo says that 1500 miles to the east of the port of Zaiton there is a very large island named Sipagu . In a fascinating example of how a geographic misunderstanding can assume a life of its own, Donald McGuirk has demonstrated how Ruyscha€™s hybrid Hispaniola-Japan was transformed into an atypical representation of Japan four years later by Bernard Sylvanus (#318).
In Ruyscha€™s Caribbean there lies a strange triangular landmass, undefined on its western coast, in the position one would expect to find Cuba.
This was one of the first printed maps to show any part of the New World and may also be one of the first to include information on that continent from first-hand knowledge. In the state that preceded a€?state onea€? there was a smaller island within this space and it was labeled CVBA. The southern coastline of Newfoundland continues directly west to the land of Gog and Magog, and thence south to Cathay. Rather than forgetting Cuba, it is obvious that Ruysch deliberated at great length as to how Cuba should be represented.
Below Antilia lies LE XI MIL VIRGINE [(Islands of) the Eleven Thousand Virgins], an early reference to the Virgin Islands named by Columbus for the story of St.
On South Americaa€™s northern coast is the GOLFO DE PAREAS that Columbus believed lay at the foothills of Paradise.
Nearly blocking the entrance to Columbusa€™ fountainhead of Paradise, the Gulf of Paria, is CANIBALOS IN [Trinidad], introducing to maps the cannibalism which Columbus reported about the Carib islanders.
In this long inscription in the interior of Terra Sancte Crucis sive Mundus Novus here for the first time, Ruysch describes the inhabitants and natural products of the country following the letters of Vespucci and other sources. Portuguese navigators have inspected this part of this land, and have sailed as far as the fiftieth degree of south latitude without seeing the southern limit of it.
As far as this Spanish navigators have come, and they have called this land, on account of its greatness, the New World. On the east coast of South America is the interesting name Abatia Aµniu sactoru, or All Saints Abbey. Then, where did Ruysch pick up the egregious mistake that transformed A baia de todos Sanctos [All-Saints Bay] into Abatia omnium Sanctorum [AIl Saints Abbey]? Thus far the Spanish sailors have come, and because of its magnitude they call it a new world, for indeed they have not seen the whole of it nor at this time have they explored beyond this limit. The Portuguese, of course, had also a€?come this far.a€? Their discovery of Brazil in 1500 was significant because it was rich in trade potential and because it clearly lay on their side of the papal demarcation line.
The Ruysch map is classified by the historian Henry Harrisse as a Type III within the Lusitano-Germanic Group of new world maps (the only specimen that Harrisse places in this Type). While one of the more widely circulated of all the printed maps from this period, none have exercised so little influence over the cartography of the New World as this mappamundi.
As mentioned above, Ruyscha€™s world map more usually appears in the 1508 printing of the Rome Ptolemy. It is evident, from what has already been said, that Ruysch deserves to be placed in the first rank among the reformers of cartography. Beans, George H., a€?The Ruysch World map in its earliest known state,a€? Imago Mundi V (1948), 72. Swan, B., a€?The Ruysch Map of the World (1507-1508),a€? Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 45 (1951), 219-236.
The oldest printed maps showing America (as opposed to one-of-a-kind a€?manuscripta€? or hand-drawn maps) are the world maps of Giovanni Matteo Contarini (#308), the one produced by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310) and this map by Ruysch.A  While Contarinia€™s and WaldseemA?llera€™s maps, printed as individual sheets, have fallen victim to the ravages of time, and only a single copy of each is known to have survived, a number of copies of Ruyscha€™s map, which was printed as a plate in an atlas, are preserved today. DESCRIPTION:This seminal work was initially compiled in manuscript form on vellum, with drawings in red and black. The author, a seventh century Bishop of Seville (Spain), leaned heavily himself on classical writers, as well as the teachings of the Church Fathers.
In view of the extraordinary influence of this treatise, the following excepts (the translation is taken from G.
Concerning the earth we are told that it is named from its roundness (orbis) which is like a wheel; whence the small wheel is called a€?orbiculusa€?. As to size, Isidore accepts Eratosthenesa€™ estimate (via Macrobius) of 252,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth. The Ancients did not divide these three parts of the world equally, for Asia stretches right from the south, through the east to the north, but Europe stretches from the north to the west and thence Africa from the west to the south.
Interestingly, Isidore was the first writer to clearly define the Mediterranean by that proper name.
It contains many provinces and districts whose names and geographical situations I will briefly describe, beginning from Paradise . This obvious Biblical note coming so early in the topographical section of the treatise might lead the reader to expect its continuance in subsequent chapters; but apart from one or two entirely understandable references to Biblical lore - Scythia and Gothia also are said to have been named by Magog, son of Japhet and the River Ganges which sacred scripture calls Phison, flows down from Paradise to the realms of India - only the most sparing use of this source is made.
In the extreme east of Asia the country of Seres is rich in fine leaves, from which are cut fleeces which the natives who decline the merchandise of other peoples sell for use as garments .
Europe, in the true classical fashion, is divided from Asia by the river Tanais [todaya€™s Don] and is bordered on the north by the Northern Ocean. Moreover beyond [these] three parts of the world, on the other side of the ocean, is a fourth inland part in the south, which is unknown to us because of the heat of the sun, within the bounds of which the Antipodes are fabulously said to dwell. This concession by Isidore as expressed in the brief quote above indicated that he more than half believed in the sphericity of the earth and quite fully in the doctrine of the Antipodes.
As far as his own graphic expression of the worlda€™s geography, one of the map designs frequently associated with Isidore of Seville is actually a survival of the ancient Greek tripartite division of the world into Asia, Africa and Europe, surrounded by the Ocean Sea. The T within the O produced a world image divided into half (by the cross of the T) and two quarters. Regardless of experience and all knowledge to the contrary, the most important city regionally was located in the center of the habitable world. In addition to the usual tripartite circular map of the world, some manuscripts of the Etymologiarum feature other map designs as well.
Caius Crispus Sallustius, generally known as Sallust (86-34 BCE) was a Roman senator and historian, who subsequent to his falling out with the Caesar, was sent to Africa as a governor of Numidia (In the north-west of Africa}. He produced his most important works on the conspiracy of Catiline and the war of Rome with Jugurtha. The Medes and Armenians connected them selves with the Libyans who dwelled near the African sea, while the Getulians lay more to the sun, not far from the torrid heats; and these soon built themselves towns, as, being separated from Spain only by a strait, they proceeded to open an intercourse with its inhabitants. Some copies of Sallusts manuscripts, which have reached us, do also include a simple T-O map, which relates to his narrative of the Jugurthine War. As mentioned above, Sallusta€™s works were copied and re-copied and were in use until the late medieval period and many of the later copies of his manuscripts have reached us.
Sallust mappamundi, ninth century, a€?University of Leipzig Library, Leipzig, Germany, MS 1607, f.
Since Sallust was the governor of Numidia, he has naturally paid more attention to the details of this continent. In the bodies of water dividing the world into the three continents, the Mediterranean bears no legend. Another variation of the basic Isidorean design was called the Byzantine-Oxford, or B-O T-O maps. More prominently than in any other example of the biblical school, the Holy Land dominates the center of the map. The map was brought back to England or Ireland after the First Crusade, which conquered Jerusalem in 1099. Christian scholars adopted the T-O map for its simplicity, as had the classical writers who first employed it. These T-O maps, whether actually contained in the Etymologiarum of Isidore, in later editions of the same, as modified derivatives thereof (Sallusts, B-O T-O), or as maps that were merely influenced by the basic design format (Hereford, Ebstorf, et.
At the Benedictine monastery of Thorney in East Anglia, a large and elegant computus book was finished in 1110, designed to be an ornament of the newly completed church. The continents are arranged with Asia at the top, Europe apparently in the center and Africa in the southwest corner. Like the map within the rota of sunrises and sunsets, this is a T-O map with Asia in the top half, and Europe and Africa in the lower half. In form, content and function, MS 17a€™s map represents a recent development in medieval cartography. On the other hand, this mappamundi is also closely connected in content and context to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram on fol. But there is also a particularly insular connection between computus and universal geography, one that is connected to the debates over the correct system of calculating Easter that marked the early years of Christianity in England. Schematic maps of the oikumene of the T-O type are often embedded in computus diagrams as a shorthand representation of the earth; zone maps illustrating the climates of the earth, derived from Macrobiusa€™ Commentum in Somnium Scipionis (#201), appear in anthologies of cosmographic materials as illustrations of passages from Isidore (cf. In about 1446-1451 Jean Mansel composed a universal history titled La fleur des histoires, and then in the 1460s wrote a longer version of the same work. The map is placed at the start of the prologue to Book IV, in which a description of the regions of the world is given in alphabetical order.
The name gorgato recalls the medieval Latin gargata and Old French gargate, meaning a€?throat,a€? perhaps alluding to the creaturea€™s voracious nature, but these monsters seem to have been invented by the cartographer. The T-O map tradition did not die out as a cartographic form of expression until as late as the 17th century, as may be seen from a book such as the Variae Orbis Universi, by Petrus Bertius, 1628.
The Matenadaran archive collection in Yerevan, capital of Armenia, contains some 14,000 manuscripts from the golden age of Armenian literature, beginning in the 5th century, and from later periods. One exception to the general lack of maps in the Yerevan archives is MS 1242, a collection of eighteen unrelated essays on religious, moral, mathematical and astronomical subjects dating mainly from the 13th to the 15th centuries. The map on folio 132r can be described as of the T - O type, but its construction has been modified. Also as in many maps of the T-O genre, the centre is occupied by the Holy City of Jerusalem, which is shown with its six gates, each inscribed with its name in Armenian. In both shape and arrangement, the city sign is akin to that on the Hereford mapparnundi, c.1290 (#226), although it lacks the enclosing crenulated walls of the Hereford map sign. As shown in the following Table, in addition to Jerusalem, twenty-seven place- names are found on the map. The inscription to the left of the stem of the T, below the triangle formed by three dots, reads, Ays koghms Eropa [This side is Europe].
The Red Sea [Karmir] dzov; only the word sea is legible on the map) is shown as a bold open circle on the borders of Africa and Asia.
The division between Europe and Asia, normally marked with the horizontal crossbar of the T, here is demarcated with a single red line and is more complex. In keeping with T-O maps in general, the greater part of the Armenian map is allocated to Asia, inscribed Ays koghms Asia [This side is Asia].
In the east, in the upper part of the map close to the Ocean are the names Khaytai [China] and Zaytun [Zaytun], another Chinese trading port city.
The presence of these toponyms in the area between Europe and China bears witness to the importance of these towns and provinces in trade and commerce between East and West and is perhaps indicative of the period of the mapa€™s creation.
There is nothing, then, untoward in the inclusion on the Armenian map of Sara (Sarai), a city founded only in the 1240s by Batu Khan, the grandson of Mongol leader Gangiz Khan, who took over the territory of southern Russia and its Turkic speaking peoples during the early 13th century. Khachaturian also proposed that based on palaeographic evidence, the map was made in the Cilician Kingdom of Armenia during the Crusades, unfortunately not specifying which Crusade. Caffa, the first town listed in the row of toponyms along the northeastern periphery of the map, was only a small Crimean seaside town until the 13th century. The presence of the name Caffa on the map is a strong indication that the map was made during the citya€™s heyday, namely in the 14th century.
Since, in my view, the map has to postdate both the establishment of Sarai-Batu and Sarai-Berke (New Sarai, established 1257-1266) and the time when Caffa became an important conurbation, it cannot be dated to earlier than the third quarter of the 13th century. While the majority of T-O maps produced in the Christian West depict Armenia, Mount Ararat and Noaha€™s Ark, this Armenian mapmaker has chosen not to mention any of these Armenian features.
In the end, the absence of reference on the Armenian map to Armenia itself or to any of its immediate neighbors, such as Persia and Assyria, is more puzzling. The existence of this Armenian language T-O map, though, may be owed simply to the curiosity of an individual whose interest in Western maps and literature would have been a sufficient reason for him to create a map of his own in line with those of the Western mapmakers of the time, leaving us an Armenian map as remarkable for its uniqueness as for the hints it gives of the interconnections underlying the T-O maps and the mappaemundi of the West. This is a very late example of a T-O world map, probably made in Bruges in 1482 for King Edward IV, the founder of the old Royal Library. 205CT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm dia, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut.
205CCDiagram map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 9th century, 24 cm square, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 210, f.
205DD Isidore mappamundi, unknown, 11th century, 26 cm dia, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 10058, f.
205ET-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, Santarem s Atlas compose de mappemondes . 205GG Circular Plan of Jerusalem, unknown, 13th century, 26 cm diameter, British Library, Additional MS. 205HT-O Sallust map from Bellum Jugurthinum, unknown, 14th century, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, Fond. 205HH Reverse T-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 12th century, 19 cm diameter, Cathedral Curch of Exeter, MS. 205JJT-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 9th century, 12.5 cm diameter, Burgerbibliothek, Bern, Codex 417, fol. 205LLSallust T-O map from De bello Jugurthino, West oriented, unknown, 6.8 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS.
205MT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 8th century, 22 X 29 cm, Vatican Library, MS Vat.
205MM Sallust T-O map with symmetrical rivers, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, MS. 205NSallust T-O map, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge MS. 205OT-O Sallust map, unknown, 13th century, 4.3 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS Lat.
205QT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm diameter, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut.
205TT-O and -V maps from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 12th century, 7.2 cm diameter, BnF, Manuscrits (Latin 10293 fol.
205TTT-O world map by Chatillon, Gautier de Chatillon, 13th century, 7 cm diameter, Bodleian Library, MS Bod. 205V1Gauthier de Chatillon mappimundi, Alexandreis, Gauthier de Chatillon, 13th century, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Francais 11334, fol.
205WY-O map from Macrobiusa€™ Commentarium in somnium Scipionis, unknown, 12th century, 8.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205YT-O map from MS of Commentary on the Apocalypse of Saint John (Beatus), unknown, 11th century, 4.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205ZT-O map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 12th century, 8.1 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China.
Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre. In addition to the new regional maps, this rare new map of the world by Johann Ruysch is sometimes found in advance of its normal appearance in the Ptolemy atlas the following year. Only a few copies of these maps survive not simply because they were manuscript rather than printed maps, but also because they were often regarded as state secrets. It is at any rate a remarkable fact that every time Beneventanus deigns to descend from his pedestal of learning, he communicates a fact of great importance to the history of geographical discovery. Johannes Ruysch was born around the year 1460 in Utrecht, which is now located in the Netherlands. Cape Race, which appeared on La Cosaa€™s map (#305) as Cavo de Ynglaterra, on Ruyscha€™s map is called C. Apart from the fact that Ruysch was from Utrecht and sojourned in Cologne, little is known of him.
The southern point of Africa moreover is here placed on a nearly correct latitude, thus giving a tolerably exact form to that part of the world.
Even though it has not yet received its full extension as a peninsula, yet an important deviation from Ptolemya€™s geography is thus made on the map to a part of the world to which almost a privilegium exclusivum of knowledge was attributed to the ancients.
Various new names are here added in Scytia intra Imaum, such as Tartaria Magna and Wolha [Volga], and an immense, quite new territory, an Asia extra Ptolemaeum, or Asia Alarci Pauli Veneti, is added beyond the eastern limits of Ptolemya€™s oikumene [known world]. In its plane state the map appears as an opened fan with the curved, or southern edge, at the bottom.
Ruysch depicts the North Polar regions with some geographical basis for the first time and it is believed that the famous Gerhard Mercator was influenced by the map when he prepared the circular inset of the Arctic on his great world map of 1569 (#407). However, his map is also a mixture of tradition, new information, and misleading conjecture. An inscription describing nearby islands warns that sailors who had gone to them had been tricked by demons. He labels the waters within the four islands as the Mare Sugenum, and speaks of a violent whirlpool that sucks the incoming waters down into the earth; in addition, his map shows a ring of small, very mountainous islands around the four islands, which numerous islands Ruysch says are uninhabited. Ruysch judges Poloa€™s TOLMA[N], a region later reincarnated in the New World as part of the Northwest Coast, to lie just south of the realm of Gog and Magog. This coast Ruysch could not admit to be connected in any manner with as he already depicts in detail the eastern Asiatic seaboards, from the point where they merge with his northern regions, to 39 degrees south latitude, which is the termination of the map. In this island are people who speak the Spanish tongue, and who in the time of King Roderick are believed to have fled to this island from the barbarians who at that time invaded Spain. Near the island of Spagnola [Haiti] and south of the island of Antilia is an inscription that tells the story of that island as given on Behaima€™s globe (Book III, #258). Marco, Maffeo, and Niccolo Polo, long detained at the pleasure of Kublai Khan, were allowed to return to Europe when sent as the personal escorts of a bride for Arghun, khan of the Levant [Persia]. Ruysch designates its coast as SILVA ALOE [aloe forest] for the valuable plant which Polo said the king of Chamba offered as part of his annual tribute to the Kublai Khan. However, theses dates are obviously not correct given the notations on the map of the Portuguese discoveries of 1507. On all other maps of the first half of the 16th century, even on the Cabot map of 1544, it is represented as a group of islands. More likely, however, the legend originated in a medieval treatise, the same from which Ruysch configured his Arctic region. Harrisse establishes a similar comparison between Ruyscha€™s South America and the latter continent in all of the seven world charts, now known, which circulated in Europe when he constructed his mappamundi.
No such designation as the a€?Land of the Holy Crossa€? was ever adopted in Spain for Brazil, or written on any map by the Spanish pilots or geographers of that time. Glaciato on the eastern coast suggests the work of the Italian editor and Baia de Rockas shows the influence of English associations. This island lies between 45A° and 55A° east of the coast of Asia, just above the Tropic of Cancer. But a€?Cubaa€? does not appear as such, and historians have long been puzzled by Ruyscha€™s apparent omission of the island. It has long been recognized that there were corrections to the plates of this map even before the earliest known example, state one - thus the importance of examining an early strike of the map, to better discern these changes.
The vestige of DE CVBA is still discernable, as is part of the coastline of its original (insular?) geography.
The stippled lines which represent ocean spill well into the current landmass, both in the north and south.
From the Biblical land of Gog and Magog the people of the Middle Ages expected the coming of destructive races at the last day.
Near the island of Spagnola [Haiti] and south of the island of Antilia is an inscription that tells the story of that island as given on Behaima€™s globe (#258). It has long been recognized that there were corrections to the plates of this map even before the earliest known example, state one. In the state that preceded state one there was a smaller island within this space and it was labeled CVBA. After first choosing to represent it as a small island, he then changed his mind and used the outline of the a€?North Americana€? continental landmass on Portuguese manuscript charts akin to the Cantino map (#306), only in smaller dimensions, to represent Cuba on his map.
This a€?Land of the Holy Crossa€? also contains the term MUNDUS NOVUS, one of the first references to a a€?New Worlda€? on a printed map. Columbus reached this fancy when attempting to explain the variation of the North Star, noted by him near the Gulf of Paria.


It is interesting to note that on State I of the Ruysch map Canibali designated LA DOMINICA [the island of Dominica] instead, which was one of the islands Columbus said was inhabited by that reputably fierce race. This country, which is generally considered another continent, is inhabited in scattered settlements. Not in Spanish charts, certainly, but in a Lusitano-Germanic map, manipulated by a northern cartographer who had read the Latin version of the four voyages of Vespucci, printed at St. In 1507 the Pacific, still simply the a€?Orientala€? or a€?Chinaa€? Sea, had never been sighted from the American side and had only been cursorily approached from the Asian side. Therefore this map is left incomplete for the present, since we do not know in which direction it trends.
There are, both in the Ruysch and Caveri (#307) maps, geographical representations and names showing that their prototypes differed in important respects from Cantino. We have never seen its configurations reproduced anywhere; and it is only mentioned twice in the first half of the 16th century.
The first of a series on geographical misconceptions,a€? The Map Collector 2 (March 1978), pp. From this it is quite evident that the two parts, Europe and Africa, occupy half of the world and that Asia alone occupies the other half.
Proceeding to a systematic description of the countries of the world, of Asia Isidore says that it is bounded in the east by Lake Maeotis [Sea of Azov] and the river Tanais [the river Don]. Other maps give definite localities for the Twelve Tribes of Israel and the abiding places of the Twelve Apostles. The most closely related or influenced maps of the T-Oa€™s are those that accompany manuscripts of Sallusta€™s works and may have originally been drawn to illustrate a passage from Sallusta€™s De bello Jugurthino which, like Isidorea€™s treatise, also attempted to briefly describe the countries of the world.
Both accounts appear bound in one manuscript that was copied and used as a textbook of history for almost a millennium. The sea is boisterous, and deficient in harbors; the soil is fertile in corn, and good for pasturage, but unproductive of trees. The name of Medes the Libyans gradually corrupted changing It in their barbarous tongue, into Moors. Many copies of this map mention the name of Armenians in North Africa, along with the names of the Medes and the Persians These were probably the forbearers of the first T-O maps, as we know them today. Some of these include basic T-O maps, which show the continents, including the names of some countries and peoples.
The copy dates from the ninth or tenth century and is drawn on vellum and taken from a Sallust manuscript now in the University of Leipzig in Germany.
In the area of Europe there are no legends, only the city of Roma is represented with a vignette of a castle and its name, attesting to the importance of the power of Rome in the Empire. Affrica contains 24 legends, which include cities of Harran, Cartage [Cartage] plus four other cities. The left arm of the T is inscribed Tanais, but the right arm, which should have borne the name Nilus, is only connected to the Nile at the right extremity, where the Nilus is shown as a vertical line. There are 15 toponyms and the countries of Phoenicea, Carthago, Ethiopia, Numidia and mountains of Catabatmon are shown.
This area is divided first into the lands of Judea, Galilee, and Palestine, and further by the names of seven of the Twelve Tribes.
One of the most interesting features of this map is its highly abstract form: it is mostly comprised of straight lines with only a few concessions to irregular geographical forms. Most puzzling is that the label for Europe crosses what would normally be the Mediterranean. The division of the earth among the sons of Noah, Noaha€™s ark, seven of the twelve tribal territories of the land of Israel, Jericho and the city of refuge (Joshua 20) for those guilty of involuntary manslaughter under Hebrew law, all come from Jewish history. These divisions are treated rather casually, however, for the label EVROPA straddles the boundary between Europe and Africa; locations in the Holy Land are indifferently assigned to Asia and Africa, and Athens and Achaia are placed in Asia. Running horizontally across the middle of the map, and dividing Asia from Africa and Europe, is a band labeled HIERVSALEM. Europe in principle occupies the left hand side of the lower half of the map, but the label EVROPA actually straddles the vertical divider.
Great Britain, Ireland and Thule are represented at or over the edge of the orbis and in the northern rather than western quadrant. The prominence given to Jerusalem, together with the double representation of the Cross (once on its own, and once on Mount Zion), is a case in point. Evelyn Edson, on the other hand, argues that MS 17a€™s mappamundi is one of a small group of complex maps directly inspired by computus themes. A famous and often reproduced world map in a manuscript of the short version of Mansela€™s book, which was probably made by Simom Marmion in about 1460, illustrates the division of the world among the three sons of Noah. Mansela€™s description includes ancient places such as Carthage and Delos, biblical places such as Babylon and Judaea, and lands of contemporary importance such as Westphalia and Gascony. Of course that is the easy conclusion, but it is rendered very plausible if we look at the names of some of the islands in the circumfluent oceana€”golgavatas terra, lapides presiosa (for lapides pretiosi, a€?precious stonesa€?), habundans terra, illa deserta, tamaria, alphaua terra, and illa arcana, for examplea€”which are quite clearly invented. It immediately precedes the prologue to Book IV, which includes a regional description of the world in alphabetical order. Among these manuscripts are many illustrated works on astrology and astronomy as well as some on geography, but virtually nothing contains a map. The circular legend around the city reads The city of Jerusalem populated in ancient and recent times by the Israelites [the Armenian phrase reads Bnakui hin yev nor avrinatz qaghaq I[sra] letzotz vor e Yerusaghem]. It also resembles the plan of Jerusalem in another Armenian manuscript in the Matenadaran, the much later MS 1770 which dates from 1589.
This is shown by the pair of vertical red lines that descend from Jerusalem in the center to the outer Ocean and represent the Mediterranean, which is identified only by the word Sea.
Between the inscription and the Mediterranean, that is in western Africa, is a small circle which, being inland, can only denote a lake.
It is outlined in black, colored solidly in red and interrupted as if to indicate the traditional crossing of the Israelites as they fled from Egypt. Two black lines, drawn at right angles to each other and to the red lines of the continental division and the Mediterranean, indicate the Aegean and Black Seas.
In the north, following the curve of the encircling Ocean, and on the borders of Europe and Asia, is written Rusq [Russia]. Zaytun was the Arabic name given to the port of Quanzhou or Tseu-Tung in the province of Fujian, China.
It may also be that this is the earliest Christian map on which the toponyms Caffa, Azov, Sarai, Zaytun and Khansai are found.
The geographer Mkrdich Khachaturiana€™s suggestion that the map dates from 1206 is unlikely to be correct.
The Flemish Franciscan William de Rubruck (1220-1293), who in 1253 travelled to the region, stated that [Sarah] Batu was one of the most important cities of the region. It is hardly possible to date a manuscript precisely based on palaeography alone, and, furthermore, the script used on the map is similar to that in a manuscript produced in Caffa in 1445 (Matenadaran, MS 8963), which is another collection of astrological and scientific subjects, with diagrams and calendars. Only after Genoese merchants had leased it from the Mongols, was it transformed into a flourishing commercial centre, trading with the East and rivaling the Venetian- controlled city of Tanais on the Sea of Azov.
Such a date would fit the suggestion that the Armenian mapmaker, who was most likely to have been a monk, either saw or was told about contemporary Italian T-O maps in Caffa, a city not only administered by the Genoese, but also to all intents and purposes functioning as an Italian city, and one of the most suitably located Armenian communities for intellectual as well as commercial contact with the West. Hovhannes Hovhannisian, the other Armenian geographer who has studied the map, argues that the presence of the commercial centers of Khorazm [Oxiana] and Sarai are indicative of the period when the Mongols had close connections with Khorazm (that is, from the 1240s to the 1360s), and this explains the rationale behind his dating the map to as late as 1360.
Other biblical events and places are shown on the map, however: Jerusalem, the giving of the Tablets of the Law to Moses, Mount Sinai and the Red Sea.
While the Hereford mappamundi, c.1290 (#226) and the Sawley map, 1180 (#215) each show a monastic establishment, the references to these have been placed on the banks of the Nile. It can plausibly be deduced, that the author was familiar with Central Asia since current trends in commercial and political relations are well represented by the depiction of the Silk Road cities and major trading centers such as Baghdad, Damascus, Constantinople and Venice. A sumptuous example of Flemish illumination illustrating an encyclopedic work, it embodies the spirit of medieval civilization. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes.
Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases. It is not enumerated in the table of contents of the 1507 edition and it must be assumed that Ruyscha€™s drawing came into the engraver's hands late in the year, just in time to be engraved and inserted into some of the copies then printed.
This situation changed drastically from 1506 to 1507 when three separate efforts to produce world maps were published. This must be noted, as it constrains us to limit our interpretation of the geographical configurations and legends to the map itself. He thus incidentally informs us that the author of this map, which from a geographical point of view marks an epoch in cartography more distinctly than any other that has ever been published in print, had joined in a voyage from England to America.
Ruysch may therefore have drawn on first-hand knowledge in producing a map that is independent of the Contarini-Rosselli map of 1506, although there are a number of similar characteristics.
Ruysch also gives on his map a relatively correct place to the Insule ae Azores, Insula de Madera, Ins. The Indian peninsula on the Ruysch map now has significantly more names on both the west and east coasts than the Contarini-Rosselli map (#308) and, further east, Ruysch recognizes that the old Ptolemaic coastline can no longer apply. Here the Chinese river-system is given in a manner indicating other sources for the geography of eastern Asia, than Marco Poloa€™s written words. The first cartographer who adopted Ruyscha€™s reduction, was the celebrated Gerard Mercator. Some of the lettering is also unusual as it appears to have been made by a punch rather than the usual burin engraving tool. Inland from North America, into Ruyscha€™s a€?Asiaa€? proper, the influence of the medieval imagination is found in the dreaded realm of Gog and Magog from which the Antichrist would spring at Armageddon.
South of TOLMA lies the mountainous country of TEBET [Tibet, but actually in present-day Sze-cha€™wan and YA?n-nan], which a€?is terribly devastated, for it was ravaged in a campaign by Mongu Khan . Here dwelt an archbishop with six other bishops, each one of whom had his own particular city.
Groves of trees yielding a black wood, which Polo said was used for making chessmen and pen-cases, are noted by Ruysch as SILVA EBANI [ebony forest]. Originally, the region was delineated nearly as we see it in Cantino, and in all the Lusitano-Germanic maps.
The use of the name Insula Baccalauras on the coast of Terra Nova is one of the earliest instances of the appearance on any map of the American coast of that Romance word for codfish, baccallaos.
The use of the letter a€?ka€? in this a€?Rocky Baya€? is one of the mapa€™s scant traces of the British flag under which Ruysch is believed to have sailed. Along the Asian coast facing this whirlpool arctic is IUDEI INCLUSI, where the lost tribes of Israel were thought to dwell. This is shown by the fact that none of his designations for the Honduras, Venezuela, and Guyana coasts are to be found among the fifty names inserted along those sea-boards by Juan de la Cosa, who was one of the discoverers; nor even in the nomenclature of the Ribero map (#346) and other official quantity of cosmographers, who must have followed, in that respect, though it was twenty-five years later, the traditions of the Spanish school.
He depicts no island, whether named a€?Isabellaa€? or otherwise, between that northern continent and Hispaniola. Ruyscha€™s problem was that two of his prime sources of data a€” the recent Spanish expeditions, and Marco Polo a€” both located an island at that spot.
In his scholarly work, The Continent of America, John Boyd Thacher made this comment regarding the Ruysch map; a€?The mystery of this map a€” and every early map boasted its mystery a€” is the absence of the island of Cuba from its place in the Caribbean Seaa€?. It is astonishing to think that a map which was published only once, over a period of one or two years, had so many revisions (at least six). Thus the importance of examining an early strike of the map, to better discern these changes. Whether this second configuration represents combined information from Columbusa€™ first two voyages, data gained from Amerigo Vespuccia€™s a€?firsta€™ voyage, an early description of the Yucatan, or some other source has been, and will continue to be, a matter of great debate.
Another inherited tradition involving the a€?fairer sexa€? is found in the island of MATININA to the south.
South America is mapped through the Gulf of Venezuela, with the Guahira Peninsula shown as an island (TAMARA QUA). Columbusa€™ association of Paria with Paradise was reinforced by the fact that there he encountered four rivers emptying into the gulf, corresponding to the number of rivers commonly believed to flow from Paradise. While at Dominica on the Second Voyage, a colleague of Columbus wrote that a€?these islands are inhabited by Canabili, a wild, unconquered race which feeds on human flesh. The name a€?Americaa€? had been suggested only the previous year by WaldseemA?ller (#310), and it is possible that Ruysch had not heard of the suggestion when he made his map or for some reason he did not care to follow it.
Die in Lorraine, in May, 1507, and where we see Omnium sanctorum abbatiam, while all the Spanish maps properly inscribe, Baya de todos sanctos (Turin and Weimar charts). Vincent of Vespuccia€™s third voyage (1501-02), hence the name of the mountains shown just inland by Ruysch. The Asiatic coasts are different; the nomenclature presents also a number of names that are in one and not in the other two, and vice versa.
The legends on this map are consequently of very high interest, and form a more important contribution to the history of geography than many a bulky volume. The former were made into two parts because the Great Sea (called the Mediterranean) enters from the Ocean between them and cuts them apart . His treatment of the habitable earth enables one to arrive fairly easily at the scope of his knowledge.
During his mission there he was involved in various rebellions and conflicts with neighboring powers and has left accounts of his activities.
In his Jugurthine War Sallust writes about Africa, describing its geographic location and climatic conditions, as well as its demography where he narrates how the Armenian mercenaries settled in North Africa and intermingling with the Libyan tribes, gave rise to the peoples that inhabit the region today.
Since they are about the history of northern Africa, this particular area is shown in more detail. In Europe only the name of the continent and two countries of Italia and Hyspania are shown. Near the Nile the land is described as Exusta [parched], a reference to the southern parched areas. Jerusalem was the focus of that Conquest for more than two centuries of Crusaders, and it would remain the center of attention on maps until the invention of printing and the publication of Ptolemy in the 1470s. The whole is illustrated by instructive diagrams, including five world maps: two T-O centers of rotae, two zonal maps, and one larger, more detailed map.
Another oddity is that Achaia, where St Andrew [preached] is in Southeast Asia, far from Athens, the preaching site of Paul. These are the usual numbers for the descendants of Shem and Ham, but the source of the numbers for Armenia and why this country is singled out are not clear. There is no attempt at cartographic realism: this is a diagram containing a list of places.
ASIA MAIOR: glossed QVOD SVNT SEPTVAGINTA DVE GENTES ORTE, and beneath this De Sem gentes XXVI. In the Europe zone, reading from top to bottom and left to right are: Terra macedonum, Campania, Italia, ROMA, tiberis flumen, Tuscia, mons Ethna, sicilia, KARTAGO MAGNA.
These independent maps tend to occupy the full width of the page, or the page in its entirety.
Anna-Dorothea von den Brincken claims that this map is the first to position Jerusalem in the centre of the world, and not at its eastern extremity.
A mappamundi with identical arrangement and legends appears in the Peterborough Computus (Harley 3667 fol. The British Isles and Ireland were little corners of the outer margins of the orbis terrarum, which further served to marginalize the deviant computus of the island churches. But the ADAM device, to say nothing of its proximity to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram both in MS 17 and in the Peterborough computus, argue forcefully for its derivation from Byrhtferth or his milieu.
In this category she includes oikumene maps, often quite large, such as the one in Vatican City BAV 6018 fols. Another world map in a manuscript of the long version of the book, this one created c.1480, for this map contains large and prominent sea monsters in the circumfluent ocean. His aim was to show how Rome developed from a small town to a global empire, almost every corner of which had been penetrated by Christianity before the empire passed to the Franks.
In fact none of the islands in the circumfluent ocean which are discussed by Mansela€”Grande-Bretagne, iles Fortunees, Gales, Irlande, Orcades, Escosse, Thanatos, Taprobane, Thule, and Islandea€”appears on this map. The oldest geographical work originates from as early as the fifth century and is titled in Armenian Ashkharhatzuytz or Mirror of the World. The horizontal arms of the letter T (stretching north and south from Jerusalem at the centre) are not represented by the rivers Tanais (Don) and Nile, as in conventional T-O maps, but by single red lines ruled, it would seem, to demarcate Asia from Europe and from Africa.
The considerable prominence given to Jerusalem can be explained by the fact that the Armenian Church had, and still has, close ties with the Holy City and is one of the four custodians of the Holy Places, with a church, seminary and religious order active since the 5th century. Outside the double-circle frame of the map are the names of the four cardinal directions Hyusis, Harav, Arevelq and Arevmutq, and the word Dzov [Sea] is written seven times.
Further in from the Ocean two cities are named, Kostandnupolis [Constantinople] and Venejia [Venice].
Indeed, that is how it is identified, with the phrase Ays dzovis anunn Tuman [This Sea is named Tuman].
The legend that appears to refer to the Crossing of the Red Sea is worn and partly illegible. A gap in the horizontal line for the Aegean, filled with the name Kostandnupolis [Constantinople], seems to imply that the line also represents the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus. Zaytun and Khansai appear on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#246) as Ciutat de Zaytun and Ciutat de Cansay, respectively; Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1459 (#249) contains these toponyms as Cayton and Chansay.
His conjecture was based on the assumption that all the toponyms on the map are contemporary with the time of its creation.
This posed a problem for Khachaturian, however, and he therefore had to insist that the toponym Sara related not to Sarai-Batu but to some other location, perhaps a putative island in the Caspian Sea, even though the Caspian is neither mentioned on the map nor has it ever had an inhabited island named Sara.
Looking at the toponyms shown on the map, the question arises why a Cilician-Armenian mapmaker would have included the names of cities along the distant northern Silk Road, instead of the toponyms in his locality. The earliest mention of Caffa in Armenian literature dates from the middle of the 13th century. In Rouben Galichiana€™s view, the most creditable hypothesis is that the map was created between the late-13th and mid-14th centuries, or even slightly later, which is in line with Hovhannisiana€™s proposal. The legend to the southeast of Palestine, between Mount Sinai and the Nile reads Takhtak orinatz zor yet[ur] a[stua]tz Movs[es]i, which translates Tablets of law that God gave Moses. The Armenian language has several different words that mean monastery, among them liana, menastan and ananpat.
It may also be suggested that the mapmaker was a native of the region, very likely from 14th century Caffa, then one of the most important Armenian cultural centers and the source of a large number of manuscripts of that date.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. An inscription on the map just off Taprobana refers to the voyages of the Portuguese to that area in the year 1507.
The Contarini-Rosselli map of 1506 (#308) and Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s map of the world and globe of 1507 (#310 and #311) were very influential, but not very widely published.
Marcus adds nothing whatever as regards facts and data; instead, his treatise is less complete, considering that he fails to mention either Cuba or the continental land which the map exhibits between Newfoundland and South America. Both maps are on fan-shaped conical projections, engraved on copper in typical Italian style, and select from a variety of Spanish, Portuguese, and earlier sources. In its main features the delineation of eastern Asia, to the south of latitude 60 degrees north, on the map of Ruysch, so nearly resembles Behaima€™s globe (#258), that a common original might have served for both. On his famous map ad usum Navigantium of 1569 (#406), he gives the Mediterranean Sea a length of 52 degrees.
This suggests that the map was prepared for press in a hurry and the punch used as the quickest method of lettering the plate. Ruysch correctly draws Gruenlant [Greenland] as separate from Europe, not connected with Europe by a vast polar continent as some earlier maps indicate. Originally a Biblical saga, the story of these two malevolent creatures developed a rich mythology through medieval lore. In like manner, there is a second peninsula above Norway that usually represents Greenland Island (G) on most maps of the period.
Wherefore this island is called by many a€?seven cities.a€? This people lived most piously in the full enjoyment of all the riches of this time. The historian Varnhagen maintained that it was the land seen by Vespucci on his disputed voyage of 1497. This coast was called a€?Labradora€™s Landa€? as it was first sighted by the Portuguese, JoA?o Fernandes, the a€?llabradora€? or laborer, whom John Cabot had brought with him from the Azores, where he had gone the previous summer to recruit skilled seamen for his crew. This can be seen simply by comparing the eastern profile of the Terra del Rey de portugall (present-day Newfoundland) in Cantino and the King-Hamy (#307.1), with the profile of the Terra Nova of Ruysch, which is exactly the same region. There is no certain authority for the statement sometimes made that the term was first applied in the west by the Cabots nor for the assertion by Peter Martyr that the word was found by Europeans in use among the natives of Terra Nova.
In the Atlantic between Ireland and Greenland lies an island with an inscription stating that this island in the year of our Lord 1456 was totally consumed by fire.
But the Spaniards always, and justly, claimed to have discovered that country, as Pinzon had sighted and actually taken possession of the land situated by 8A° 19a€™ south latitude, three months before.
For Columbus it was the island of Hispaniola [modern-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic]. Indeed, many scholars of early New World cartography have debated the meaning of this oversight on Ruyscha€™s part. Obviously the printers were taking great care to ensure that it was accurate and up to date.
It can be surmised that Ruysch was confused by Columbusa€™ insistence that Cuba was the eastern tip of a continental Asian promontory; Columbus, on his second voyage (1493-94), went so far as to force his officers to make sworn statements that Cuba was such a peninsula, in effect the Aurea Chersonesus or Cattigara of Ptolemy. This outline continues within the current landmass except to the northwest, where it extends into the ocean as a faint but obvious serpentine line.
No trace of Columbusa€™ fourth voyage (1502-03), in which he stumbled across Central America, is found on Ruyscha€™s map. Pierre Da€™Ailly had declared that there was a€?a fountain in the Terrestrial Paradise which waters the Garden of Delights and which flows out by four rivers,a€? and Columbus himself annotated his copy of the Imago Mundi with a€?Fons est in paradisoa€? [a fountain is in Paradise]. I would be right to call them anthropophagi.a€? That Ruysch, on the later states of his map.
We here obtain notices regarding exploring-voyages undertaken before 1508, of which no other information is met with in the history of geographical discovery. Vespucci said this cape lies eight degrees south of the equator (modern-day Recife), and that thence sailing southwest along the coast they encountered friendly Indians a€?gazing in wonder at us and at the great size of our ships.a€? Vespucci remarked that a few of the Indians, taken a€?to teach us their tongue,a€? volunteered to return to Portugal with them.
These maps are taken from various manuscript copies of Sallusts works some of them dating from as late as the 13th and the 14th centuries, when they were still in use as textbooks by historians and scholars.
The fourth line from the center bottom, near mount Athlas reads Medi - Armeni, a reference to the Armenians and Medes having settled in the area.
In Asia beside the name of the continent, river Nilus, Egypt and Mare Rubrum [Red Sea] are mentioned, while the tall rising tower bears the legend Jrslm [Jerusalem]. These are the people, that according to Sallust settled in North Africa, giving rise to the North African tribes of today.
Its heavily biblical content is also unusual: note Hierusalem on the central axis with the cross and Mt. Of the sons of Noah, Shem is found in Asia and Ham in Africa, as usual, but Japheth stands next to Shem in Asia, instead of Europe.
In the centre, at the juncture of the horizontal and vertical dividing bands, is an omega-shape with a cross in the centre, labeled beneath Mons syon. The only place names in the Africa zone are at the very top, and two of them, TERRA IVDA, and PALESTINA, may have been intended as part of the central band (B above).
They absorbed significant amounts of text into the schematic frame, such as lists of the provinces of the inhabited world. She associates this with the piety of the First Crusade, and the attention given to the Cross would support this claim.
8v), a manuscript very closely related to MS 17 in space and time; and the Peterborough computus also contains the only other extant copy of Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram (#205Z13).
Moreover, in Book 5 of the Historia ecclesiastica, Bede follows up his account of Adomnan of Ionaa€™s reception of the Roman Easter with a paraphrase of his De locis sanctis: now it is Jerusalem, not Rome, which is the center of the world, but the link between computistical orthodoxy and the universality of the Church in space is still the underlying message. The map (shown below) is in a chapter on the a€?Provinces du monde,a€? but there is almost no connection between the map and the list of provinces in the chapter. The legend hic sunt dragones, a€?Here there are dragonsa€?, sounds like a legend that would appear on many medieval mapsa€”such is our tendency to associate monsters with medieval mapsa€”but in fact it appears on only one other cartographic object, namely the Hunt-Lenox globe of c.1510 (Book IV, #314), where on the southeastern coast of Asia there is a legend that reads HC SVNT DRACONES. The prominent sea monsters on the map are thus invented dangers, rather than being based on the descriptions of sea monsters in a bestiary or encyclopedia, and the labels, like those on the islands, are attempts to convey an authority and accuracy which in fact are absent. Under the letter a€?Aa€™, for example, we read first about Asia and Assyria, then Arabia, Armenia and Albania.
One full and almost sixty abridged manuscript copies of this work have survived, thirty-three of which are in the Matenadaran. Only the northern end of the single red line might be considered to represent the river Tanais, the traditional divide between Europe and Asia. It may be worth bearing in mind that for the first four centuries of Christianity it was predominantly an Asiatic and North African religion, and that the Christian world was not divided into a Latin West and a predominantly Byzantine East until after the Council of Ephesus in 431. In Section 11, containing a text related to the Old Testament, there is circular plan of the city of Jerusalem (fol.
Because the encircling Ocean touches two sides of paper, the words Hyusis [North] and Harav [South] have had to be split.
West of this water body, an unnamed river is shown by a pair of parallel red lines bearing the simple inscription Sea. North of Constantinople, the vertical black line, inscribed only as Sea, represents the Black Sea. According to Ibn-Battuta, this was the largest port [he] had ever seen, which could easily accommodate more than 100 large Chinese junks. Furthermore he claimed that since Mardin appears prominently on the map, it must have been made before the conquest of that city by the Arabs, in the early 13th century. By the middle of the 14th century, when numerous monastic scriptoria were in operation, the majority of Caffaa€™s population of 70,000 were Armenian.
Arguably, the lack of any references to Armenia itself could be attributed to the fact that he lived far from his homeland and felt no particular affinity with it. The Mediterranean Sea is not shown and only the black African faces convey a hint of reality. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. This enlarged map of the known world constructed from recent discoveries, engraved on copper, is one of the earliest printed maps showing the discoveries in the new world. There is only one original copy of each map in existence today, and both of these copies were discovered in the 20th century. It is even doubtful whether the Celestinian monk, or any of the parties engaged in the publication of the Ptolemy of 1507-1508, had any personal intercourse with Ruysch.
By this name he probably designates either the illegitimate son of Columbus, Ferdinand, who sojourned in Europe until his 19th year (1509), or rather the brother of Columbus, Bartholomew, who seems to have been an eminent cartographer.
The African continent on the map is yet another cartographic advance as it breaks with the early tradition which held that there was a land-bridge between eastern African and the peninsula of Southeast Asia. Sri Lanka, under the name of Prilam, is also laid down by Ruysch with about its proper size, and correctly as regards the southern point of India.
Both deviate from Fra Mauroa€™s map of the world (#249), which gives us a representation of these regions much inferior to both Behaim and Ruysch.
Ruyscha€™s map is also the first printed map on which, in conformity with the drawings on the portolanos, a tolerably correct direction is given to the northern coast of Africa, by attending to the considerable difference of latitude between the coastlines to the east and to the west of Syrtis, and by giving a proper form to that bay.


So, it was in place long before Ruysch made his map, and to be true, no one knows from what saint it was named. Instead of connected with Europe, he links Greenland with Asia through Newfoundland (Terra Nova).
Gog and Magog were traditionally imprisoned behind the Caspian gates by Alexander the Great; belief in the menace was so great that the level-headed Roger Bacon hoped that the study of geography might predict when, and from what direction, their onslaught might come in the days of the Antichrist so as better to prepare to defend against them. Above this is Hyperborea Europa (H) which is a carryover from the Norveca Europa of the de Virga map of 1414 (#240) where it was presumed the Hyperboreans lived near the North Pole. Sailing seven hundred miles south-south-west from Chamba the traveler, says Polo, passes two uninhabited islands, Ruyscha€™s SODVR and CANDVR.
Turning north, a€?they had,a€? says Peter Martyr, a€?in a manner continual daylight.a€? The action of the compass in those high latitudes might well cause the alarm expressed in the above inscriptions.
By 1506 Portuguese fishermen were hauling so much cod from northern American waters that their monarch sought tariffs on its import.
Here the compasses of the ships lose their power, and it is not possible for ships which have iron on board to return. It is tempting to suggest that this is an epitaph for the fabulous island of Brasil from Irish legend. The other six originated in Portugal, and were delineated during the first few years of the 16th century.
They consequently never accepted its Lusitanian name, and invariably called that region Tierra del Brasil. Henry Harrisse, in his book, The Discovery of North America, states that as early as 1526 Franciscus Monachus criticized the Ruysch map for its depictions in the Caribbean Sea.
Apparently much soul- searching was done in the choosing of its delineations, especially in regard to the New World. Within this smaller island, and to the left of the name CORVEO are found the faint letters DE CV Under the small triangle preceding the name CORVEO is the letter B and under the following C the letter A is found. At the southern end of South America another inscription states that the Portuguese had sailed as far south as 50A° latitude without seeing the southern limit of the land, possibly also a reference to Vespuccia€™s third voyage. Most of them die by the gradual decay of age, except such as perish by the sword or beasts of prey, for disease finds but few victims.
The page is composed with the map above and a week-day table arranged under the arches below. Athens, Ephesus, Achaia, and Caesarea are mentioned specifically as sites where the apostles preached. The only significant difference between the Peterborough version of the map and the one found in MS 17 is that MS 17 alone contains the marginal note on Asia maior. A map of the Macrobian type also appears in the Abbonian computus manuscript Berlin 138 fol. Adam, Eve, and the serpent are in Eden at the top (east) of the map, with the rivers of Paradise flowing downward from it to the west (the river Jordan is labeled). Heads symbolizing the four principal winds surround the habitable world, on which a number of historical or encyclopedic features are portrayed, such as the Tower of Babel, the Trees of the Sun and the Moon, the river Jordan, Jerusalem with Mount Calvary, the Red Sea, Rome, and some of the monstrous races. These monsters, though invented, nonetheless have their effect, and render the circumfluent ocean a place of terrors, in contrast to the apparently peaceful buildings of the inhabited world.
The original Ashkharhatzuytz is attributed by some to the 5th century Armenian historian Movses Khorenatzi, while others believe that it is the work of the 7th century scientist and astronomer Anania Shirakatzi. Two vertical parallel red lines (running from Jerusalem to the western edge of the map) represent the unnamed Mediterranean Sea that separates Africa and Europe.
Christianity had reached Armenia through the preaching of the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus. 392r), which is similar to the plan of the same city drawn in the centre of the world map of MS 1242. The significance of the two circles is made clear by the note, also on the outside, The all encompassing ocean, which is in this shape. Venice was an important entrepot for Armenian merchants, and Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the most important religious and political centre outside Jerusalem. These lines, drawn almost at right angles to the Mediterranean, connect with the outer Ocean. Misr is the Arabic name of Egypt, used also in old Armenian, which the mapmaker has chosen to employ in conjunction with the later-day Armenian name of the country. The northern extremity of the red line dividing Europe and Asia, beyond the eastern end of the Black Sea, must also stand for the Sea of Azov (for which there is no place-name) and the river Tanais. Sarai refers to the capital of the Mongols; it is either Sarai-Batu (Old Sarai), built in 1240s, or Sarai-Berke [New Sarai], dating from around 1260.
These are doubtful lines of argument; information took time to be disseminated, and maps were only slowly updated.
In addition, two legends in Palestine read Yekin anapatn [Came to the monastery] and Yekin Ye[rusaghe]m sakavq [A few came to Je[rusale]m].
The monastery on the Armenian map is not named but is defined as ananpat, which suggests a conscious choice, since on the Hereford map the whole legend reads Monasteria Sancti Antonii in deserto. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing. By contrast, Johannes Ruyscha€™s 1508 map of the world was much more widely published and many copies were produced and still exist. Otherwise we would certainly find in the elaborate description that Marcus Beneventanus gives of the transatlantic discoveries of the Spaniards and Portuguese, some statement or name that should have been omitted in the map. For there is an annotation on a copy of: Paesi nouvamente retrovaetc, Vicentia 1507, at the library Magliabechi, stating that Bartholomew, when visiting Rome in 1505, wrote, for a canon of the church of San Giovanni di Laterano, a narrative of the first voyage across the ocean, to which a map of the new discoveries was appended.
It is thought (see the Beneventanus commentary below) that he accompanied John Cabot on his expedition to North America in 1497 and 1498, or, considering the prevalence of Portuguese names on his 1507 map, a Portuguese ship leaving from Bristol. Ruysch adopts the Portuguese name, Terra Sancte Crucis [Land of the Holy Cross] for South America instead of Tierra del Brazil, the name used by the Spaniards. It is also the first map that shows the Portuguese discoveries and landfalls along the southern and Cape coasts. Taprobana is placed further towards the East Indian peninsula, in which position this geographical remnant from the time of Alexander the Great was retained, down to the middle of the 16th century. Neither is it any reason for thinking that the island above Norway is meant to be Svalbard. In addition, he shows the northern polar regions as a basin with a number of islands, thus prompting the long-held hope for a Northwest passage from Europe to Asia.
This threat was quite real to Columbus, who figured himself prominently into the events, believed by him to be close at hand, leading to the end of the world. Across the vertical ocean or Ginnungagap (GP) is a caption that cautions mariners not to rely upon compass bearings as the compass fails in this region. Among the Polean islands lying further to the south on Ruyscha€™s map is AGAMA, which like TOLMA would later be transposed to the New World as a region of the Northwest Coast.
The evidence that the landfall of the Cabots was Greenland and not Labrador is cited by Biggar.
There are forests, mountains and rivers: there is the greatest abundance of pearls and gold.
Uniting these two gives us Garden of Delight; for it is planted with every kind of wood and fruit-bearing tree, having also the tree of life. Several of the districts are rich in gold and precious stones but are rarely approached by man owing to the ferocity of the Griffens .
Animals of a venomous nature they have in great numbers, Africa, then, was originally occupied by the Getulians and Libyans, rude and uncivilized tribes, who subsisted on the flesh of wild animals, or like cattle, on the herbage of the soil. Place names are almost entirely omitted from Africa and Asia Major, and a note in the upper right adds a€?[Asia] Major has in the east Alexandria and Pamphiliaa€?. The only places without a biblical link of some kind are in Italy (Sicily, Mount Etna, Tuscany, Campania), Constantinople and Britain, Ireland and Thule. However, the Peterborough map does not represent Mount Sion as a round a€?hilla€? with a cross, but as a triangle, and spells IERUSALEM without MS 17a€™s initial H. When these Greek names for the cardinal directions are read as if making the sign of the cross, that is, east-west-north-south, their initial letters spell ADAM.
Jerusalem stands out at the center of the world and is labeled, as are Calvary, Babylon, the Red Sea, and Rome; the Trees of the Sun and Moon visited by Alexander the Great are also easy to identify.
As this manuscript is the only one of the long version of the work that contains a world map, it seems likely that the map was the result of a specific request by the patron commissioning the manuscript, namely Philippe II Sans Terre (1438-1497). The text also retains Isidorea€™s distinction between the Fortunate Islands and the earthly paradise and repeats the belief that Enoch and Elijah dwelt in the Garden and that the noise of the waters of Paradise falling to earth from a such a great height caused the local population to be born deaf. The text is based on the work of Pappus of Alexandria (late third or early 4th century AD), but the chapters relating to Armenia and neighboring countries have been expanded.
In accordance with the Western Christian T-O maps, the Armenian map is oriented with East at the top.
It became the state religion in 301, after the conversion of King Tigran III, which makes the Armenian Church one of the oldest Christian entities.
Although made in geographically widely separate locations, a common source or tradition may be suspected, especially were the Armenian map to prove to have been made before the end of the 13th century, which would place all these maps to within one hundred to one hundred fifty years of each other.
The term Sea, it should be noted, as used on the Armenian T-O map, refers any substantial body of water, whether it be an ocean, sea, lake or river.
One of these is located at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean Sea, within the parallel lines, whereas the other two lie just to the north of the lines.
On the other (eastern) side of the legend indicating Africa a large red circle contains the legend Paravon yev zorqn Yegiptosi [Pharaoh and the army of Egypt].
Directly south of the Red Sea, near the shores of the surrounding Ocean, lies Ethiopia, named Hapash. The 13th century traveler Marco Polo mentions Zai-tun and Kin-sai as being important cities, trading with Japan (Zipangu), as well as with the Arabs and Persians. Moreover, in the case of the Western mappaemundi the very essence of the map was the inclusion of old (historical as well as biblical) information together with contemporary places and events.
Since the two Western maps and the Armenian map seem to have been made within one hundred and one hundred fifty years of each other, we can see the reference on the respective maps as further confirmation of the possibility of a common source. The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate. The few personal details given by the commentator and by Thomas Aucuparius in the preface were most probably conveyed by a letter accompanying the map when it was sent in manuscript from Germany to Rome. His general accuracy in the eastern hemisphere is almost certainly due to contemporary information gained from Portuguese navigators and explorers.
Ruysch seems to have had no doubt that Gruenlant was a part of Asia and not of Europe as usually represented on maps of this period. In the gulf formed by North America and the ominous land of Gog and Magog lies the Spanish Main, the Caribbean, which in Ruyscha€™s mind was really the China Sea.
Usually, maps had this caption southwest of Greenlanda€”thus one may be on good grounds for identifying the land here called Grvenlant as Labrador (L).
Mixing Polean, Portuguese, and Ptolemaic data, Ruysch charts a JAVA MAJOR and LAVA MINOR, Poloa€™s Java and Sumatra respectively. Ruysch uses the term to designate the entire peninsula of North America, and names its most southeasterly point as C. Cannibalism had, though, been reported independently by early mainland explorers, such as Vespucci, perhaps rendering the Trindad association more plausible in Ruyscha€™s mind. They were controlled neither by customs, laws, nor the authority of any ruler, they wandered about, without fixed habitations and slept in the abodes to which night drove them. These islands, the only ones represented, break the frame of the map, perhaps as a burst of patriotism on the part of the scribes. The popularity of this ancient conceit was primarily due to St Augustine, who compared Adama€™s progeny filling the earth and the sons of Noah re-populating the globe. A list map using the T-O form as a symbolic frame for displaying the names of provinces in Asia, Africa and Europe appears in Cotton Vitellius A.XII, fol. But otherwise the mapa€™s geography is vague; it presents much of the earth as a a€?jumblea€? of land and water. Adam and Eve, the tree and the serpent are shown within an ornate architectural frame, as if to emphasize the uniqueness and splendor of the Garden. But once he had been assigned this task, the artist seems to have given his fancy free rein. A later version of the Ashkharhatzuytz by the 13th century historian and geographer Vartan Areveltzi is also extant in multiple copies (MS 3119, 4184 and others).
Armenian Christianity's ties with the Latin churches were severed in 554 over irreconcilable doctrinal differences. The city plan in the 16th century MS 1770 also would seem to have been derived from the same common source or tradition. Similarly the term Land does not denote a territory as such, but is placed wherever there is a significant gap between neighboring toponyms. The Nile is placed well inside Asia, where a vertical (easta€”west) red line running from close to the eastern Ocean towards the Red Sea bears the legend Ays dzovis anun Nil asen [This Sea is named Nile]. Although the whole representation may be highly schematic, the way that the Aegean Sea is depicted as branching off from the Mediterranean to the west of Jerusalem and the easta€”west alignment of Black Sea, shown at right angles to the northern end of the Aegean near Constantinople, presents a more faithful picture of reality than many other T-O maps.
Then comes Ashkharq Hndkatz [Lands of the Indians], followed well to the southeast by Hndkastan [Hindustan or India]. It was usual for medieval maps, in short, to depict conditions in existence some time before their creation. The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. According to the historian Henry Harrisse, if Ruysch had supervised the engraving in person, the probability is that the nomenclature would have been entirely in Latin, or according to its original Portuguese form, instead of being so frequently Italianized, as is seen in the pronoun a€?doa€?, everywhere written a€?dea€?, and in the words Terra secca, C. This may be a notice respecting the same map, that Marcus Beneventanus had seen with a€?Columbus Nepos,a€? and which appears to have been partly copied by Ruysch, whose map consequently may be regarded as a direct illustration of the ideas prevailing in the family of Columbus as to the distribution of the continents and oceans of the globe.
Off the coast of Gruenlant is the location of an island that was totally consumed by fire in the year of our Lord, 1456. Since most historians have assumed this is simply another frivolous naminga€”we can understand the controversy over whether the Spanish navigator Fernandez (The Labrador) actually discovered Greenland or Labrador.
He creates a a€?moderna€? Sri Lanka [PRILAM] from Portuguese sources but exiles the old TAPROBANA, the Sri Lanka or Ceylon of Ptolemy, to the east, giving it both the old and new names (TAPROBANA ALIAS ZOILON), and mistakenly notes the 1507 Portuguese landfall in Sri Lanka by it rather than by Prilam. Popularly it was also called La terra dagli Papaga [Parrotsa€™ Land], on account of those large and beautiful birds that Gaspar de Lemos brought to Portugal. Then it is more probable that this feature of the map is inspired by the Inventio Fortunatae, or from the fact that the old cartographers wanted the landmasses to be in balance. From the middle of the Garden a spring gushes forth to water the whole grove and, dividing up, it provides the source of four rivers [see #205C and Q]. The northern (left) half of the cross bar represented the river Tanais [Don], and the southern (right) half of the cross bar represented the river Nile. But after Hercules, as the Africans think, perished in Spain, his army, which was composed of various nations, having lost its leader, and many candidates severalty claiming the command of it, was speedily dispersed. Around the circle of the map the cardinal directions are ostentatiously given in Greek and glossed in Latin: for example, Anathole vel oriens vel eoi, in the east. Like MS 17a€™s image, it gives considerable prominence to the circumambient ocean, as well as to the islands of Britain, Ireland and Thule: its creator seems to have been especially concerned to situate his own region with respect to the extremes of the world, both to the east and to the west. It should also be noted that a second, incomplete copy of this map is found in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 265, p.
It appears in Bedea€™s commentary on Genesis, and is prominently featured in Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram.
29r) in which only the northern temperate zone -- the oikumene or inhabited world -- is treated like a map, while the remainder of the disk is occupied solely by text. From Paradise the four rivers flow out to give life to the earth and to establish a mysterious yet material connection between paradise and the human realm. Both the earlier and the later versions display the influence of Ptolemy, and as in the case of Ptolemy, no maps accompany these manuscripts.
By adding the word Land between the toponyms, the mapmaker has tried to show that although these towns are widely separated and distant from each other, they constitute a chain of cities along a route that can only be the Silk Road.
In the Middle Ages, the designation India was used loosely to refer to the lands east of Persia, Media and the Middle East. Glaciato and Capo formoso, which certainly indicate a translation of Portuguese names, made not by a German, but by an Italian, without being errors of the engraver. The one inscription to the left of India states that this sea, which on the Ptolemaic maps was represented as landlocked (#119), was shown by the Portuguese to be connected with the ocean. On the other hand, we know that several cartographers identified North American mainland as a€?Greenlanda€? so the label for Labrador on this map is not so unusual. De Fundabril on the peninsula extending toward Spagnola is suggestive of Cuba as that name was given by Columbus, on his second voyage, to a cape on the coast of Cuba which he left the on the 30th of April. Approach to this place was barred to man after his sin, for now it is hedged about on all sides by a sword-like flame [romphaea flamma], that is to say that it is surrounded by a wall of fire that reaches almost to the sky. Of its constituent troops the Medes, Persians and Armenians having sailed over Into Africa, occupied the parts nearest to our sea.
A note to one side says, Maior habet in oriente alexandriam pamphiliam, a reference to Asia Major at the top of the map.
Kartago Magna, which could be Cartagena in Spain as Cartago appears elsewhere on the map, is another non-biblical site. It is very close to such contemporary elaborations of the Sallust map as Vatican City, BAV Reg.
Insular writers were particularly attracted to this theme, because they associated the conversion of their lands, at the very edge of the known world, with the fulfillment of Christa€™s command to take to Gospel to the ends of the earth. 64, underscores the magnetic attraction of these two ways of listing the inhabitants of the world, and how innovative MS 17 was in fusing them. In his book, Mansel described Paradise as a wonderful region surpassing all other earthly lands, fit for mana€™s initial perfection, surrounded by a wall of fire and situated on an exceptionally high mountain that reached the sphere of the moon.
So here Lands of the Indians most probably refer to the northern and western neighbors of India, such as Persia and its neighboring countries, while Hndkastan denotes India proper. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. He is thought to be the a€?Fleming called Johna€?, a close friend of Raphael who at one point resided with him.
On Taprobane (alias Zoilon), which almost corresponds to the immense island currently called Sumatra, there is a long legend, partly borrowed from Ptolemy, but with the interesting addition that Portuguese mariners arrived there in 1507. On the scroll upon the west coast of this unnamed land is the inscription: As far as this the ships of Ferdinand have come. South of JAVA MINOR [Sumatra] an inscription refers to an archipelago of precisely 7,448 islands reported by Polo, probably the Philippines but here suggesting Indonesia. BACCALAURAS [codfish island], testifying to that fisha€™s profound influence on early Atlantic exploration. Crvcis, but Cabo de Santa Maria de la Consolacion which is the name given to that cape by Pinzon on January 26, 1500, or Rostro Hermoso, as he also, if not de Lepe, named it. Englanda€™s geographic position may have made it especially sensitive to this apocalyptic dimension: the second of two notes on chronology in Oxford Bodleian Library Auct.
The manuscript is dated to the last quarter of the 11th century, and this addition to the second half of the 12th century but the hand of the map bears an extraordinarily close resemblance to that of Scribe A of MS 17, and the palaeographical indicators point to a date closer to 1100.
This fulfillment would be the climax of history, and would usher in the last days; hence the world-maps included in the Apocalypse commentary of Beatus of Liebana were essentially maps illustrating the preaching of the apostles to the gentes descended from Noaha€™s three sons, but expanded to encompass the whole world and the entirety of the world-age (#207). Its presence in the manuscript raises questions about how such an essentially non-Armenian-style map came to be made by an Armenian, and when, considering that this is the only T-O type map bearing Armenian inscriptions known to exist. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
It has been suggested that he assisted and advised Raphael on his 1509-1510 Astronomia and other frescoes in the Stanza della segnatura. Another legend on the southeastern parts of Asia alludes to the existence of numerous islands in that part of the ocean, of which notices from Indian merchants seem to have already reached Europe.
This term, in its sundry Romance variations, soon became a major place-name associated with North America. In every part of their body they are lions, and in wings and head are like eagles, and they are fierce enemies of horses. The frame of the map, a double circle, was drawn in drypoint, and at the right and left upper corners of the page are two smaller drypoint circles.
Indeed, mappaemundi have a pronounced historical dimension: they are found in association with chronicles more frequently than in scientific works, and as illustrations of sacred history, they were infused with an allegorical vision of time. Not long after, Ruysch went to work at the Portuguese court as cartographer and astronomer, presumably by recommendation of Julius II who was a friend of Manuel I of Portugal.
82v, a manuscript contemporary with MS 17, adopts a four-ages scheme somewhat like that found in the dating clause on fol. Hence this world map is a logical addition to a manuscript devoted to the reckoning of time.
Edson tentatively suggests a comparison to the maps of the Holy Land created by the Talmudic scholar Rashi to expound the sacred text; however, MS 17a€™s map does not illustrate a text. This Portuguese influence may be due only to the fact that Portuguese charts, while kept in great secrecy, were more numerous than Spanish ones. 3v, but the fourth age, instead of ending in the annus praesens, runs from the Incarnation ad iter ierusalem, as if this event closed the series of years and ushered in the end times. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. This comment, as well as the rivera€™s latitude and its probable origin in the Corte-Real voyages, all suggest that this is the Gulf of St. In fact, the only bodies of water to be named on this map are the rivers Jordan, Euphrates and Tiber. In this respect, MS 17a€™s map is an integral part of a monastic encyclopedia, in which the study of the world and time is itself a serious discipline. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. The land of Hyrcania, bordering Scythia to the west, has many tribes wandering far afield on account of the unfruitfulness of their lands. XII): the latter is of exceptional interest in that the map shares the page with a schema of the divisions of philosophy not dissimilar to the one on fol. The adjacent features also make sense in this interpretation; C GLACIATO (a reference to glacial waters) would be Newfound-land, C DE PORTOGESI would be Nova Scotia, and IN BACCALAURAS would be Cape Breton or Prince Edward Island.
This Chinese Li was by the European cartographers confounded with the Italian mile (60 = 1 degree).
The interpolated Biblical references include the ark of Noah in Armenia, and cities such as Athens and Caesarea that are explicitly connected with the missionary activity of the apostles. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.
A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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